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Bruce Swinyard

Bio: Bruce Swinyard is an academic researcher from University College London. The author has contributed to research in topics: Spectrometer & Spire. The author has an hindex of 38, co-authored 196 publications receiving 4740 citations. Previous affiliations of Bruce Swinyard include Science and Technology Facilities Council & Rutherford Appleton Laboratory.


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors used the 3.5m Herschel Space Observatory to image Cas A in six bands between 70 and 500 μm, with angular resolutions ranging from 6 to 37”.
Abstract: Using the 3.5-m Herschel Space Observatory, imaging photometry of Cas A has been obtained in six bands between 70 and 500 μm with the PACS and SPIRE instruments, with angular resolutions ranging from 6 to 37”. In the outer regions of the remnant the 70-μm PACS image resembles the 24-μm image Spitzer image, with the emission attributed to the same warm dust component, located in the reverse shock region. At longer wavelengths, the three SPIRE bands are increasingly dominated by emission from cold interstellar dust knots and filaments, particularly across the central, western and southern parts of the remnant. Nonthermal emission from the northern part of the remnant becomes prominent at 500 μm. We have estimated and subtracted the contributions from the nonthermal, warm dust and cold interstellar dust components. We confirm and resolve for the first time a cool (~35 K) dust component, emitting at 70-160 μm, that is located interior to the reverse shock region, with an estimated mass of 0.075 .

222 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, infrared and submillimeter photometry and spectroscopy from the Herschel Space Observatory of the Crab Nebula between 51 and 670 μm as part of the Mass Loss from Evolved StarS program was presented.
Abstract: Whether supernovae are major sources of dust in galaxies is a long-standing debate. We present infrared and submillimeter photometry and spectroscopy from the Herschel Space Observatory of the Crab Nebula between 51 and 670 μm as part of the Mass Loss from Evolved StarS program. We compare the emission detected with Herschel with multiwavelength data including millimeter, radio, mid-infrared, and archive optical images. We carefully remove the synchrotron component using the Herschel and Planck fluxes measured in the same epoch. The contribution from line emission is removed using Herschel spectroscopy combined with Infrared Space Observatory archive data. Several forbidden lines of carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen are detected where multiple velocity components are resolved, deduced to be from the nitrogen-depleted, carbon-rich ejecta. No spectral lines are detected in the SPIRE wavebands; in the PACS bands, the line contribution is 5% and 10% at 70 and 100 μm and negligible at 160 μm. After subtracting the synchrotron and line emission, the remaining far-infrared continuum can be fit with two dust components. Assuming standard interstellar silicates, the mass of the cooler component is 0.24+0.32 – 0.08 M ☉ for T = 28.1+5.5 – 3.2 K. Amorphous carbon grains require 0.11 ± 0.01 M ☉ of dust with T = 33.8+2.3 – 1.8 K. A single temperature modified blackbody with 0.14 M ☉ and 0.08 M ☉ for silicate and carbon dust, respectively, provides an adequate fit to the far-infrared region of the spectral energy distribution but is a poor fit at 24-500 μm. The Crab Nebula has condensed most of the relevant refractory elements into dust, suggesting the formation of dust in core-collapse supernova ejecta is efficient.

195 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
13 Dec 2013-Science
TL;DR: Spectroscopic observations of the remains of stellar explosions confirm that argon-36 and phosphorus are produced in such energetic events, and detect the first evidence of a noble gas-containing molecular ion in space—36ArH+.
Abstract: Noble gas molecules have not hitherto been detected in space. From spectra obtained with the Herschel Space Observatory, we report the detection of emission in the 617.5- and 1234.6-gigahertz J = 1-0 and 2-1 rotational lines of 36ArH+ at several positions in the Crab Nebula, a supernova remnant known to contain both molecular hydrogen and regions of enhanced ionized argon emission. Argon-36 is believed to have originated from explosive nucleosynthesis in massive stars during core-collapse supernova events. Its detection in the Crab Nebula, the product of such a supernova event, confirms this expectation. The likely excitation mechanism for the observed 36ArH+ emission lines is electron collisions in partially ionized regions with electron densities of a few hundred per centimeter cubed.

162 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors describe the procedure used to flux calibrate the three-band submillimetre photometer in the Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver instrument on the Herschel Space Observatory.
Abstract: We describe the procedure used to flux calibrate the three-band submillimetre photometer in the Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver instrument on the Herschel Space Observatory. This includes the equations describing the calibration scheme, a justification for using Neptune as the primary calibration source, a description of the observations and data processing procedures used to derive flux calibration parameters (for converting from voltage to flux density) for every bolometer in each array, an analysis of the error budget in the flux calibration for the individual bolometers and tests of the flux calibration on observations of primary and secondary calibrators. The procedure for deriving the flux calibration parameters is divided into two parts. In the first part, we use observations of astronomical sources in conjunction with the operation of the photometer internal calibration source to derive the unscaled derivatives of the flux calibration curves. To scale the calibration curves in Jy beam−1 V−1, we then use observations of Neptune in which the beam of each bolometer is mapped using a very fine scan pattern. The total instrumental uncertainties in the flux calibration for most individual bolometers is ∼0.5 per cent, although a few bolometers have uncertainties of ∼1–5 per cent because of issues with the Neptune observations. Based on application of the flux calibration parameters to Neptune observations performed using typical scan map observing modes, we determined that measurements from each array as a whole have instrumental uncertainties of 1.5 per cent. This is considerably less than the absolute calibration uncertainty associated with the model of Neptune, which is estimated at 4 per cent.

151 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present the first spatially resolved analysis of Cas A based on Spitzer and Herschel infrared and submillimetre data at a common resolution of ∼0.6 arcmin for this 5 arcmin diameter remnant following a careful removal of contaminating line emission and synchrotron radiation.
Abstract: Theoretical models predict that core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe) can be efficient dust producers (0.1–1.0 M⊙), potentially accounting for most of the dust production in the early Universe. Observational evidence for this dust production efficiency is however currently limited to only a few CCSN remnants (e.g. SN 1987A, Crab nebula). In this paper, we revisit the dust mass produced in Cassiopeia A (Cas A), a ∼330-yr old O-rich Galactic supernova remnant (SNR) embedded in a dense interstellar foreground and background. We present the first spatially resolved analysis of Cas A based on Spitzer and Herschel infrared and submillimetre data at a common resolution of ∼0.6 arcmin for this 5 arcmin diameter remnant following a careful removal of contaminating line emission and synchrotron radiation. We fit the dust continuum from 17 to 500 μm with a four-component interstellar medium and supernova (SN) dust model. We find a concentration of cold dust in the unshocked ejecta of Cas A and derive a mass of 0.3–0.5 M⊙ of silicate grains freshly produced in the SNR, with a lower limit of ≥0.1–0.2 M⊙. For a mixture of 50 per cent of silicate-type grains and 50 per cent of carbonaceous grains, we derive a total SN dust mass between 0.4 and 0.6 M⊙. These dust mass estimates are higher than from most previous studies of Cas A and support the scenario of SN-dominated dust production at high redshifts. We furthermore derive an interstellar extinction map for the field around Cas A which towards Cas A gives average values of AV = 6–8 mag, up to a maximum of AV = 15 mag.

140 citations


Cited by
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Journal ArticleDOI
Matthew Joseph Griffin, Alain Abergel1, A. Abreu, Peter A. R. Ade2  +186 moreInstitutions (27)
TL;DR: The Spectral and Photometric Imaging REceiver (SPIRE) is the Herschel Space Observatory's sub-millimetre camera and spectrometer as discussed by the authors, which is used for image and spectroscopic data acquisition.
Abstract: The Spectral and Photometric Imaging REceiver (SPIRE), is the Herschel Space Observatory`s submillimetre camera and spectrometer It contains a three-band imaging photometer operating at 250, 350 and 500 mu m, and an imaging Fourier-transform spectrometer (FTS) which covers simultaneously its whole operating range of 194-671 mu m (447-1550 GHz) The SPIRE detectors are arrays of feedhorn-coupled bolometers cooled to 03 K The photometer has a field of view of 4' x 8', observed simultaneously in the three spectral bands Its main operating mode is scan-mapping, whereby the field of view is scanned across the sky to achieve full spatial sampling and to cover large areas if desired The spectrometer has an approximately circular field of view with a diameter of 26' The spectral resolution can be adjusted between 12 and 25 GHz by changing the stroke length of the FTS scan mirror Its main operating mode involves a fixed telescope pointing with multiple scans of the FTS mirror to acquire spectral data For extended source measurements, multiple position offsets are implemented by means of an internal beam steering mirror to achieve the desired spatial sampling and by rastering of the telescope pointing to map areas larger than the field of view The SPIRE instrument consists of a cold focal plane unit located inside the Herschel cryostat and warm electronics units, located on the spacecraft Service Module, for instrument control and data handling Science data are transmitted to Earth with no on-board data compression, and processed by automatic pipelines to produce calibrated science products The in-flight performance of the instrument matches or exceeds predictions based on pre-launch testing and modelling: the photometer sensitivity is comparable to or slightly better than estimated pre-launch, and the spectrometer sensitivity is also better by a factor of 15-2

2,425 citations

01 Jan 2005
TL;DR: The Monthly Notices as mentioned in this paper is one of the three largest general primary astronomical research publications in the world, published by the Royal Astronomical Society (RAE), and it is the most widely cited journal in astronomy.
Abstract: Monthly Notices is one of the three largest general primary astronomical research publications. It is an international journal, published by the Royal Astronomical Society. This article 1 describes its publication policy and practice.

2,091 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The 2017 roadmap of terahertz frequency electromagnetic radiation (100 GHz-30 THz) as discussed by the authors provides a snapshot of the present state of THz science and technology in 2017, and provides an opinion on the challenges and opportunities that the future holds.
Abstract: Science and technologies based on terahertz frequency electromagnetic radiation (100 GHz–30 THz) have developed rapidly over the last 30 years. For most of the 20th Century, terahertz radiation, then referred to as sub-millimeter wave or far-infrared radiation, was mainly utilized by astronomers and some spectroscopists. Following the development of laser based terahertz time-domain spectroscopy in the 1980s and 1990s the field of THz science and technology expanded rapidly, to the extent that it now touches many areas from fundamental science to 'real world' applications. For example THz radiation is being used to optimize materials for new solar cells, and may also be a key technology for the next generation of airport security scanners. While the field was emerging it was possible to keep track of all new developments, however now the field has grown so much that it is increasingly difficult to follow the diverse range of new discoveries and applications that are appearing. At this point in time, when the field of THz science and technology is moving from an emerging to a more established and interdisciplinary field, it is apt to present a roadmap to help identify the breadth and future directions of the field. The aim of this roadmap is to present a snapshot of the present state of THz science and technology in 2017, and provide an opinion on the challenges and opportunities that the future holds. To be able to achieve this aim, we have invited a group of international experts to write 18 sections that cover most of the key areas of THz science and technology. We hope that The 2017 Roadmap on THz science and technology will prove to be a useful resource by providing a wide ranging introduction to the capabilities of THz radiation for those outside or just entering the field as well as providing perspective and breadth for those who are well established. We also feel that this review should serve as a useful guide for government and funding agencies.

1,068 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A detailed survey of more than 100 comets has been carried out by as mentioned in this paper, which enabled taxonomic groupings based on free radical species and on crystallinity of rocky grains.
Abstract: Cometary nuclei contain the least modified material from the formative epoch of our planetary system, and their compositions reflect a range of processes experienced by material prior to its incorporation in the cometary nucleus. Dynamical models suggest that icy bodies in the main cometary reservoirs (Kuiper Belt, Oort Cloud) formed in a range of environments in the protoplanetary disk, and (for the Oort Cloud) even in disks surrounding neighboring stars of the Sun's birth cluster. Photometric and spectroscopic surveys of more than 100 comets have enabled taxonomic groupings based on free radical species and on crystallinity of rocky grains. Since 1985, new surveys have provided emerging taxonomies based on the abundance ratios of primary volatiles. More than 20 primary chemical species are now detected in bright comets. Measurements of nuclear spin ratios (in water, ammonia, and methane) and of isotopic ratios (D/H in water and HCN; 14N/15N in CN and HCN) have provided critical insights on factors affec...

849 citations