scispace - formally typeset
Proceedings ArticleDOI: 10.1109/ICETECH.2016.7569392

LOS estimation in MIMO system using Space Shift Keying

17 Mar 2016-pp 967-970
Abstract: We study the performance of Space Shift Keying modulation which is based on the concept of Spatial modulation for Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) system. SSK is operated as Orthogonal SSK (OSSK) and Bi-Orthogonal SSK (BiSSK) and the Bit Error probability (BEP) is evaluated for performance measurement. In the proposed system, Spatial Modulation is used in the low-complexity MIMO Systems over the Rayleigh fading Channel to consider the Multipath propagation that exist in MIMO Systems when the Transmitter antenna diversity is increased and it is shown that we get better results as compared to the existing method using Rician fading Channel.

...read more

Topics: 3G MIMO (64%), MIMO (63%), MIMO-OFDM (62%) ...read more
References
  More

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1109/JPROC.2013.2287851
Marco Di Renzo1, Harald Haas2, Ali Ghrayeb3, Shinya Sugiura4  +1 moreInstitutions (5)
01 Jan 2014-
Abstract: A key challenge of future mobile communication research is to strike an attractive compromise between wireless network's area spectral efficiency and energy efficiency. This necessitates a clean-slate approach to wireless system design, embracing the rich body of existing knowledge, especially on multiple-input-multiple-ouput (MIMO) technologies. This motivates the proposal of an emerging wireless communications concept conceived for single-radio-frequency (RF) large-scale MIMO communications, which is termed as SM. The concept of SM has established itself as a beneficial transmission paradigm, subsuming numerous members of the MIMO system family. The research of SM has reached sufficient maturity to motivate its comparison to state-of-the-art MIMO communications, as well as to inspire its application to other emerging wireless systems such as relay-aided, cooperative, small-cell, optical wireless, and power-efficient communications. Furthermore, it has received sufficient research attention to be implemented in testbeds, and it holds the promise of stimulating further vigorous interdisciplinary research in the years to come. This tutorial paper is intended to offer a comprehensive state-of-the-art survey on SM-MIMO research, to provide a critical appraisal of its potential advantages, and to promote the discussion of its beneficial application areas and their research challenges leading to the analysis of the technological issues associated with the implementation of SM-MIMO. The paper is concluded with the description of the world's first experimental activities in this vibrant research field.

...read more

Topics: Wireless network (56%), Optical wireless (51%), MIMO (51%) ...read more

1,085 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1109/TWC.2009.080910
Abstract: In this paper, we present space shift keying (SSK) as a new modulation scheme, which is based on spatial modulation (SM) concepts. Fading is exploited for multiple-input multiple-output(MIMO) channels to provide better performance over conventional amplitude/phase modulation (APM) techniques. In SSK, it is the antenna index used during transmission that relays information, rather than the transmitted symbols themselves. This absence of symbol information eliminates the transceiver elements necessary for APM transmission and detection (such as coherent detectors). As well, the simplicity involved in modulation reduces the detection complexity compared to that of SM, while achieving almost identical performance gains. Throughout the paper, we illustrate SSK's strength by studying its interaction with the fading channel. We obtain tight upper bounds on bit error probability, and discuss SSK's performance under some non-ideal channel conditions (estimation error and spatial correlation). Analytical and simulation results show performance gains over APM systems (3 dB at a bit error rate of 10-5), making SSK an interesting candidate for future wireless applications. We then extend SSK concepts to incorporate channel coding, where in particular, we consider a bit interleaved coded modulation (BICM) system using iterative decoding for both convolutional and turbo codes. Capacity results are derived, and improvements over APM are illustrated (up to 1 bits/s/Hz), with performance gains of up to 5 dB.

...read more

  • Figure 2.2: MRC system model.
    Figure 2.2: MRC system model.
  • Figure 5.2: System model for capacity computation.
    Figure 5.2: System model for capacity computation.
  • Figure 4.10: BER performance of SSK under non-ideal conditions, for varying M
    Figure 4.10: BER performance of SSK under non-ideal conditions, for varying M
  • Figure 4.1: SSK system model.
    Figure 4.1: SSK system model.
  • Figure 4.2: Illustration of the effective constellation space Xefl.
    Figure 4.2: Illustration of the effective constellation space Xefl.
  • + 16

Topics: Bit error rate (58%), Channel capacity (55%), Fading (55%) ...read more

831 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1109/JSAC.2009.091018
A. Maltsev1, Roman Maslennikov1, Alexey Sevastyanov1, A. Khoryaev1  +1 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation of 60 GHz wireless local area network (WLAN) systems in an office environment. The measurement setup with highly directional mechanically steerable antennas and 800 MHz bandwidth was developed and experiments were performed for conference room and cubicle environments. Measurement results demonstrate that the 60 GHz propagation channel is quasioptical in nature and received signal power is obtained through line of sight (LOS) and reflected signal paths of the first and second orders. The 60 GHz WLAN system prototype using steerable directional antennas with 18 dB gain was able to achieve about 30 dB baseband SNR for LOS transmission, about 15-20 dB for communications through the first-order reflected path, and 2-6 dB SNR when using second-order reflection for the office environments. The intra cluster statistical parameters of the propagation channel were evaluated and a statistical model for reflected clusters is proposed. Experimental results demonstrating strong polarization impact on the characteristics of the propagation channel are presented. Cross-polarization discrimination (XPD) of the propagation channel was estimated as approximately 20 dB for LOS transmission and 10-20 dB for NLOS reflected paths.

...read more

231 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1109/TVT.2007.897240
I. Sarris1, Andrew R NixInstitutions (1)
Abstract: In this paper, the capacity of multiple-input multiple- output (MIMO) communication systems is investigated in the presence of a line-of-sight (LoS) component. Under this scenario, the channel-response matrix is usually rank deficient due to the high correlation between the LoS responses. Previous studies have shown that this problem can be overcome by the use of specifically designed antenna arrays. The antenna elements are positioned to preserve orthogonality and, hence, maximize the LoS-channel rank. To help in the design of such architectures, we derive a 3-D criterion for maximizing the LoS MIMO capacity as a function of the distance, the orientation, and the spacing of the arrays. The sensitivity of these systems to imperfect positioning and orientation is examined using a geometric MIMO model. The spectral efficiency is also investigated in the presence of scattered signals in the environment using a stochastic channel model and a Monte Carlo simulator. To demonstrate the validity of our predictions, we present the results of two MIMO measurement campaigns in an anechoic and an indoor environment where the measured capacities are compared with the capacities obtained from our models. All experimental results validate our predictions and, hence, confirm the potential for superior MIMO performance (when the developed criterion is applied) in strong LoS channels.

...read more

  • Fig. 4. Capacity as a function of the angle deviation from the optimum angle (ρ = 20 dB).
    Fig. 4. Capacity as a function of the angle deviation from the optimum angle (ρ = 20 dB).
  • Fig. 3. Capacity as a function of the displacement from the optimum point (ρ = 20 dB).
    Fig. 3. Capacity as a function of the displacement from the optimum point (ρ = 20 dB).
  • Fig. 2. Example 2 × 2 full-rank MIMO deployment scenario.
    Fig. 2. Example 2 × 2 full-rank MIMO deployment scenario.
  • Fig. 5. Ergodic capacity as a function of the Ricean K factor for a full-rank and a rank-one configuration (ρ = 20 dB).
    Fig. 5. Ergodic capacity as a function of the Ricean K factor for a full-rank and a rank-one configuration (ρ = 20 dB).
  • Fig. 6. Transmit (rotating) and receive (fixed) arrays in the anechoic chamber.
    Fig. 6. Transmit (rotating) and receive (fixed) arrays in the anechoic chamber.
  • + 6

Topics: 3G MIMO (68%), MIMO (61%), Channel capacity (53%) ...read more

160 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1109/TCOMM.2011.111710.090775
Marco Di Renzo, Harald Haas1Institutions (1)
Abstract: In this paper, we study the performance of Space Shift Keying (SSK) modulation for a generic Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output (MIMO) wireless system over correlated Rician fading channels. In particular, our contribution is twofold, i) First, we propose a very general framework for computing the Average Bit Error Probability (ABEP) of SSK-MIMO systems over a generic Rician fading channel with arbitrary correlation and channel parameters. The framework relies upon the Moschopoulos method. We show that it is exact for MIMO systems with two transmit-antenna and arbitrary receive-antenna, while an asymptotically-tight upper-bound is proposed to handle the system setup with an arbitrary number of transmit-antenna. ii) Second, moving from the consideration that conventional SSK-MIMO schemes can offer only receive-diversity gains, we propose a novel SSK-MIMO scheme that can exploit the transmit-antenna to increase the diversity order. The new method has its basic foundation on the transmission of signals with good time-correlation properties, and is called Time-Orthogonal-Signal-Design (TOSD-) assisted SSK modulation (TOSD-SSK). It is shown that the proposed method can increase twofold the diversity order for arbitrary transmit- and receive-antenna. In particular, for MIMO systems with two transmit-antenna and Nr receive-antenna full-diversity equal to 2Nr can be achieved. Analytical frameworks and theoretical findings are substantiated via Monte Carlo simulations for various system setups.

...read more

  • Fig. 8. TOSD–SSK modulation: ABEP against Em/N0. Solid, dashed, and dotted lines denote the analytical model in Section IV and markers Monte Carlo simulations. Setup: i) Nt = 4, ii) Nr = 4, iii) Ωi,l = 10dB and K (i,l)
    Fig. 8. TOSD–SSK modulation: ABEP against Em/N0. Solid, dashed, and dotted lines denote the analytical model in Section IV and markers Monte Carlo simulations. Setup: i) Nt = 4, ii) Nr = 4, iii) Ωi,l = 10dB and K (i,l)
  • Fig. 6. TOSD–SSK modulation: ABEP against Em/N0. Solid, dashed, and dotted lines denote the analytical model in Section IV and markers Monte Carlo simulations. Setup: i) Nt = 2, ii) Nr = 4, iii) Ωi,l = 10dB and K (i,l)
    Fig. 6. TOSD–SSK modulation: ABEP against Em/N0. Solid, dashed, and dotted lines denote the analytical model in Section IV and markers Monte Carlo simulations. Setup: i) Nt = 2, ii) Nr = 4, iii) Ωi,l = 10dB and K (i,l)
  • Fig. 7. TOSD–SSK modulation: ABEP against Em/N0. Solid, dashed, and dotted lines denote the analytical model in Section IV and markers Monte Carlo simulations. Setup: i) Nt = 4, ii) Nr = 2, iii) Ωi,l = 10dB and K (i,l)
    Fig. 7. TOSD–SSK modulation: ABEP against Em/N0. Solid, dashed, and dotted lines denote the analytical model in Section IV and markers Monte Carlo simulations. Setup: i) Nt = 4, ii) Nr = 2, iii) Ωi,l = 10dB and K (i,l)
  • Fig. 1. SSK modulation: ABEP against Em/N0. Solid, dashed, and dotted lines denote the analytical model in Section III and markers Monte Carlo simulations. Setup: i) Nt = 2, ii) Nr = 2, iii) Ωi,l = 10dB and K (i,l)
    Fig. 1. SSK modulation: ABEP against Em/N0. Solid, dashed, and dotted lines denote the analytical model in Section III and markers Monte Carlo simulations. Setup: i) Nt = 2, ii) Nr = 2, iii) Ωi,l = 10dB and K (i,l)
  • Fig. 4. SSK modulation: ABEP against Em/N0. Solid, dashed, and dotted lines denote the analytical model in Section III and markers Monte Carlo simulations. Setup: i) Nt = 4, ii) Nr = 4, iii) Ωi,l = 10dB and K (i,l)
    Fig. 4. SSK modulation: ABEP against Em/N0. Solid, dashed, and dotted lines denote the analytical model in Section III and markers Monte Carlo simulations. Setup: i) Nt = 4, ii) Nr = 4, iii) Ωi,l = 10dB and K (i,l)
  • + 7

Topics: Rician fading (64%), Fading (60%), Transmit diversity (59%) ...read more

116 Citations