Author

# Madhavan Swaminathan

Other affiliations: Syracuse University, Georgia Tech Research Institute, AVX Corporation ...read more

Bio: Madhavan Swaminathan is an academic researcher from Georgia Institute of Technology. The author has contributed to research in topics: Capacitor & Signal integrity. The author has an hindex of 42, co-authored 637 publications receiving 8945 citations. Previous affiliations of Madhavan Swaminathan include Syracuse University & Georgia Tech Research Institute.

##### Papers published on a yearly basis

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19 Nov 2007

TL;DR: This book's system-level focus and practical examples will make it indispensable for every student and professional concerned with power integrity, including electrical engineers, system designers, signal integrity engineers, and materials scientists.

Abstract: The First Comprehensive, Example-Rich Guide to Power Integrity ModelingProfessionals such as signal integrity engineers, package designers, and system architects need to thoroughly understand signal and power integrity issues in order to successfully design packages and boards for high speed systems Now, for the first time, there's a complete guide to power integrity modeling: everything you need to know, from the basics through the state of the artUsing realistic case studies and downloadable software examples, two leading experts demonstrate today's best techniques for designing and modeling interconnects to efficiently distribute power and minimize noiseThe authors carefully introduce the core concepts of power distribution design, systematically present and compare leading techniques for modeling noise, and link these techniques to specific applications Their many examples range from the simplest (using analytical equations to compute power supply noise) through complex system-level applicationsThe authors Introduce power delivery network components, analysis, high-frequency measurement, and modeling requirements Thoroughly explain modeling of power/ground planes, including plane behavior, lumped modeling, distributed circuit-based approaches, and much more Offer in-depth coverage of simultaneous switching noise, including modeling for return currents using time- and frequency-domain analysis Introduce several leading time-domain simulation methods, such as macromodeling, and discuss their advantages and disadvantages Present the application of the modeling methods on several advanced case studies that include high-speed servers, high-speed differential signaling, chip package analysis, materials characterization, embedded decoupling capacitors, and electromagnetic bandgap structures This book's system-level focus and practical examples will make it indispensable for every student and professional concerned with power integrity, including electrical engineers, system designers, signal integrity engineers, and materials scientists It will also be valuable to developers building software that helps to analyze high-speed systems

271 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the authors provide an overview on the design of power distribution networks for digital and mixed-signal systems with emphasis on design tools, decoupling, measurements, and emerging technologies.

Abstract: The power consumption of microprocessors is increasing at an alarming rate leading to 2X reduction in the power distribution impedance for every product generation. In the last decade, high I/O ball grid array (BGA) packages have replaced quad flat pack (QFP) packages for lowering the inductance. Similarly, multilayered printed circuit boards loaded with decoupling capacitors are being used to meet the target impedance. With the trend toward system-on-package (SOP) architectures, the power distribution needs can only increase, further reducing the target impedance and increasing the isolation characteristics required. This paper provides an overview on the design of power distribution networks for digital and mixed-signal systems with emphasis on design tools, decoupling, measurements, and emerging technologies.

259 citations

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10 Dec 2002

TL;DR: In this article, the impact of power-supply noise on the performance of high-frequency microprocessors is analyzed. But the authors focus on the average supply voltage during switching.

Abstract: This paper analyzes the impact of power-supply noise on the performance of high-frequency microprocessors. First, delay models that take this noise into account are proposed for device-dominated and interconnect-dominated timing paths. For typical circuits, it is shown that the peak of the noise is largely irrelevant and that the average supply voltage during switching is more important. It is then argued that global differential noise can potentially have a greater timing impact than common-mode noise. Finally, realistic values for the model parameters are measured on a 2.53-GHz Pentium4 microprocessor using a 130-nm technology. These values imply that the power-supply noise present on the system board reduces clock frequency by 6.7%. The model suggests that the frequency penalty associated with this power-supply noise will steadily increase and reach 7.6% for the 90-nm technology generation.

174 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, a plane pair structure is first characterized in terms of its impedance (Z) matrix at arbitrary port locations in the frequency domain, then extended for multiple plane pairs under the assumption that skin effect is prominent at higher frequencies causing isolation between the layers.

Abstract: This paper presents a modeling and simulation approach for ground/power planes in high speed packages. A plane pair structure is first characterized in terms of its impedance (Z) matrix at arbitrary port locations in the frequency domain. This solution is then extended for multiple plane pairs under the assumption that skin effect is prominent at higher frequencies causing isolation between the layers. Since the solutions are in analytical form, the frequency and transient response can be computed efficiently requiring small computational time. To develop spice models, equivalent circuits are constructed using resonator models with passive elements using model order reduction methods. This paper also discusses a method for incorporating decoupling capacitors into the plane models. The simulation results show good correlation with measured data.

161 citations

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TL;DR: A number of SOP technologies which have been developed and integrated into SOP test bed are reviewed, which include convergent SOP-based INC system design and architecture, digital SOP and its fabrication for signal and power integrity, and demonstration of Sop by INC prototype system.

Abstract: From cell phones to biomedical systems, modern life is inexorably dependent on the complex convergence of technologies into stand-alone products designed to provide a complete solution in small, highly integrated systems with computing, communication, biomedical and consumer functions. The concept of system-on-package (SOP) originated in the mid-1990s at the NSF-funded Packaging Research Center at the Georgia Institute of Technology. This can be thought of as a conceptual paradigm in which the package, and not the bulky board, as the system and the package provides all the system functions in one single module, not as an assemblage of discrete components to be connected together, but as a continuous merging of various integrated thin film technologies in a small package. In the SOP concept, this is accomplished by codesign and fabrication of digital, optical, RF and sensor functions in both IC and the package, thus distinguishing between what function is accomplished best at IC level and at package level. In this paradigm, ICs are viewed as being best for transistor density while the package is viewed as being best for RF, optical and certain digital-function integration. The SOP concept is demonstrated for a conceptual broad-band system called an intelligent network communicator (INC). Its testbed acts as both a leading-edge research and teaching platform in which students, faculty, research scientists, and member companies evaluate the validity of SOP technology from design to fabrication to integration, test, cost and reliability. The testbed explores optical bit stream switching up to 100 GHz, digital signals up to 5-20 GHz, decoupling capacitor integration concepts to reduce simultaneous switching noise of power beyond 100 W/chip, design, modeling and fabrication of embedded components for RF, microwave, and millimeter wave applications up to 60 GHz. This article reviews a number of SOP technologies which have been developed and integrated into SOP test bed. These are: 1) convergent SOP-based INC system design and architecture, 2) digital SOP and its fabrication for signal and power integrity, 3) optical SOP fabrication with embedded actives and passives, 4) RF SOP for high Q-embedded inductors, filters and other RF components, 5) mixed signal electrical test, 6) mixed signal reliability, and 7) demonstration of SOP by INC prototype system.

153 citations

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TL;DR: There is, I think, something ethereal about i —the square root of minus one, which seems an odd beast at that time—an intruder hovering on the edge of reality.

Abstract: There is, I think, something ethereal about i —the square root of minus one. I remember first hearing about it at school. It seemed an odd beast at that time—an intruder hovering on the edge of reality.
Usually familiarity dulls this sense of the bizarre, but in the case of i it was the reverse: over the years the sense of its surreal nature intensified. It seemed that it was impossible to write mathematics that described the real world in …

33,785 citations

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28,685 citations

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01 Jan 2001

TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present a general framework for coupling matrix for Coupled Resonator Filters with short-circuited Stubs (UWB) and Cascaded Quadruplet (CQ) filters.

Abstract: Preface to the Second Edition. Preface to the First Edition. 1 Introduction. 2 Network Analysis. 2.1 Network Variables. 2.2 Scattering Parameters. 2.3 Short-Circuit Admittance Parameters. 2.4 Open-Circuit Impedance Parameters. 2.5 ABCD Parameters. 2.6 Transmission-Line Networks. 2.7 Network Connections. 2.8 Network Parameter Conversions. 2.9 Symmetrical Network Analysis. 2.10 Multiport Networks. 2.11 Equivalent and Dual Network. 2.12 Multimode Networks. 3 Basic Concepts and Theories of Filters. 3.1 Transfer Functions. 3.2 Lowpass Prototype Filters and Elements. 3.3 Frequency and Element Transformations. 3.4 Immittance Inverters. 3.5 Richards' Transformation and Kuroda Identities. 3.6 Dissipation and Unloaded Quality Factor. 4 Transmission Lines and Components. 4.1 Microstrip Lines. 4.2 Coupled Lines. 4.3 Discontinuities and Components. 4.4 Other Types of Microstrip Lines. 4.5 Coplanar Waveguide (CPW). 4.6 Slotlines. 5 Lowpass and Bandpass Filters. 5.1 Lowpass Filters. 5.2 Bandpass Filters. 6 Highpass and Bandstop Filters. 6.1 Highpass Filters. 6.2 Bandstop Filters. 7 Coupled-Resonator Circuits. 7.1 General Coupling Matrix for Coupled-Resonator Filters. 7.2 General Theory of Couplings. 7.3 General Formulation for Extracting Coupling Coefficient k. 7.4 Formulation for Extracting External Quality Factor Qe. 7.5 Numerical Examples. 7.6 General Coupling Matrix Including Source and Load. 8 CAD for Low-Cost and High-Volume Production. 8.1 Computer-Aided Design (CAD) Tools. 8.2 Computer-Aided Analysis (CAA). 8.3 Filter Synthesis by Optimization. 8.4 CAD Examples. 9 Advanced RF/Microwave Filters. 9.1 Selective Filters with a Single Pair of Transmission Zeros. 9.2 Cascaded Quadruplet (CQ) Filters. 9.3 Trisection and Cascaded Trisection (CT) Filters. 9.4 Advanced Filters with Transmission-Line Inserted Inverters. 9.5 Linear-Phase Filters. 9.6 Extracted Pole Filters. 9.7 Canonical Filters. 9.8 Multiband Filters. 10 Compact Filters and Filter Miniaturization. 10.1 Miniature Open-Loop and Hairpin Resonator Filters. 10.2 Slow-Wave Resonator Filters. 10.3 Miniature Dual-Mode Resonator Filters. 10.4 Lumped-Element Filters. 10.5 Miniature Filters Using High Dielectric-Constant Substrates. 10.6 Multilayer Filters. 11 Superconducting Filters. 11.1 High-Temperature Superconducting (HTS) Materials. 11.2 HTS Filters for Mobile Communications. 11.3 HTS Filters for Satellite Communications. 11.4 HTS Filters for Radio Astronomy and Radar. 11.5 High-Power HTS Filters. 11.6 Cryogenic Package. 12 Ultra-Wideband (UWB) Filters. 12.1 UWB Filters with Short-Circuited Stubs. 12.2 UWB-Coupled Resonator Filters. 12.3 Quasilumped Element UWB Filters. 12.4 UWB Filters Using Cascaded Miniature High- And Lowpass Filters. 12.5 UWB Filters with Notch Band(s). 13 Tunable and Reconfigurable Filters. 13.1 Tunable Combline Filters. 13.2 Tunable Open-Loop Filters without Via-Hole Grounding. 13.3 Reconfigurable Dual-Mode Bandpass Filters. 13.4 Wideband Filters with Reconfigurable Bandwidth. 13.5 Reconfigurable UWB Filters. 13.6 RF MEMS Reconfigurable Filters. 13.7 Piezoelectric Transducer Tunable Filters. 13.8 Ferroelectric Tunable Filters. Appendix: Useful Constants and Data. A.1 Physical Constants. A.2 Conductivity of Metals at 25 C (298K). A.3 Electical Resistivity rho in 10-8 m of Metals. A.4 Properties of Dielectric Substrates. Index.

4,774 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors studied the effect of local derivatives on the detection of intensity edges in images, where the local difference of intensities is computed for each pixel in the image.

Abstract: Most of the signal processing that we will study in this course involves local operations on a signal, namely transforming the signal by applying linear combinations of values in the neighborhood of each sample point. You are familiar with such operations from Calculus, namely, taking derivatives and you are also familiar with this from optics namely blurring a signal. We will be looking at sampled signals only. Let's start with a few basic examples. Local difference Suppose we have a 1D image and we take the local difference of intensities, DI(x) = 1 2 (I(x + 1) − I(x − 1)) which give a discrete approximation to a partial derivative. (We compute this for each x in the image.) What is the effect of such a transformation? One key idea is that such a derivative would be useful for marking positions where the intensity changes. Such a change is called an edge. It is important to detect edges in images because they often mark locations at which object properties change. These can include changes in illumination along a surface due to a shadow boundary, or a material (pigment) change, or a change in depth as when one object ends and another begins. The computational problem of finding intensity edges in images is called edge detection. We could look for positions at which DI(x) has a large negative or positive value. Large positive values indicate an edge that goes from low to high intensity, and large negative values indicate an edge that goes from high to low intensity. Example Suppose the image consists of a single (slightly sloped) edge:

1,829 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors focus on the important role and challenges of high-k polymer-matrix composites (PMC) in new technologies and discuss potential applications of highk PMC.

Abstract: There is an increasing need for high-permittivity (high-k) materials due to rapid development of electrical/electronic industry. It is well-known that single composition materials cannot meet the high-k need. The combination of dissimilar materials is expected to be an effective way to fabricate composites with high-k, especial for high-k polymer–matrix composites (PMC). This review paper focuses on the important role and challenges of high-k PMC in new technologies. The use of different materials in the PMC creates interfaces which have a crucial effect on final dielectric properties. Therefore it is necessary to understand dielectric properties and processing need before the high-k PMC can be made and applied commercially. Theoretical models for increasing dielectric permittivity are summarized and are used to explain the behavior of dielectric properties. The effects of fillers, fabrication processes and the nature of the interfaces between fillers and polymers are discussed. Potential applications of high-k PMC are also discussed.

1,412 citations