scispace - formally typeset

Journal ArticleDOI

Perceived performance anxiety in advanced musicians specializing in different musical genres

01 Jan 2013-Psychology of Music (SAGE Publications)-Vol. 41, Iss: 1, pp 18-41

AbstractMost research on musical performance anxiety has focused on musicians coming from a classical background, and performance anxiety experiences of musicians outside the western classical genre remain under-researched. The aim of this study was to investigate perceived performance anxiety experiences in undergraduate and professional musicians and to explore whether musical genre specialization (Western classical, jazz, popular, Scottish traditional) affected musicians' performance anxiety experiences. The study addressed questions exploring the perceived intensity of performance anxiety, the perceived contributing factors, changes in perceived anxiety levels as performances approached (one hour before, immediately before and during performance) and the perceived impact of performance on the quality of performance. Participants were 244 musicians, 170 undergraduates and 74 portfolio career musicians. Data were collected through a questionnaire survey. Findings suggested that performance anxiety was of concern for a significant majority of undergraduate and professional musicians. Musicians from all participating musical genres shared similar perceptions and concerns. Anxiety appeared to have negative connotations, although it was also reported as beneficial. Solo performance generated more anxiety compared to group performance. Overall, the impact of anxiety on performance was related to its perceived severity during performance, and was mediated by musicians' performance experience and their general susceptibility to anxiety. The musical genre in which participants specialized affected their perceived anxiety levels. Western classical musicians were generally found to report higher levels of performance anxiety. This study has provided indications that musicians specializing in different musical genres may experience performance anxiety in quantitatively and qualitatively different ways. Further research would benefit from investigating factors contributing to these variations.

Topics: Anxiety (61%), Stage fright (54%)

...read more

Content maybe subject to copyright    Report

Citations
More filters

Journal Article
TL;DR: Find loads of the the psychology of anxiety book catalogues in this site as the choice of you visiting this page.
Abstract: Find loads of the the psychology of anxiety book catalogues in this site as the choice of you visiting this page. You can also join to the website book library that will show you numerous books from any types. Literature, science, politics, and many more catalogues are presented to offer you the best book to find. The book that really makes you feels satisfied. Or that's the book that will save you from your job deadline.

99 citations



Journal ArticleDOI
18 Dec 2014
Abstract: Students with a strong sense of competence in musical skills and control over their physical and psychological well-being enhance their capacity to exceed their average level of performance and achieve an optimal or peak performance. Musicians transferring from the rehearsal studio to a concert performance demonstrate significant increases in heart rate and physical tension, which may or may not have a detrimental effect on their performance depending on whether they interpret those physiological symptoms as facilitating or debilitating to their performance. Negative, catastrophic interpretations feed debilitating performance anxiety, which is a significant occupational health issue for a high proportion of professional musicians as well as those training for a professional career in music performance. In early 2013, music students at the Melbourne Conservatorium of Music participated in two lectures and a master class in performance psychology techniques to achieve performance success, supplemented by a workbook of 11 strategies for audition and performance success for musicians. Topics included channeling performance energy, developing confidence, improving self-talk, learning and memorizing music, mental rehearsal, building courage, recovering from mistakes, dealing with adversity, and becoming mentally tough. Pre-post analyses on data from 31 students demonstrates that students can significantly reduce self-reported music performance anxiety, and significantly improve performance preparation, confidence, courage, focus, concentration, and performance resilience as a result of implementing these techniques. This pilot study is the first empirical evaluation of a performance psychology skills training package developed from elite occupational and sports performance domains, and translated into the musician’s training and performance preparation process. The pedagogical implications of the results support the inclusion of performance psychology skills training in undergraduate music performance programs, which may support the wellbeing of emerging performing artists into their future careers.

56 citations


Cites background from "Perceived performance anxiety in ad..."

  • ...This is particularly important for musicians, given the broad range of triggers and symptoms of MPA (Kenny 2011; Papageorgi et al. 2013; Roland 1994)....

    [...]

  • ...A moderate amount of anxiety enhances performance when an individual’s skill level matches the performance demands of the situation (Jackson and Csikszentmihalyi 1999), and the individual interprets that anxiety positively (Jones et al. 1993; Papageorgi et al. 2013)....

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Creativity and personality of classical, jazz, and folk musicians was compared and Jazz musicians show higher divergent thinking ability and Folk musicians are more extraverted and publish more musical productions.
Abstract: The music genre of jazz is commonly associated with creativity. However, this association has hardly been formally tested. Therefore, this study aimed at examining whether jazz musicians actually differ in creativity and personality from musicians of other music genres. We compared students of classical music, jazz music, and folk music with respect to their musical activities, psychometric creativity and different aspects of personality. In line with expectations, jazz musicians are more frequently engaged in extracurricular musical activities, and also complete a higher number of creative musical achievements. Additionally, jazz musicians show higher ideational creativity as measured by divergent thinking tasks, and tend to be more open to new experiences than classical musicians. This study provides first empirical evidence that jazz musicians show particularly high creativity with respect to domain-specific musical accomplishments but also in terms of domain-general indicators of divergent thinking ability that may be relevant for musical improvisation. The findings are further discussed with respect to differences in formal and informal learning approaches between music genres.

54 citations


Cites background from "Perceived performance anxiety in ad..."

  • ...In contrast, classical musicians report higher levels of performance anxiety than other non-classical musicians (Papageorgi et al., 2013)....

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Music performance anxiety (MPA), a condition common among musicians, consists of an anxious state characterized by cognitive, psychological, and physiological arousal. Musicians often establish str...

48 citations


Cites background or result from "Perceived performance anxiety in ad..."

  • ...The research to date has focused on factors such as variability in levels of experience, and few studies have compared anxiety in students to anxiety in professional musicians (Papageorgi et al., 2013)....

    [...]

  • ...The relevance of experience and effort (hours of practice) were also considered in the research, but contrasting findings emerged (Fehm & Schmidt, 2006; Kobori et al., 2011; Papageorgi et al., 2013; Ryan & Andrews, 2009)....

    [...]

  • ...These results are consistent with the findings of other research reporting female musicians experiencing higher levels of MPA (Dews & Williams, 1989; Fishbein et al., 1988; Kenny & Osborne, 2006; Papageorgi et al., 2013; Rae & McCambridge, 2004; and Yondem, 2007)....

    [...]

  • ...In general, research findings report higher levels of MPA for female musicians than for male musicians (Dews & Williams, 1989; Fishbein, Middlestadt, Ottati, Strauss & Ellis, 1988; Kenny & Osborne, 2006; Papageorgi et al., 2013; Rae & McCambridge, 2004; Yondem, 2007)....

    [...]

  • ...This result contrasts with the research by Papageorgi et al. (2013), in which experience was not a significant predictor in solo performance anxiety, and research by Kobori et al. (2011), who found that experience was not a significant factor predicting MPA in amateur and professional musicians....

    [...]


References
More filters

Book
01 Jan 1997
Abstract: Albert Bandura and the Exercise of Self-Efficacy Self-Efficacy: The Exercise of Control Albert Bandura. New York: W. H. Freeman (www.whfreeman.com). 1997, 604 pp., $46.00 (hardcover). Enter the term "self-efficacy" in the on-line PSYCLIT database and you will find over 2500 articles, all of which stem from the seminal contributions of Albert Bandura. It is difficult to do justice to the immense importance of this research for our theories, our practice, and indeed for human welfare. Self-efficacy (SE) has proven to be a fruitful construct in spheres ranging from phobias (Bandura, Jeffery, & Gajdos, 1975) and depression (Holahan & Holahan, 1987) to career choice behavior (Betz & Hackett, 1986) and managerial functioning (Jenkins, 1994). Bandura's Self-Efficacy: The Exercise of Control is the best attempt so far at organizing, summarizing, and distilling meaning from this vast and diverse literature. Self-Efficacy may prove to be Bandura's magnum opus. Dr. Bandura has done an impressive job of summarizing over 1800 studies and papers, integrating these results into a coherent framework, and detailing implications for theory and practice. While incorporating prior works such as Social Learning Theory (Bandura, 1977) and "Self-efficacy mechanism in human agency" (Bandura, 1982), Self-Efficacy extends these works by describing results of diverse new research, clarifying and extending social cognitive theory, and fleshing out implications of the theory for groups, organizations, political bodies, and societies. Along the way, Dr. Bandura masterfully contrasts social cognitive theory with many other theories of human behavior and helps chart a course for future research. Throughout, B andura' s clear, firm, and self-confident writing serves as the perfect vehicle for the theory he espouses. Self-Efficacy begins with the most detailed and clear explication of social cognitive theory that I have yet seen, and proceeds to delineate the nature and sources of SE, the well-known processes via which SE mediates human behavior, and the development of SE over the life span. After laying this theoretical groundwork, subsequent chapters delineate the relevance of SE to human endeavor in a variety of specific content areas including cognitive and intellectual functioning; health; clinical problems including anxiety, phobias, depression, eating disorders, alcohol problems, and drug abuse; athletics and exercise activity; organizations; politics; and societal change. In Bandura's words, "Perceived self-efficacy refers to beliefs in one's capabilities to organize and execute the courses of action required to produce given attainments" (p. 3). People's SE beliefs have a greater effect on their motivation, emotions, and actions than what is objectively true (e.g., actual skill level). Therefore, SE beliefs are immensely important in choice of behaviors (including occupations, social relationships, and a host of day-to-day behaviors), effort expenditure, perseverance in pursuit of goals, resilience to setbacks and problems, stress level and affect, and indeed in our ways of thinking about ourselves and others. Bandura affirms many times that humans are proactive and free as well as determined: They are "at least partial architects of their own destinies" (p. 8). Because SE beliefs powerfully affect human behaviors, they are a key factor in human purposive activity or agency; that is, in human freedom. Because humans shape their environment even as they are shaped by it, SE beliefs are also pivotal in the construction of our social and physical environments. Bandura details over two decades of research confirming that SE is modifiable via mastery experiences, vicarious learning, verbal persuasion, and interpretation of physiological states, and that modified SE strongly and consistently predicts outcomes. SE beliefs, then, are central to human self-determination. STRENGTHS One major strength of Self-Efficacy is Bandura's ability to deftly dance from forest to trees and back again to forest, using specific, human examples and concrete situations to highlight his major theoretical premises, to which he then returns. …

44,457 citations


"Perceived performance anxiety in ad..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...Three published standardized scales measuring the following: 1. musical self-efficacy (Hargreaves et al., 2003 – based on Bandura, 1997; Sherer et al., 1982); two existing versions of this scale were used, one focusing on performance preparation and the second focusing on actual performance; 2.…...

    [...]


01 Jan 1970
Abstract: The STAI serves as an indicator of two types of anxiety, the state and trait anxiety, and measure the severity of the overall anxiety level.The STAI, which is appropriate for those who have at least a sixth grade reading level, contains four-point Likert items. The instrument is divided into two sections, each having twenty questions. Approximately 15 minutes are required for adults to complete the both STAI. The number on the scale is positively correlated to the anxiety related to in the question.

24,199 citations


Book
21 Apr 1965

20,078 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In connection with a study of various aspects of the modifiability of behavior in the dancing mouse a need for definite knowledge concerning the relation of strength of stimulus to rate of learning arose, the experiments which are now to be described arose.
Abstract: In connection with a study of various aspects of the modifiability of behavior in the dancing mouse a need for definite knowledge concerning the relation of strength of stimulus to rate of learning arose. It was for the purpose of obtaining this knowledge that we planned and executed the experiments which are now to be described. Our work was greatly facilitated by the advice and assistance of Doctor E. G. MARTIN, Professor G. W. PIERCE, and Professor A. E. KENNELLY, and we desire to express here both our indebtedness and our thanks for their generous services.

5,454 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: This study analyzes the ways 100 community-residing men and women aged 45 to 64 coped with the stressful events of daily living during one year. Lazarus's cognitive-phenomenological analysis of psychological stress provides the theoreticalframework. Information about recently experienced stressful encounters was elicited through monthly interviews and self-report questionnaires completed between interviews. At the end of each interview and questionnaire, the participant indicated on a 68-item Ways of Coping checklist those coping thoughts and actions used in the specific encounter. A mean of 13.3 episodes was reported by each participant. Two functions of coping, problem-focused and emotion-focused, are analyzed with separate measures. Both problemand emotion-focused coping were used in 98% of the 1,332 episodes, emphasizing that coping conceptualized in either defensive or problem-solving terms is incomplete-both functions are usually involved. Intraindividual analyses show that people are more variable than consistent in their coping patterns. The context of an event, who is involved, how it is appraised, age, and gender are examined as potential influences on coping. Context and how the event is appraised are the most potent factors. Work contexts favor problem-focused coping, and health contexts favor emotionfocused coping. Situations in which the person thinks something constructive can be done or that are appraised as requiring more information favor problem-focused coping, whereas those having to be acceptedfavor emotion-focused coping. There are no effects associated with age, and gender differences emerge only in problem-focused coping: Men use more problem-focused coping than women at work and in situations having to be accepted and requiring more information. Contrary to the cultural stereotype, there are no gender differences in emotionfocused coping.

5,336 citations