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DOI

Optimasi Proses Penggorengan Hampa dan Penyimpanan Keripik Ikan Pepetek (Leiognathus sp.)

01 Jan 2012-Vol. 26, Iss: 1, pp 21827

AbstractAbtract Vacuum frying technology can be used as an alternative to improve the economic value of Pepetek (Leiognathus sp.) fish. The objectives of this study were to determine frying temperature and process time and to determine packaging material and shelf life of processed fish. Pepeteks were fried in temperature 80, 90, and 100 oC and process time 30, 45, and 60 minutes. Product quality of each treatments were analyzed including water content, fat content, hardness, and color. Organoleptic tests were carried out based on hedonic scale. The result showed that the temperature and exposure time significantly influenced the characteristic of the products. The best quality of pepetek chips was obtained at frying temperature 90oC for 45 minutes. Aluminium foil maintained the shelf life of pepetek chips better than Polypropilene. Keywords: vacuum frying,  pepetek chips,  shelf lifeAbtrak Teknologi penggorengan hampa dapat dipergunakan sebagai salah satu alternatif untuk meningkatkan nilai ekonomis dari ikan Pepetek (Leiognathus sp.). Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah menentukan suhu dan waktu proses penggorengan serta menentukan jenis kemasan dan umur simpannya. Ikan pepetek digoreng pada suhu 80, 90, dan 100 oC dengan waktu 30, 45, dan 60 menit. Analisa kualitas produk pada tiap perlakuan meliputi kadar air, kadar lemak, kekerasan, dan warna. Uji organoleptik dilakukan berdasarkan skala hedonik. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan suhu dan waktu penggorengan berpengaruh nyata terhadap karakteristik produk. Kualitas keripik pepetek terbaik diperoleh pada suhu 90 oC dengan waktu 45 menit. Aluminium foil mampu mempertahankan umur simpan keripik pepetek lebih baik dibandingkan Polipropilen. Kata kunci: penggorengan hampa,  pepetek, umur simpanDiterima: 23 September 2011; Disetujui: 26 Januari 2012

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18 Jul 2019
Abstract: Small and Medium Food Industries (SMFIs) play an important role in the national economy but its competitiveness is low due to the limited innovation applied by business managers. Current innovation research is partial and excludes disruptive innovation and sustainable competitiveness. This research fills the gap by developing a model for increasing the competitiveness of SMFIs based on disruptive innovation and identifying constraints faced by SMFIs if the model is implemented. Data was collected through Focus Group Discussions and surveys using questionnaires. With a model framework approach, the model is composed of six subsystems, namely input, production process, post production, marketing, and supporting institutions. The potential for disruptive innovation lies in the quality of functional food products and low production costs because resources are available locally. However, the potential for disruptive innovation has not been utilized optimally by SMFI due to various obstacles. The role of government is very important to optimize the competitiveness potential of SMFI.

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03 Dec 2018
Abstract: Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc) is a potential commodity to be developed in Indonesia, however, the production is done only once a year, therefore, it needs proper seed storage. The aim of this research was to study seed deterioration patterns of four bambara groundnut landraces stored in packages with different permeability in an open storage system for up to 6 months. This experiment was conducted from November 2015 to July 2016 at Seed Technology Laboratory, Department of Agronomy and Horticulture, IPB. Stages of experiment as follow: calculation of packaging permeability, seed storage, preparation and fitting data to regression equation.The packaging used in the study is aluminum foil, pp plastic and plastic sacks which have measured its permeability. The result showed that the seed deterioration of four bambara groundnut landraces in three packaging permeability has common sigmoidpattern with equation model: y = a / {1 + exp ((x + b) / c)}. The seed deterioration pattern based on SG and EC variables with the faster rate of decline occurred in Sumedang landrace packed in plastic sack (permeability = 1.4681 g/day m2 mm/Hg), thus having a shorter storability. The slower rate of decline occurred in Gresik landrace packed in aluminum foil (permeability = 0.098 g/day m2 mm/Hg), this means that it has a longer storability.

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References
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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Vacuum frying was tested as an alternative technique to develop low oil content potato chips. The effect of oil temperature (118, 132, 144 C) and vacuum pressure (16.661, 9.888, and 3.115 kPa) on the drying rate and oil absorption of potato chips and on the product quality attributes such as shrinkage, color, and texture was investigated. Furthermore, the characteristics of the vacuumfried potato chips (3.115 kPa and 144 C) were compared to potato chips fried under atmospheric conditions (165 C). During vacuum frying, oil temperature and vacuum pressure had a significant effect on the drying rate and oil absorption rate of potato chips. Potato chips fried at lower vacuum pressure and higher temperature had less volume shrinkage. Color was not significantly affected by the oil temperature and vacuum pressure. Hardness values increased with increasing oil temperature and decreasing vacuum levels. Potato chips fried under vacuum (3.115 kPa and 144 C) had more volume shrinkage, were slightly softer, and lighter in color than the potato chips fried under atmospheric conditions (165 C). It was concluded that vacuum frying is a process that could be a feasible alternative to produce potato chips with lower oil content and desirable color and texture. 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

364 citations


01 Jan 2012
Abstract: 1. Pendahuluan 2. Kimia Minyak dan Lemak 3. Sumber Munyak dan Lemak 4. Sifat Fisiko-Kimia Minyak dan lemak 5. Pengujian Sifat Fisiko-Kimia Minyak dan Lemak 6. Kerusakan Minyak 7. Lemak dan Bahan PAngan 8. Masalah Ketengikan dan Keracunan Minyak 9. Pengolahan Minyak dan Lemak 10. Pengaruh Pengolahan Terhadap Komposisi Minyak dan Lemak 11. Pengemasan Lemak dan BAhan Pangan Berlemak 12. Berbagai Jenis Minyak yang bersumber dari Bahan Nabati

314 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Vacuum deep-fat frying is a new technology that can be used to improve quality attributes of fried food because of the low temperatures employed and minimal exposure to oxygen. In this paper atmospheric and vacuum frying of apple slices were compared, in terms of oil uptake, moisture loss and color development. In addition, some apple slices were pre-dried (up to 64% w.b.) before vacuum frying to determine the overall effect. To carry out appropriate comparisons between both technologies equivalent thermal driving forces were used in both processes (Δ T = 40, 50, 60 °C), keeping a constant difference between the oil temperature and the boiling point of water at the working pressure. Vacuum frying was shown to be a promising technique that can be used to reduce oil content in fried apple slices while preserving the color of the product. Particularly, drying prior to vacuum frying was shown to give the best results. For instance, when using a driving force of Δ T = 60 °C, pre-dried vacuum fried slices absorbed less than 50% of the oil absorbed by atmospheric fried ones. Interestingly, a strong relationship between water loss and oil content was observed in both technologies, allowing the extension of observations that have been made for atmospheric frying.

169 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of oils and frying temperatures on fat content and texture of potato crisps. The material used for the study consisted of eight kinds of vegetable oils: sunflower, rapeseed, soybean, olive, peanut, palm, partially hydrogenated rapeseed oil (modified oil I) and a mixture of hydrogenated rapeseed oil with palm oil (modified oil II). Potato crisps were fried in oils heated to 150, 170 and 190 °C. The measurements included: fat content of crisps determined by the Soxhlet method and texture of crisps measured using an Instron 5544. Fatty acid content of oils was determined by gas chromatography. The results of the study showed that the amount of fat absorbed by the crisps, as well as their texture, depended on the kind of oil used for frying. A relationship between oleic acid content of oil and the texture of crisps fried in refined vegetable oils was found. Fat content and texture of crisps were also influenced by frying temperatures. Crisps absorbed less fat and their hardness was reduced by increasing frying temperatures.

117 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The objective of this research was to determine the kinetics of water loss and oil uptake during frying of pre-treated potato slices under vacuum and atmospheric pressure. Potato slices (diameter: 30 mm; width: 3 mm) were pre-treated in the following ways: (i) raw potato slices “control”; (ii) control slices were blanched in hot water at 85 °C for 3.5 min; (iii) blanched slices were dried in hot air until reaching a moisture content of ∼0.6 g water/g dry basis. The slices were fried under vacuum (5.37 kPa, absolute pressure, at 120, 130 and 140 °C) and atmospheric conditions (at 180 °C). Two models based on the Fick's law were used to describe water loss: (i) with a constant effective diffusive coefficient; and (ii) with a variable effective diffusive coefficient. Oil uptake data were fitted to an empirical model, with a linear behavior for short times whereas the model was time independent for long times. The variable diffusivity model better fitted experimental water loss, giving values of effective diffusivity between 4.73 × 10−9 and 1.80 × 10−8 m2/s. The proposed model for the study of the kinetics of oil uptake fitted the experimental data properly. Control and blanched vacuum fried potato chips increased their final oil contents to 57.1% and 75.4% respectively, when compared with those fried at atmospheric pressure. However, the oil absorption of dried vacuum fried potato chips diminished by ∼30%.

113 citations