# Robust Watermarking Scheme Based on Multiresolution Fractional Fourier Transform

TL;DR: A new robust watermarking scheme is proposed in multiresolution fractional Fourier transform domain using singular value decomposition and is able to withstand a variety of attacks.

Abstract: In this paper, a new robust watermarking scheme is proposed in multiresolution fractional Fourier transform domain using singular value decomposition The watermark is embedded in the high frequency sub-band of the host image at coarsest level Although the schemes based on SVD are robust but fail under ambiguity attacks In this attack, both the owner and attacker can extract their watermark from the watermarked image To prevent ambiguity, the normalized mass matrix is formed and embedded in the host image In extraction, normalized mass matrix is extracted first and compared with original one If the similarity is found then the singular values are extracted to construct the watermark Experimental evaluation demonstrates that the proposed scheme is able to withstand a variety of attacks

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##### Citations

66 citations

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### Cites background or methods from "Robust Watermarking Scheme Based on..."

...To prevent ambiguity and enhance the security, a binary watermark is embedded in the modified over-sampled image with the help of normalized mass matrix [ 3 ]....

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...The concept of normalized mass matrix is introduced by [ 3 ] for digital watermarking....

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20 citations

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##### References

6,058 citations

### "Robust Watermarking Scheme Based on..." refers background or methods in this paper

...We can easily show that NHS ∈ [0, 1 ]. If higher NHS values is acquired then the extracted watermark is more similar to the original one....

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...In spatial domain methods, watermark is embedded by modifying pixel intensities while in transform domain original digital media is first transformed in frequency domain by the means of discrete Fourier Transform(DFT)[ 1 ], Discrete Cosine Transform(DCT)[2], Wavelet Transform[3, 4, 5], fractional fourier transform(FrFT)[6, 7, 8], Walsh-Hadamard Transform[9] etc....

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1,576 citations

### "Robust Watermarking Scheme Based on..." refers background in this paper

...The fractional Fourier transform[15, 16 ] is also called rotational Fourier transform or angular Fourier transform since it depends on a parameter α and can be interpreted as a rotation by an angle α in the time-frequency plane or decomposition of the signal in terms of chirps....

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1,254 citations

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### Additional excerpts

...In the recent years, a new transform, singular value decomposition (SVD)-based[ 10 , 11] watermarking technique and its variants have been proposed....

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718 citations

### "Robust Watermarking Scheme Based on..." refers methods in this paper

...In spatial domain methods, watermark is embedded by modifying pixel intensities while in transform domain original digital media is first transformed in frequency domain by the means of discrete Fourier Transform(DFT)[1], Discrete Cosine Transform(DCT)[ 2 ], Wavelet Transform[3, 4, 5], fractional fourier transform(FrFT)[6, 7, 8], Walsh-Hadamard Transform[9] etc....

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