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Institution

Gunma University

EducationMaebashi, Japan
About: Gunma University is a education organization based out in Maebashi, Japan. It is known for research contribution in the topics: Cancer & Population. The organization has 15526 authors who have published 28178 publications receiving 559462 citations. The organization is also known as: Gunma daigaku.


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
Daniel J. Klionsky1, Kotb Abdelmohsen2, Akihisa Abe3, Joynal Abedin4  +2519 moreInstitutions (695)
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macro-autophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes.
Abstract: In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. For example, a key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers or volume of autophagic elements (e.g., autophagosomes or autolysosomes) at any stage of the autophagic process versus those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway (i.e., the complete process including the amount and rate of cargo sequestered and degraded). In particular, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation must be differentiated from stimuli that increase autophagic activity, defined as increased autophagy induction coupled with increased delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes and some protists such as Dictyostelium) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). In other words, it is especially important that investigators new to the field understand that the appearance of more autophagosomes does not necessarily equate with more autophagy. In fact, in many cases, autophagosomes accumulate because of a block in trafficking to lysosomes without a concomitant change in autophagosome biogenesis, whereas an increase in autolysosomes may reflect a reduction in degradative activity. It is worth emphasizing here that lysosomal digestion is a stage of autophagy and evaluating its competence is a crucial part of the evaluation of autophagic flux, or complete autophagy. Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to monitor autophagy. Along these lines, because of the potential for pleiotropic effects due to blocking autophagy through genetic manipulation, it is imperative to target by gene knockout or RNA interference more than one autophagy-related protein. In addition, some individual Atg proteins, or groups of proteins, are involved in other cellular pathways implying that not all Atg proteins can be used as a specific marker for an autophagic process. In these guidelines, we consider these various methods of assessing autophagy and what information can, or cannot, be obtained from them. Finally, by discussing the merits and limits of particular assays, we hope to encourage technical innovation in the field.

5,187 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: These guidelines are presented for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes.
Abstract: In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. A key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers or volume of autophagic elements (e.g., autophagosomes or autolysosomes) at any stage of the autophagic process vs. those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway (i.e., the complete process); thus, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation needs to be differentiated from stimuli that result in increased autophagic activity, defined as increased autophagy induction coupled with increased delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes and some protists such as Dictyostelium) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). In other words, it is especially important that investigators new to the field understand that the appearance of more autophagosomes does not necessarily equate with more autophagy. In fact, in many cases, autophagosomes accumulate because of a block in trafficking to lysosomes without a concomitant change in autophagosome biogenesis, whereas an increase in autolysosomes may reflect a reduction in degradative activity. Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to monitor autophagy. In these guidelines, we consider these various methods of assessing autophagy and what information can, or cannot, be obtained from them. Finally, by discussing the merits and limits of particular autophagy assays, we hope to encourage technical innovation in the field.

4,316 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
06 Nov 1997-Nature
TL;DR: A new gene, termed klotho, has been identified that is involved in the suppression of several ageing phenotypes in the mouse, and may function as part of a signalling pathway that regulates ageing in vivo and morbidity in age-related diseases.
Abstract: A new gene, termed klotho, has been identified that is involved in the suppression of several ageing phenotypes. A defect in klotho gene expression in the mouse results in a syndrome that resembles human ageing, including a short lifespan, infertility, arteriosclerosis, skin atrophy, osteoporosis and emphysema. The gene encodes a membrane protein that shares sequence similarity with the β-glucosidase enzymes. The klotho gene product may function as part of a signalling pathway that regulates ageing in vivo and morbidity in age-related diseases.

3,025 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In dye-sensitized solar cells co-photosensitized with an alkoxysilyl-anchor dye ADEKA-1 and a carboxy-anchors organic dye LEG4, LEG4 was revealed to work collaboratively by enhancing the electron injection from the light-excited dyes to the TiO2 electrodes.

1,683 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
02 Oct 1992-Science
TL;DR: Human mononuclear leukemic cells expressing a beta AP-bearing, carboxyl-terminal beta APP derivative released significant amounts of a soluble 4-kilodalton beta AP derivative essentially identical to the beta AP deposited in Alzheimer's disease.
Abstract: The 4-kilodalton (39 to 43 amino acids) amyloid beta protein (beta AP), which is deposited as amyloid in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's diseases, is derived from a large protein, the amyloid beta protein precursor (beta APP). Human mononuclear leukemic (K562) cells expressing a beta AP-bearing, carboxyl-terminal beta APP derivative released significant amounts of a soluble 4-kilodalton beta APP derivative essentially identical to the beta AP deposited in Alzheimer's disease. Human neuroblastoma (M17) cells transfected with constructs expressing full-length beta APP and M17 cells expressing only endogenous beta APP also released soluble 4-kilodalton beta AP, and a similar, if not identical, fragment was readily detected in cerebrospinal fluid from individuals with Alzheimer's disease and normal individuals. Thus cells normally produce and release soluble 4-kilodalton beta AP that is essentially identical to the 4-kilodalton beta AP deposited as insoluble amyloid fibrils in Alzheimer's disease.

1,516 citations


Authors

Showing all 15563 results

NameH-indexPapersCitations
Rakesh K. Jain2001467177727
Kenji Kangawa1531117110059
Akihisa Inoue126265293980
Ryozo Nagai120107873556
Toshio Hirano12040155721
Robert B. Colvin11155652034
Hiroyuki Arai10889150820
Hiroshi Maeda10389363370
Masatoshi Kudo100132453482
Yasuo Uchiyama9739646807
Tetsuya Mitsudomi9754146183
Yasushi Yatabe9663048049
Masabumi Shibuya9233735949
Takashi Takahashi9187842082
Kozo Nakamura9070432811
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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers from the Institution in previous years
YearPapers
202313
202267
2021994
2020972
2019882
2018824