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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.PNPBP.2020.110150

Stigmatization of psychiatric and justice-involved populations during the COVID-19 pandemic.

02 Mar 2021-Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry (Elsevier)-Vol. 106, pp 110150-110150
Abstract: Psychiatric and justice-involved populations are known to be stigmatized and particularly vulnerable to adverse outcomes during COVID-19. The increased attention toward vulnerable populations from healthcare authorities, the media, and the general public has made it critical to uncover any developing stigmatization toward these groups and the possible consequences. The prioritization of public safety and shift in the prioritization of resource allocation and service delivery could lead to a rise in negative perceptions toward these already stigmatized groups. Thus, it is imperative to consider how the unique characteristics of vulnerable groups may impact their physical and mental health as well as their care during this pandemic. In this paper, we describe the challenges that psychiatric, correctional, and forensic psychiatry populations have faced during COVID-19 and how a rise in stigmatization could lead to adverse outcomes. Specifically, we outline the influence of the media on public perceptions and how stigmatization may be reflected in the allocation of resources, policies, and related decision-making during COVID-19.

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6 results found

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1136/BMJOPEN-2020-046547
Luke Johnson1, Kerry Gutridge2, Julie Parkes1, Anjana Roy3  +1 moreInstitutions (3)
13 May 2021-BMJ Open
Abstract: Objective To examine the extent, nature and quality of literature on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the mental health of imprisoned people and prison staff. Design Scoping review. Data sources PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, Global Health, Cochrane, PsycINFO, PsychExtra, Web of Science and Scopus were searched for any paper from 2019 onwards that focused on the mental health impact of COVID-19 on imprisoned people and prison staff. A grey literature search focused on international and government sources and professional bodies representing healthcare, public health and prison staff was also performed. We also performed hand searching of the reference lists of included studies. Eligibility criteria for selection of studies All papers, regardless of study design, were included if they examined the mental health of imprisoned people or prison staff specifically during the COVID-19 pandemic. Imprisoned people could be of any age and from any countries. All languages were included. Two independent reviewers quality assessed appropriate papers. Results Of 647 articles found, 83 were eligible for inclusion, the majority (58%) of which were opinion pieces. The articles focused on the challenges to prisoner mental health. Fear of COVID-19, the impact of isolation, discontinuation of prison visits and reduced mental health services were all likely to have an adverse effect on the mental well-being of imprisoned people. The limited research and poor quality of articles included mean that the findings are not conclusive. However, they suggest a significant adverse impact on the mental health and well-being of those who live and work in prisons. Conclusions It is key to address the mental health impacts of the pandemic on people who live and work in prisons. These findings are discussed in terms of implications for getting the balance between infection control imperatives and the fundamental human rights of prison populations.

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Topics: Prison (60%), Mental health (59%), Public health (57%) ... show more

6 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1051/E3SCONF/202127311012
Polina Dmitrieva1Institutions (1)
01 Jan 2021-
Abstract: The article is devoted to the description and explanation of individual psychological and social phenomena from the point of view of actualizing thanatic issues during the COVID-19 pandemic and its information coverage. The relevance of the study is due to the situation of the spread of coronavirus infection, the peculiarities of combating its spread, the influence of information technologies on this process and the need to understand the phenomena that have developed in society. The novelty of the research lies in the complex consideration of various social and individual psychological phenomena from the standpoint of the influence of the vital threat and existential fears on the individual and social consciousness. The article contains information on the socio-psychological phenomena that manifested themselves during the COVID-19 pandemic (alarmism, infodemic, intergroup tensions, stigmatization of certain groups of the population, a shift in political preferences, aggravation or emergence of mental disorders, inadequate purchasing activity) and describes them in terms of Terror Management Theory. In the conclusion, prospects are given for using the provisions of Terror Management Theory to develop a strategy for overcoming a pandemic situation, taking into account the action of proximal and distal defenses. The author comes to the conclusion that the features of the information coverage of the situation have a strong influence on its further development, in connection with which it is necessary to develop a clear plan for the preparation of official information that meets the criteria of completeness, credibility, scientific character and conveys the idea of positive realism. © The Authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2021.

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1 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.JAD.2021.08.091
Abstract: INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019)-related pandemic represents a global source of societal and health burden. Yet, the impact of the pandemic on people with severe mental illness, including bipolar disorder (BD), remains unclear, warranting scoping review on the matter. METHODS: The MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were systematically searched from inception up to April 24, 2021, adopting broad inclusion criteria to assess a variety of clinical and public health themes related to people with a primary diagnosis of BD during the COVID-19 pandemics. The present work complying with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for scoping reviews (PRISMA-ScR) registered in the Open Science Framework (OSF) repository ( RESULTS: Fourteen papers informed the present scoping review. Four major themes were identified: (i) impact of COVID-19-related stressors on BD; (ii) impact of COVID-19 on mental health service utilization among people with BD; (iii) impact of BD on the risk of acquiring SARS-CoV-2 infection; (iv) engagement in preventative behaviors among people with BD. Additional themes warranting further research were nonetheless detected. LIMITATIONS: Further original studies are needed. CONCLUSION: The present study confirmed the high-vulnerability hypothesis concerning people with BD versus the general population, reinforcing the need for further research related to the COVID-19 pandemic. Additional information is warranted to compare the impact of the pandemic period among BD people against pre-pandemic records, the general population, and other severe mental illnesses, namely people with schizophrenia or major depressive disorder, to inform the public health and the delivery of patient-tailored interventions.

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Topics: Systematic review (52%), Psychological intervention (52%), Population (52%) ... show more

1 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/SU132212805
19 Nov 2021-Sustainability
Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic has had global effects on all industries and on people around the world. The COVID-19 pandemic has had repercussions both politically and economically, as well as on society and the individual, i.e., on the human psyche. Although the effects on the human psyche have been highlighted in research, the well-being of the individual in correlation with social perception have not been addressed in this context but in different situations. The review of the relevant literature has also identified a knowledge gap concerning online vs. face-to-face learning, from the perspective of psychological, pedagogical and managerial factors. The present study aims to address the relationship of well-being—social perception—academic performance during the COVID-19 pandemic on a group of students from the Faculty of Engineering in Sibiu, Romania. Three types of instruments were used to evaluate the studied characteristics: the Warwick Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (WEMWBS), the SKS method for generating feedback and the grid for assessing knowledge. The results showed the increase of the three parameters studied, after quarantine. The conclusions of the research are that, despite the greater variation in mood, caused by stress, anxiety and tension, the well-being of the subjects increased and the positive feedback provided increased significantly. The results lead to the formation of a positive self-image of students, which also has an impact on learning outcomes.

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34 results found

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1056/NEJMP2006141
Abstract: Critical Supply Shortages U.S. hospitals are already reporting shortages of key equipment needed to care for critically ill patients with Covid-19, including ventilators and personal protective equ...

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1,121 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S2215-0366(20)30090-0
Hao Yao1, Jian-Hua Chen2, Yifeng Xu2Institutions (2)
Topics: Mental health (60%), Health equity (50%)

670 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.2307/2676305
Abstract: In the 1950s, the public defined mental illness in much narrower and more extreme terms than did psychiatry, and fearful and rejecting attitudes toward people with mental illnesses were common. Several indicators suggest that definitions of mental illness may have broadened and that rejection and negative stereotypes may have decreased since that time. However, lack of comparable data over time prevents us from drawing firm conclusions on these questions. To address this problem, the Mental Health Module of the 1996 General Social Survey repeated a question regarding the meaning of mental illness that was first asked of a nationally representative sample in 1950. A comparison of 1950 and 1996 results shows that conceptions of mental illness have broadened somewhat over this time period to include a greater proportion of non-psychotic disorders, but that perceptions that mentally ill people are violent or frightening substantially increased, rather than decreased. This increase was limited to respondents who viewed mental illness in terms of psychosis. Among such respondents, the proportion who described a mentally ill person as being violent increased by nearly 2 1/2 times between 1950 and 1996. We discuss the possibility that there has been a real move toward acceptance of many forms of mental illness as something that can happen to one of "us," but that people with psychosis remain a "them " who are more feared than they were half a century ago.

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595 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1192/J.EURPSY.2020.35
Abstract: There is a wide consensus that the COVID-19 pandemic not only affects physical health, but also mental health and well-being [1,2]. The current pandemic is changing priorities for the general population, but it is also challenging the agenda of health professionals, including that of psychiatrists and other mental health professionals [3]. Everywhere in the world, psychiatric clinics aremodifying their practice in order to guarantee care and support to persons withmental health problems, but also to those who are notmentally ill and are suffering from the psychosocial consequences of the pandemic. The number of those who will need psychiatric help is going to increase in the next weeks ormonths, requiring a reconsideration of our current practices. From a psychopathological viewpoint, the current pandemic is a relatively new form of stressor or trauma for mental health professionals [4]. It has been compared with natural disasters, such as earthquakes or tsunamis [5]. But in those cases, the emergencies are usually localized, limited to a specific area and to a given time; people know that they can escape, if they want to or if they have the possibility to do so [6]. It has also been compared with wars and international mass conflicts. But in those circumstances, the enemy is easily recognizable, while in pandemic the “threat” can be everywhere and it can be carried by the person next to us [7]. We consider that the mental health and psychosocial consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic may be particularly serious for at least four groups of people: (a) those who have been directly or indirectly in contact with the virus; (b) those who are already vulnerable to biological or psychosocial stressors (including people affected by mental health problems); (c) health professionals (because of higher level of exposure); and (d) even people who are following the news through numerous media channels. The pandemic and the related containment measures—namely quarantine, social distancing, and self-isolation—can have a detrimental impact on mental health. In particular, the increased loneliness and reduced social interactions are well-known risk factors for several mental disorders, including schizophrenia and major depression. Concerns about one’s own health and that of their beloved ones (particularly elderly or suffering from any physical illness), as well as uncertainty about the future, can generate or exacerbate fear, depression, and anxiety. If these concerns are prolonged, they may increase the risk of serious and disabling mental health conditions among adult males and females, including anxious disorders including panic, obsessive–compulsive, stress, and trauma-related disorders. A group at a particularly high risk is represented by infected people, physicians, and nurses working in emergency units and resuscitation departments. It is likely that in the next months —when the pandemic is over—we may have a shortage of health professionals due to burnout and mental exhaustion [8]. Another aspect which should be considered is related to stigma and discrimination toward infected people and their family members. Fighting social stigma toward those treating and caring for people with COVID-19 should be another priority for mental health professionals in the next months. Finally, Internet is spreading very rapidly a large amount of uncontrolled news. This information overload has been defined “infodemic,” with the risk of fake news running faster than the virus itself, and creating uncertainties and worries. This should be regulated by a continuous interaction with media and also by national regulations. Another consequence of the pandemic on mental health practice may be that psychiatric problems will be considered less important than physical ones. We should continue to advocate for our patients and their caregivers; our patients often need longterm treatment, continuous support and advices, personal meetings with their physicians or therapists. Their rights to be treated, also in a period of social distancing, should be preserved even though mental health services may be overloaded by a considerable number of requests for psychiatric consultations. Many of these psychosocial and mental health consequences of the pandemic will have to be addressed by psychiatrists andmental health professionals in themonths to come.Most probably we will face an increase of mental health problems, behavioral disturbances, and substance-use disorders, as extreme stressors may exacerbate or induce psychiatric problems. In order to reduce European Psychiatry

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Topics: Pandemic (55%), Betacoronavirus (52%), Pneumonia (50%)

464 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1192/BJP.186.4.331
Abstract: Background It is a widely shared belief that an increase in mental health literacy will result in an improvement of attitudes towards people with mental illness. Aims To examine how the German public's causal attributions of schizophrenia and their desire for social distance from people with schizophrenia developed over the 1990s. Method A trend analysis was carried out using data from two representative population surveys conducted in the Lander constituting the former Federal Republic of Germany in 1990 and 2001. Results Parallel to an increase in the public's tendency to endorse biological causes, an increase in the desire for social distance from people with schizophrenia was found. Conclusions The assumption underlying current anti-stigma programmes that there is a positive relationship between endorsing biological causes and the acceptance of people with mental illness appears to be problematic.

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Topics: Mental health literacy (59%), Mental illness (55%), Social distance (54%) ... show more

263 Citations

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