scispace - formally typeset

Proceedings ArticleDOI

Robust Watermarking Scheme Based on Multiresolution Fractional Fourier Transform

16 Dec 2008-pp 1-8

TL;DR: A new robust watermarking scheme is proposed in multiresolution fractional Fourier transform domain using singular value decomposition and is able to withstand a variety of attacks.

AbstractIn this paper, a new robust watermarking scheme is proposed in multiresolution fractional Fourier transform domain using singular value decomposition The watermark is embedded in the high frequency sub-band of the host image at coarsest level Although the schemes based on SVD are robust but fail under ambiguity attacks In this attack, both the owner and attacker can extract their watermark from the watermarked image To prevent ambiguity, the normalized mass matrix is formed and embedded in the host image In extraction, normalized mass matrix is extracted first and compared with original one If the similarity is found then the singular values are extracted to construct the watermark Experimental evaluation demonstrates that the proposed scheme is able to withstand a variety of attacks

...read more


Citations
More filters
Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A novel biometrically generated keys in the embedding process of a gray-scale watermark using a newly proposed mathematical transform, namely the fractional dual tree complex wavelet transform (FrDT-CWT), and singular value decomposition (SVD) are used.
Abstract: In this paper, a novel biometrics inspired watermarking technique is proposed. For this purpose, a newly proposed mathematical transform, namely the fractional dual tree complex wavelet transform (FrDT-CWT), and singular value decomposition (SVD) are used. The core idea is to use biometrically generated keys in the embedding process of a gray-scale watermark. Therefore, this paper first proposes a method for generating keys from biometrics efficiently. The host image is first randomized by Hessenberg decomposition and a chaotic map, followed by embedding in the FrDT-CWT domain by modifying the singular values of the randomized image. Further, in order to prevent the ambiguity problem of SVD-based techniques, a verification step is introduced to verify the watermarked image. Finally, a reliable extraction process is proposed to extract the watermark from the possibly attacked watermarked image after verification. The security, attack, and comparative analysis confirms the high security, efficiency, and robustness of the proposed watermarking technique. Highlights? A novel biometrics inspired watermarking technique is proposed. ? The watermark is embedded in a fractional dual tree complex wavelet transform domain using SVD. ? A method is also proposed to generate keys from biometrics efficiently. ? To prevent the ambiguity problem of SVD-based techniques, a verification step is casted. ? The security, attack, and comparative analysis confirms the high security, efficiency, and robustness of the proposed technique.

66 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An attempt in which a new watermarking scheme is presented where the size of host image is very small when compare with watermark image and a reliable watermark extraction scheme is developed for extracting both the watermarks.
Abstract: Generally, in watermarking scheme the size of the watermark is very small when compare to host image. On the contrary, this is an attempt in which a new watermarking scheme is presented where the size of host image is very small when compare with watermark image. The core idea of the proposed scheme is to scale up the size of host image equal to the size of watermark via over-sampling and then decompose it using stationary wavelet transform. A gray scale watermark is embedded in the low frequency sub-band at the finest level using singular value decomposition. To prevent ambiguity and enhance the security, a binary watermark is also embedded in loss-less manner. Finally, a reliable watermark extraction scheme is developed for extracting both the watermarks. The experimental results demonstrate better visual imperceptibility and resiliency of the proposed scheme against intentional or un-intentional variety of attacks.

29 citations


Cites background or methods from "Robust Watermarking Scheme Based on..."

  • ...To prevent ambiguity and enhance the security, a binary watermark is embedded in the modified over-sampled image with the help of normalized mass matrix [ 3 ]....

    [...]

  • ...The concept of normalized mass matrix is introduced by [ 3 ] for digital watermarking....

    [...]

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The proposed scheme essentially rectifies the ambiguity problem in the SVD-based watermarking and randomly upscale the size of host image using reversible random extension transform followed by the embedding of logo watermark in the wavelet frame domain.
Abstract: In this article, a novel logo watermarking scheme is proposed based on wavelet frame transform, singular value decomposition and automatic thresholding. The proposed scheme essentially rectifies the ambiguity problem in the SVD-based watermarking. The core idea is to randomly upscale the size of host image using reversible random extension transform followed by the embedding of logo watermark in the wavelet frame domain. After embedding, a verification phase is casted with the help of a binary watermark and toral automorphism. At the extraction end, the binary watermark is first extracted followed by the verification of watermarked image. The logo watermark is extracted if and only if the watermarked image is verified. The security, attack and comparative analysis confirm high security, efficiency and robustness of the proposed watermarking system.

20 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A watermarking scheme based on finite radon transform (FRAT), fractional Fourier Transform (FRFT) and singular value decomposition is proposed, which provides additional degree of freedom in security, robustness, payload capacity and visual transparence.
Abstract: Watermarking is proposed as solution to authentication, copyright protection and security requirements of multimedia objects (speech, image and video). In this paper a watermarking scheme based on finite radon transform (FRAT), fractional Fourier Transform (FRFT) and singular value decomposition is proposed. In the proposed scheme, image to be watermarked is first transformed by finite radon transform, the radon transformed image is further transformed by FRFT, and singular values of FRFT transformed image are modified to embed the watermark. Inverse transformation is applied to obtain watermarked image. Simulations are performed under various test conditions with different FRFT transform angles for improved robustness and visual transparence of watermarked image. Results of the proposed scheme are better in comparison to the existing schemes for most of the attacks. Proposed scheme provide additional degree of freedom in security, robustness, payload capacity and visual transparence. Proposed scheme can also be used to communicate or store the watermarked image as erasure code, to reduce communication errors over a network, due to the use of FRAT.

12 citations

Patent
12 Feb 2013
Abstract: A method is provided for inserting a digital watermark in an image by an insertion device. Inserting includes: applying a Fourier transform to the image, delivering a 2D Fourier spectrum; inserting the watermark in the Fourier spectrum delivering a modified Fourier spectrum; and applying an inverse Fourier transform to the modified Fourier spectrum delivering a watermarked image. The watermark includes a set of watermarking coefficients each associated with a distinct determined position of a given quadrant among the quadrants of the Fourier domain, the spectral coordinates u and v of which, measured along the two axes of coordinates of the given quadrant and starting from the continuous component and expressed in percentage of the dimensions U and V of the given quadrant, are such that: u>66%×U and v>66%×V. The set of positions associated with the watermarking coefficients defines a convex pattern in the given quadrant.

1 citations


References
More filters
Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is argued that insertion of a watermark under this regime makes the watermark robust to signal processing operations and common geometric transformations provided that the original image is available and that it can be successfully registered against the transformed watermarked image.
Abstract: This paper presents a secure (tamper-resistant) algorithm for watermarking images, and a methodology for digital watermarking that may be generalized to audio, video, and multimedia data. We advocate that a watermark should be constructed as an independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) Gaussian random vector that is imperceptibly inserted in a spread-spectrum-like fashion into the perceptually most significant spectral components of the data. We argue that insertion of a watermark under this regime makes the watermark robust to signal processing operations (such as lossy compression, filtering, digital-analog and analog-digital conversion, requantization, etc.), and common geometric transformations (such as cropping, scaling, translation, and rotation) provided that the original image is available and that it can be successfully registered against the transformed watermarked image. In these cases, the watermark detector unambiguously identifies the owner. Further, the use of Gaussian noise, ensures strong resilience to multiple-document, or collusional, attacks. Experimental results are provided to support these claims, along with an exposition of pending open problems.

6,058 citations


"Robust Watermarking Scheme Based on..." refers background or methods in this paper

  • ...We can easily show that NHS ∈ [0, 1 ]. If higher NHS values is acquired then the extracted watermark is more similar to the original one....

    [...]

  • ...In spatial domain methods, watermark is embedded by modifying pixel intensities while in transform domain original digital media is first transformed in frequency domain by the means of discrete Fourier Transform(DFT)[ 1 ], Discrete Cosine Transform(DCT)[2], Wavelet Transform[3, 4, 5], fractional fourier transform(FrFT)[6, 7, 8], Walsh-Hadamard Transform[9] etc....

    [...]

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors briefly introduce the functional Fourier transform and a number of its properties and present some new results: the interpretation as a rotation in the time-frequency plane, and the FRFT's relationships with time- frequencies such as the Wigner distribution, the ambiguity function, the short-time Fouriertransform and the spectrogram.
Abstract: The functional Fourier transform (FRFT), which is a generalization of the classical Fourier transform, was introduced a number of years ago in the mathematics literature but appears to have remained largely unknown to the signal processing community, to which it may, however, be potentially useful. The FRFT depends on a parameter /spl alpha/ and can be interpreted as a rotation by an angle /spl alpha/ in the time-frequency plane. An FRFT with /spl alpha/=/spl pi//2 corresponds to the classical Fourier transform, and an FRFT with /spl alpha/=0 corresponds to the identity operator. On the other hand, the angles of successively performed FRFTs simply add up, as do the angles of successive rotations. The FRFT of a signal can also be interpreted as a decomposition of the signal in terms of chirps. The authors briefly introduce the FRFT and a number of its properties and then present some new results: the interpretation as a rotation in the time-frequency plane, and the FRFT's relationships with time-frequency representations such as the Wigner distribution, the ambiguity function, the short-time Fourier transform and the spectrogram. These relationships have a very simple and natural form and support the FRFT's interpretation as a rotation operator. Examples of FRFTs of some simple signals are given. An example of the application of the FRFT is also given. >

1,576 citations


"Robust Watermarking Scheme Based on..." refers background in this paper

  • ...The fractional Fourier transform[15, 16 ] is also called rotational Fourier transform or angular Fourier transform since it depends on a parameter α and can be interpreted as a rotation by an angle α in the time-frequency plane or decomposition of the signal in terms of chirps....

    [...]

Book
31 Jan 2001
Abstract: Preface. Acknowledgments. Introduction. Signals, Systems, and Transformations. Wigner Distributions and Linear Canonical Transforms. The Fractional Fourier Transform. Time-Order and Space-Order Representations. The Discrete Fractional Fourier Transform. Optical Signals and Systems. Phase-Space Optics. The Fractional Fourier Transform in Optics. Applications of the Fractional Fourier Transform to Filtering, Estimation, and Signal Recovery. Applications of the Fractional Fourier Transform to Matched Filtering, Detection, and Pattern Recognition. Bibliography on the Fractional Fourier Transform. Other Cited Works. Credits. Index.

1,254 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A novel watermarking algorithm based on singular value decomposition (SVD) is proposed and results show that the newwatermarking method performs well in both security and robustness.
Abstract: Digital watermarking has been proposed as a solution to the problem of copyright protection of multimedia documents in networked environments. There are two important issues that watermarking algorithms need to address. First, watermarking schemes are required to provide trustworthy evidence for protecting rightful ownership. Second, good watermarking schemes should satisfy the requirement of robustness and resist distortions due to common image manipulations (such as filtering, compression, etc.). In this paper, we propose a novel watermarking algorithm based on singular value decomposition (SVD). Analysis and experimental results show that the new watermarking method performs well in both security and robustness.

922 citations


Additional excerpts

  • ...In the recent years, a new transform, singular value decomposition (SVD)-based[ 10 , 11] watermarking technique and its variants have been proposed....

    [...]

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A new watermarking algorithm is presented: the method, which operates in the frequency domain, embeds a pseudo-random sequence of real numbers in a selected set of DCT coefficients, which is adapted to the image by exploiting the masking characteristics of the human visual system, thus ensuring the watermark invisibility.
Abstract: Digital watermarking has been proposed as a solution to the problem of copyright protection of multimedia data in a networked environment. It makes possible to tightly associate to a digital document a code allowing the identification of the data creator, owner, authorized consumer, and so on. In this paper a new watermarking algorithm for digital images is presented: the method, which operates in the frequency domain, embeds a pseudo-random sequence of real numbers in a selected set of DCT coefficients. After embedding, the watermark is adapted to the image by exploiting the masking characteristics of the human visual system, thus ensuring the watermark invisibility. By exploiting the statistical properties of the embedded sequence, the mark can be reliably extracted without resorting to the original uncorrupted image. Experimental results demonstrate that the watermark is robust to several signal processing techniques, including JPEG compression, low pass and median filtering, histogram equalization and stretching, dithering, addition of Gaussian noise, resizing, and multiple watermarking.

718 citations


"Robust Watermarking Scheme Based on..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...In spatial domain methods, watermark is embedded by modifying pixel intensities while in transform domain original digital media is first transformed in frequency domain by the means of discrete Fourier Transform(DFT)[1], Discrete Cosine Transform(DCT)[ 2 ], Wavelet Transform[3, 4, 5], fractional fourier transform(FrFT)[6, 7, 8], Walsh-Hadamard Transform[9] etc....

    [...]