Showing papers in "Waste Management in 2008"
TL;DR: An overview of data published during the last five years on the immobilization of one metalloid, As, and four heavy metals, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn, in soils, finds that Zn can be successfully immobilized in soil by phosphorus amendments and clays.
Abstract: The spread of contaminants in soil can be hindered by the soil stabilization technique. Contaminant immobilizing amendments decrease trace element leaching and their bioavailability by inducing various sorption processes: adsorption to mineral surfaces, formation of stable complexes with organic ligands, surface precipitation and ion exchange. Precipitation as salts and co-precipitation can also contribute to reducing contaminant mobility. The technique can be used in in situ and ex situ applications to reclaim and re-vegetate industrially devastated areas and mine-spoils, improve soil quality and reduce contaminant mobility by stabilizing agents and a beneficial use of industrial by-products. This study is an overview of data published during the last five years on the immobilization of one metalloid, As, and four heavy metals, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn, in soils. The most extensively studied amendments for As immobilization are Fe containing materials. The immobilization of As occurs through adsorption on Fe oxides by replacing the surface hydroxyl groups with the As ions, as well as by the formation of amorphous Fe(III) arsenates and/or insoluble secondary oxidation minerals. Cr stabilization mainly deals with Cr reduction from its toxic and mobile hexavalent form Cr(VI) to stable in natural environments Cr(III). The reduction is accelerated in soil by the presence of organic matter and divalent iron. Clays, carbonates, phosphates and Fe oxides were the common amendments tested for Cu immobilization. The suggested mechanisms of Cu retention were precipitation of Cu carbonates and oxy-hydroxides, ion exchange and formation of ternary cation-anion complexes on the surface of Fe and Al oxy-hydroxides. Most of the studies on Pb stabilization were performed using various phosphorus-containing amendments, which reduce the Pb mobility by ionic exchange and precipitation of pyromorphite-type minerals. Zn can be successfully immobilized in soil by phosphorus amendments and clays.
TL;DR: The available information on various aspects of sewage sludge application on soil fertility and consequent effects on plant production are reviewed to explore the possibility of exploiting this byproduct for agronomy and horticulture.
Abstract: Sewage sludge, also referred as biosolids, is a byproduct of sewage treatment processes. Land application of sewage sludge is one of the important disposal alternatives. Characteristics of sewage sludge depend upon the quality of sewage and type of treatment processes followed. Being rich in organic and inorganic plant nutrients, sewage sludge may substitute for fertilizer, but availability of potential toxic metals often restricts its uses. Sludge amendment to the soil modifies its physico-chemical and biological properties. Crop yield in adequately sludge-amended soil is generally more than that of well-fertilized controls. Bioavailability of metals increases in sludge amended soil at excessive rates of application for many years. Plants differ in their abilities to absorb sludge-derived metals from the soil. The purpose of this paper is to review the available information on various aspects of sewage sludge application on soil fertility and consequent effects on plant production to explore the possibility of exploiting this byproduct for agronomy and horticulture.
TL;DR: In the present study, an attempt has been made to provide a comprehensive review of the characteristics, generation, collection and transportation, disposal and treatment technologies of MSW practiced in India.
Abstract: Municipal solid waste management (MSWM) is one of the major environmental problems of Indian cities. Improper management of municipal solid waste (MSW) causes hazards to inhabitants. Various studies reveal that about 90% of MSW is disposed of unscientifically in open dumps and landfills, creating problems to public health and the environment. In the present study, an attempt has been made to provide a comprehensive review of the characteristics, generation, collection and transportation, disposal and treatment technologies of MSW practiced in India. The study pertaining to MSWM for Indian cities has been carried out to evaluate the current status and identify the major problems. Various adopted treatment technologies for MSW are critically reviewed, along with their advantages and limitations. The study is concluded with a few fruitful suggestions, which may be beneficial to encourage the competent authorities/researchers to work towards further improvement of the present system.
TL;DR: The effect of recycled and waste plastic on bulk density, air content, workability, compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, modulus of elasticity, impact resistance, permeability, and abrasion resistance is discussed in this paper.
Abstract: Numerous waste materials are generated from manufacturing processes, service industries and municipal solid wastes The increasing awareness about the environment has tremendously contributed to the concerns related with disposal of the generated wastes Solid waste management is one of the major environmental concerns in the world With the scarcity of space for landfilling and due to its ever increasing cost, waste utilization has become an attractive alternative to disposal Research is being carried out on the utilization of waste products in concrete Such waste products include discarded tires, plastic, glass, steel, burnt foundry sand, and coal combustion by-products (CCBs) Each of these waste products has provided a specific effect on the properties of fresh and hardened concrete The use of waste products in concrete not only makes it economical, but also helps in reducing disposal problems Reuse of bulky wastes is considered the best environmental alternative for solving the problem of disposal One such waste is plastic, which could be used in various applications However, efforts have also been made to explore its use in concrete/asphalt concrete The development of new construction materials using recycled plastics is important to both the construction and the plastic recycling industries This paper presents a detailed review about waste and recycled plastics, waste management options, and research published on the effect of recycled plastic on the fresh and hardened properties of concrete The effect of recycled and waste plastic on bulk density, air content, workability, compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, modulus of elasticity, impact resistance, permeability, and abrasion resistance is discussed in this paper
TL;DR: It has been shown that models in which hydrolysis is coupled to the growth of hydrolytic bacteria work well at high or at fluctuant organic loading, and new developments in spatially distributed models are considered fundamental to provide new insights in this complex process.
Abstract: The applicability of different kinetics to the hydrolysis of particulate organic material in anaerobic digestion is discussed. Hydrolysis has traditionally been modelled according to the first-order kinetics. For complex substrate, the first-order kinetics should be modified in order to take into account hardly degradable material. It has been shown that models in which hydrolysis is coupled to the growth of hydrolytic bacteria work well at high or at fluctuant organic loading. In particular, the surface-related two-phase and the Contois models showed good fits to experimental data from a wide range of organic waste. Both models tend to the first-order kinetics at a high biomass-to-waste ratio and, for this reason, they can be considered as more general models. Examples on different inhibition processes that might affect the degradation of solid waste are reported. Acetogenesis or methanogenesis might be the rate-limiting stages in complex waste. In such cases, stimulation of hydrolysis (mechanically, chemically or biologically) may lead to a further inhibition of these stages, which ultimately affects hydrolysis as well. Since the hydrolysis process is characterized by surface and transport phenomena, new developments in spatially distributed models are considered fundamental to provide new insights in this complex process.
TL;DR: Ulasonic analysis reveals large reductions in the ultrasonic modulus and high sound absorption for tire-rubber concrete, and a significant decrease in the brittle behavior of concrete with increasing rubber content is also demonstrated using nonlinearity indices.
Abstract: Due to the increasingly serious environmental problems presented by waste tires, the feasibility of using elastic and flexible tire-rubber particles as aggregate in concrete is investigated in this study. Tire-rubber particles composed of tire chips, crumb rubber, and a combination of tire chips and crumb rubber, were used to replace mineral aggregates in concrete. These particles were used to replace 12.5%, 25%, 37.5%, and 50% of the total mineral aggregate's volume in concrete. Cylindrical shape concrete specimens 15 cm in diameter and 30 cm in height were fabricated and cured. The fresh rubberized concrete exhibited lower unit weight and acceptable workability compared to plain concrete. The results of a uniaxial compressive strain control test conducted on hardened concrete specimens indicate large reductions in the strength and tangential modulus of elasticity. A significant decrease in the brittle behavior of concrete with increasing rubber content is also demonstrated using nonlinearity indices. The maximum toughness index, indicating the post failure strength of concrete, occurs in concretes with 25% rubber content. Unlike plain concrete, the failure state in rubberized concrete occurs gently and uniformly, and does not cause any separation in the specimen. Crack width and its propagation velocity in rubberized concrete are lower than those of plain concrete. Ultrasonic analysis reveals large reductions in the ultrasonic modulus and high sound absorption for tire-rubber concrete.
TL;DR: This study insures that reusing waste plastic as a sand-substitution aggregate in concrete gives a good approach to reduce the cost of materials and solve some of the solid waste problems posed by plastics.
Abstract: Industrial activities in Iraq are associated with significant amounts of non-biodegradable solid waste, waste plastic being among the most prominent. This study involved 86 experiments and 254 tests to determine the efficiency of reusing waste plastic in the production of concrete. Thirty kilograms of waste plastic of fabriform shapes was used as a partial replacement for sand by 0%, 10%, 15%, and 20% with 800 kg of concrete mixtures. All of the concrete mixtures were tested at room temperature. These tests include performing slump, fresh density, dry density, compressive strength, flexural strength, and toughness indices. Seventy cubes were molded for compressive strength and dry density tests, and 54 prisms were cast for flexural strength and toughness indices tests. Curing ages of 3, 7, 14, and 28 days for the concrete mixtures were applied in this work. The results proved the arrest of the propagation of micro cracks by introducing waste plastic of fabriform shapes to concrete mixtures. This study insures that reusing waste plastic as a sand-substitution aggregate in concrete gives a good approach to reduce the cost of materials and solve some of the solid waste problems posed by plastics.
TL;DR: A fuzzy TOPSIS based methodology is applied to solve the solid waste transshipment site selection problem in Istanbul, Turkey and the criteria weights are calculated by using the AHP.
Abstract: Site selection is an important issue in waste management. Selection of the appropriate solid waste site requires consideration of multiple alternative solutions and evaluation criteria because of system complexity. Evaluation procedures involve several objectives, and it is often necessary to compromise among possibly conflicting tangible and intangible factors. For these reasons, multiple criteria decision-making (MCDM) has been found to be a useful approach to solve this kind of problem. Different MCDM models have been applied to solve this problem. But most of them are basically mathematical and ignore qualitative and often subjective considerations. It is easier for a decision-maker to describe a value for an alternative by using linguistic terms. In the fuzzy-based method, the rating of each alternative is described using linguistic terms, which can also be expressed as triangular fuzzy numbers. Furthermore, there have not been any studies focused on the site selection in waste management using both fuzzy TOPSIS (technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution) and AHP (analytical hierarchy process) techniques. In this paper, a fuzzy TOPSIS based methodology is applied to solve the solid waste transshipment site selection problem in Istanbul, Turkey. The criteria weights are calculated by using the AHP.
TL;DR: Results indicate that a number of constraints, namely: lack of interest from clients; attitudes towards waste minimisation; and training all act as disincentives to a proactive and sustainable implementation of waste reduction strategies during the design process.
Abstract: The construction, demolition and excavation waste arising in England was estimated at 91 million tonnes in 2003. The current thinking on construction waste minimisation is heavily focussed on several issues relating to physical construction waste and recycling guides. Indeed, much had been published on ways to improve on-site waste management and recycling activities but very few attempts made to address the effect of design practices on waste generation. However, there is a consensus in the literature that the architect has a decisive role to play in helping to reduce waste by focussing on designing out waste. This paper examines previous studies on architects' approach towards construction waste minimisation; and by means of a postal questionnaire, investigates: the origins of waste; waste minimisation design practices in the UK; and responsibilities and barriers within the UK architectural profession. The findings reveal that waste management is not a priority in the design process. Additionally, the architects seemed to take the view that waste is mainly produced during site operations and rarely generated during the design stages; however, about one-third of construction waste could essentially arise from design decisions. Results also indicate that a number of constraints, namely: lack of interest from clients; attitudes towards waste minimisation; and training all act as disincentives to a proactive and sustainable implementation of waste reduction strategies during the design process.
TL;DR: This paper addresses the siting of a new landfill using a multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) and overlay analysis using a geographic information system (GIS) that can accommodate new information on the landfill site selection by updating its knowledge base.
Abstract: The exponential rise in the urban population of the developing countries in the past few decades and the resulting accelerated urbanization phenomenon has brought to the fore the necessity to develop environmentally sustainable and efficient waste management systems. Sanitary landfill constitutes one of the primary methods of municipal solid waste disposal. Optimized siting decisions have gained considerable importance in order to ensure minimum damage to the various environmental sub-components as well as reduce the stigma associated with the residents living in its vicinity, thereby enhancing the overall sustainability associated with the life cycle of a landfill. This paper addresses the siting of a new landfill using a multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) and overlay analysis using a geographic information system (GIS). The proposed system can accommodate new information on the landfill site selection by updating its knowledge base. Several factors are considered in the siting process including geology, water supply resources, land use, sensitive sites, air quality and groundwater quality. Weightings were assigned to each criterion depending upon their relative importance and ratings in accordance with the relative magnitude of impact. The results from testing the system using different sites show the effectiveness of the system in the selection process.
TL;DR: The objective of this paper is to review previously published models of municipal solid waste generation and to propose an implementation guideline which will provide a compromise between information gain and cost-efficient model development.
Abstract: The objective of this paper is to review previously published models of municipal solid waste generation and to propose an implementation guideline which will provide a compromise between information gain and cost-efficient model development. The 45 modelling approaches identified in a systematic literature review aim at explaining or estimating the present or future waste generation using economic, socio-demographic or management-orientated data. A classification was developed in order to categorise these highly heterogeneous models according to the following criteria – the regional scale, the modelled waste streams, the hypothesised independent variables and the modelling method. A procedural practice guideline was derived from a discussion of the underlying models in order to propose beneficial design options concerning regional sampling (i.e., number and size of observed areas), waste stream definition and investigation, selection of independent variables and model validation procedures. The practical application of the findings was demonstrated with two case studies performed on different regional scales, i.e., on a household and on a city level. The findings of this review are finally summarised in the form of a relevance tree for methodology selection.
TL;DR: This study adequately shows that household solid waste can be converted from burden to resource through segregation at the source, since people are aware of their role in this direction and a mechanism to assist them in this pursuit exists and the burden is distributed according to the amount of waste generated.
Abstract: Solid waste management (SWM) is a multidimensional challenge faced by urban authorities, especially in developing countries like Bangladesh. We investigated per capita waste generation by residents, its composition, and the households' attitudes towards waste management at Rahman Nagar Residential Area, Chittagong, Bangladesh. The study involved a structured questionnaire and encompassed 75 households from five different socioeconomic groups (SEGs): low (LSEG), lower middle (LMSEG), middle (MSEG), upper middle (UMSEG) and high (HSEG). Wastes, collected from all of the groups of households, were segregated and weighed. Waste generation was 1.3 kg/household/day and 0.25 kg/person/day. Household solid waste (HSW) was comprised of nine categories of wastes with vegetable/food waste being the largest component (62%). Vegetable/food waste generation increased from the HSEG (47%) to the LSEG (88%). By weight, 66% of the waste was compostable in nature. The generation of HSW was positively correlated with family size (r xy=0.236, p<0.05), education level (r xy=0.244, p<0.05) and monthly income (r xy=0.671, p<0.01) of the households. Municipal authorities are usually the responsible agencies for solid waste collection and disposal, but the magnitude of the problem is well beyond the ability of any municipal government to tackle. Hence dwellers were found to take the service from the local waste management initiative. Of the respondents, an impressive 44% were willing to pay US dollars 0.3 to US dollars 0.4 per month to waste collectors and it is recommended that service charge be based on the volume of waste generated by households. Almost a quarter (22.7%) of the respondents preferred 12-1 pm as the time period for their waste to be collected. This study adequately shows that household solid waste can be converted from burden to resource through segregation at the source, since people are aware of their role in this direction provided a mechanism to assist them in this pursuit exists and the burden is distributed according to the amount of waste generated.
TL;DR: This study was carried out using chemolithotrophic and acidophilic bacteria Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, which utilized elemental sulfur and ferrous ion as the energy source to produce metabolites like sulfuric acids and ferric ion in the leaching medium that helped dissolve metals from spent batteries.
Abstract: Bioleaching of spent lithium ion secondary batteries, containing LiCoO2, was attempted in this investigation. The present study was carried out using chemolithotrophic and acidophilic bacteria Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, which utilized elemental sulfur and ferrous ion as the energy source to produce metabolites like sulfuric acids and ferric ion in the leaching medium. These metabolites helped dissolve metals from spent batteries. Bio-dissolution of cobalt was found to be faster than lithium. The effect of initial Fe(II) concentration, initial pH and solid/liquid (w/v) ratio during bioleaching of spent battery wastes were studied in detail. Higher Fe(II) concentration showed a decrease in dissolution due co-precipitation of Fe(III) with the metals in the residues. The higher solid/liquid ratio (w/v) also affected the metal dissolution by arresting the cell growth due to increased metal concentration in the waste sample. An EDXA mapping was carried out to compare the solubility of both cobalt and lithium, and the slow dissolution rate was clearly found from the figures.
TL;DR: This work reviews strategies for the management of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) residues, particularly solid particles collected from flue gases, focusing upon management strategies used in various countries, waste composition, treatment processes and possible applications.
Abstract: This work reviews strategies for the management of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) residues, particularly solid particles collected from flue gases. These tiny particles may be retained by different equipment, with or without additives (lime, activated carbon, etc.), and depending on the different possible combinations, their properties may vary. In industrial plants, the most commonly used equipment for heat recovery and the cleaning of gas emissions are: heat recovery devices (boiler, superheater and economiser); dry, semidry or wet scrubbers; electrostatic precipitators; bag filters; fabric filters, and cyclones. In accordance with the stringent regulations in force in developed countries, these residues are considered hazardous, and therefore must be treated before being disposed of in landfills. Nowadays, research is being conducted into specific applications for these residues in order to prevent landfill practices. There are basically two possible ways of handling these residues: landfill after adequate treatment or recycling as a secondary material. The different types of treatment may be grouped into three categories: separation processes, solidification/stabilization, and thermal methods. These residues generally have limited applications, mainly due to the fact that they tend to contain large quantities of soluble salts (NaCl, KCl, calcium compounds), significant amounts of toxic heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Cr, Cu, Ni, Cd) in forms that may easily leach out, and trace quantities of very toxic organic compounds (dioxin, furans). The most promising materials for recycling this residue are ceramics and glass-ceramic materials. The main purpose of the present paper is to review the published literature in this field. A range of studies have been summarized in a series of tables focusing upon management strategies used in various countries, waste composition, treatment processes and possible applications.
TL;DR: The extensive compilation of compounds detected can be used to select compounds to search for in future studies, and is suggested using leachate sediments as a matrix for detecting hydrophobic compounds and reflecting on the degradation phase when evaluating results from monitoring studies.
Abstract: A large number of hazardous compounds can be expected to be present in landfill leachates, many of which have not yet been identified. Thus this study screened samples from 12 Swedish municipal landfill sites for 400 parameters and compounds. More than 90 organic and metal organic compounds and 50 inorganic elements were detected, some of which seem to have not been detected before. Compounds detected include halogenated aliphatic compounds, benzene and alkylated benzenes, phenol and alkylated phenols, ethoxylates, polycyclic aromatic compounds, phthalic esters, chlorinated benzenes, chlorinated phenols, PCB, chlorinated dioxins and chlorinated furans, bromated flame-retardants, pesticides, organic tin, methyl mercury and heavy metals. The presence of this large number of hazardous compounds in landfill leachates should have a significant impact on future landfill risk assessments and the development of leachate treatment methods. We propose that future research should pay more attention to the metal-organic and organic compounds detected in this study. We also suggest using leachate sediments as a matrix for detecting hydrophobic compounds, and reflecting on the degradation phase when evaluating results from monitoring studies. The extensive compilation of compounds in this paper can be used to select compounds to search for in future studies.
TL;DR: This research focused on using crumb tires as a replacement for a percentage of the local fine aggregates used in the concrete mixes in Jordan and concluded that modified concrete would contribute to the disposal of the non-decaying scrap tires.
Abstract: The use of accumulated waste materials in third world countries is still in its early phases. It will take courage for contractors and others in the construction industry to recycle selected types of waste materials in the concrete mixes. This paper addresses the recycling of rubber tires accumulated every year in Jordan to be used in concrete mixes. The main objectives of this research were to provide more scientific evidence to support the use of legislation or incentive-based schemes to promote the reuse of accumulated waste tires. This research focused on using crumb tires as a replacement for a percentage of the local fine aggregates used in the concrete mixes in Jordan. Different concrete specimens were prepared and tested in terms of uniaxial compression and splitting tension. The main variable in the mixture was the volumetric percentage of crumb tires used in the mix. The test results showed that even though the compressive strength is reduced when using the crumb tires, it can meet the strength requirements of light weight concrete. In addition, test results and observations indicated that the addition of crumb rubber to the mix has a limited effect toward reducing the workability of the mixtures. The mechanical test results demonstrated that the tested specimens of the crumb rubber concrete remained relatively intact after failure compared to the conventional concrete specimens. It is also concluded that modified concrete would contribute to the disposal of the non-decaying scrap tires, since the amount being accumulated in third world countries is creating a challenge for proper disposal. Thus, obliging authorities to invest in facilitating the use of waste tires in concrete, a fundamental material to the booming construction industry in theses countries, serves two purposes.
TL;DR: The material flow of secondhand/scrap electronic devices into Nigeria, the current management practices for e-waste and the environmental and health implications of such low-end management practices are reviewed.
Abstract: The growth in electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) production and consumption has been exponential in the last two decades. This has been as a result of the rapid changes in equipment features and capabilities, decrease in prices, and the growth in internet use. This creates a large volume of waste stream of obsolete electrical and electronic devices (e-waste) in developed countries. There is high level of trans-boundary movement of these devices as secondhand electronic equipment into developing countries in an attempt to bridge the 'digital divide'. The past decade has witnessed a phenomenal advancement in information and communication technology (ICT) in Nigeria, most of which rely on imported secondhand devices. This paper attempts to review the material flow of secondhand/scrap electronic devices into Nigeria, the current management practices for e-waste and the environmental and health implications of such low-end management practices. Establishment of formal recycling facilities, introduction of legislation dealing specifically with e-waste and the confirmation of the functionality of secondhand EEE prior to importation are some of the options available to the government in dealing with this difficult issue.
TL;DR: Despite recent improvements in the operation of the existing dumpsite, a properly sited engineered landfill should be constructed with operation contracted to the private sector, and Enforcement of waste management legislation and a proper policy and planning framework for waste management are required.
Abstract: The new city of Abuja provided an opportunity to avoid some of the environmental problems associated with other major cities in Africa. The current status of solid waste management in Abuja has been reviewed and recommendations for improvements are made. The existing solid waste management system is affected by unfavourable economic, institutional, legislative, technical and operational constraints. A reliable waste collection service is needed and waste collection vehicles need to be appropriate to local conditions. More vehicles are required to cope with increasing waste generation. Wastes need to be sorted at source as much as possible, to reduce the amount requiring disposal. Co-operation among communities, the informal sector, the formal waste collectors and the authorities is necessary if recycling rates are to increase. Markets for recycled materials need to be encouraged. Despite recent improvements in the operation of the existing dumpsite, a properly sited engineered landfill should be constructed with operation contracted to the private sector. Wastes dumped along roads, underneath bridges, in culverts and in drainage channels need to be cleared. Small-scale waste composting plants could promote employment, income generation and poverty alleviation. Enforcement of waste management legislation and a proper policy and planning framework for waste management are required. Unauthorized use of land must be controlled by enforcing relevant clauses in development guidelines. Accurate population data is necessary so that waste management systems and infrastructure can be properly planned. Funding and affordability remain major constraints and challenges.
TL;DR: The results have indicated that the systems under investigation are suited for the manufacture of pre-formed building blocks at room temperature.
Abstract: In this work coal fly ash has been employed for the synthesis of geopolymers. Two different systems with silica/alumina ratios stoichiometric for the formation of polysialatesiloxo (PSS, SiO 2 /Al 2 O 3 = 4) and polysialatedisiloxo (PSDS, SiO 2 /Al 2 O 3 = 6) have been prepared. The alkali metal hydroxide (NaOH or KOH) necessary to start polycondensation has been added in the right amount as concentrated aqueous solution to each of the two systems. The concentration of each alkali metal solution has been adjusted in order to have the right liquid volume to ensure constant workability. The systems have been cured at four different temperatures (25, 40, 60, and 85 °C) for several different times depending on the temperature (16–672 h at 25 °C; 72–336 h at 40 °C; 16–120 h at 60 °C and 1–6 h at 85 °C). The products obtained in the different experimental conditions have been submitted to the quantitative determination of the extent of polycondensation through mass increase and loss on ignition, as well as to qualitative characterization by means of FT-IR spectroscopy. Furthermore, physico-structural and mechanical characterization has been carried out through microscopic observations and the determination of unconfined compressive strength, elasticity modulus, apparent density, porosity and specific surface area. The results have indicated that the systems under investigation are suited for the manufacture of pre-formed building blocks at room temperature.
TL;DR: In all wastes, significant correlations were found between easily determined parameters, such as pH, electrical conductivity and total organic matter, and most of the parameters studied.
Abstract: The winery and distillery industry produces a great quantity of residues, whose management and disposal are environmental problems due to their seasonal character and some polluting characteristics. The main solid by-products and residues generated are grape stalk, grape pomace or marc, wine lee, exhausted grape marc and winery sludge. In this study, 87 samples of winery and distillery residues were collected from different Spanish wineries and distilleries. Electrical conductivity, pH, total organic matter, organic carbon, polyphenols and contents of plant nutrients and heavy metals were determined. The purpose of this research was to study the composition of these wastes and to find relationships in order to use easily analysable parameters to estimate their composition. In general, the winery and distillery residues showed low pH (mean values ranged from 3.8 to 6.8) and electrical conductivity values (1.62-6.15 dS m(-1)) and high organic matter (669-920 g kg(-1)) and macronutrient contents, especially in K (11.9-72.8 g kg(-1)). However, a notable polyphenol concentration (1.2-19.0 g kg(-1)) and low micronutrient and heavy metal contents were also observed, some of these properties being incompatible with agricultural requirements. Therefore, conditioning treatments are necessary prior to possible use of these wastes. In all wastes, significant correlations were found between easily determined parameters, such as pH, electrical conductivity and total organic matter, and most of the parameters studied. The regression models obtained are also discussed.
TL;DR: The sources and generation of WEEE in China are identified, and WEEE volumes are calculated, and the results show that recycling capacity must increase if the rising quantity of domestic WEEE is to be handled properly and management and collection costs significantly influence current WEEE management.
Abstract: The research presented in this paper shows that Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) issues associated with home appliances, such as TV sets, refrigerators, washing machines, air conditioners, and personal computers, are linked in the WEEE flow and recycling systems and are important to matters of public policy and regulation. In this paper, the sources and generation of WEEE in China are identified, and WEEE volumes are calculated. The results show that recycling capacity must increase if the rising quantity of domestic WEEE is to be handled properly. Simultaneously, suitable WEEE treatment will generate large volumes of secondary resources. Environmental problems caused by the existing recycling processes have been investigated in a case study. Problems mainly stem from open burning of plastic-metal parts and from precious metals leaching techniques that utilize acids. The existing WEEE flow at the national level was investigated and described. It became obvious that a considerable amount of obsolete items are stored in homes and offices and have not yet entered the recycling system. The reuse of used appliances has become a high priority for WEEE collectors and dealers because reuse generates higher economic profits than simple material recovery. The results of a cost analysis of WEEE flow shows that management and collection costs significantly influence current WEEE management. Heated discussions are ongoing in political and administrative bodies as to whether extended producer responsibilities policies are promoting WEEE recycling and management. This paper also discusses future challenges and strategies for WEEE management in China.
TL;DR: The results indicate that cement production can be a feasible alternative for MSWI ash management and it is also evident that the addition of either fly ash or bottom ash did not have any effect on the compressive strength of the clinker.
Abstract: Municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) ash is rich in heavy metals and salts. The disposal of MSWI ash without proper treatment may cause serious environmental problems. Recently, the local cement industry in Taiwan has played an important role in the management of solid wastes because it can utilize various kinds of wastes as either fuels or raw materials. The objective of this study is to assess the possibility of MSWI ash reuse as a raw material for cement production. The ash was first washed with water and acid to remove the chlorides, which could cause serious corrosion in the cement kiln. Various amounts of pre-washed ash were added to replace the clay component of the raw materials for cement production. The allowable limits of chloride in the fly ash and bottom ash were found to be 1.75% and 3.50% respectively. The results indicate that cement production can be a feasible alternative for MSWI ash management. It is also evident that the addition of either fly ash or bottom ash did not have any effect on the compressive strength of the clinker. Cement products conformed to the Chinese National Standard (CNS) of Type II Portland cement with one exception, the setting time of the clinker was much longer.
TL;DR: Co-digestion of sludge from grease traps and sewage sludge was successfully performed both in laboratory batch and continuous pilot-scale digestion tests, and it was seen that the grease trap sludge increases the methane yield without increasing the sludge production.
Abstract: Redirection of organic waste, from landfilling or incineration, to biological treatment such as anaerobic digestion is of current interest in the Malmo-Copenhagen region. One type of waste that is expected to be suitable for anaerobic digestion is sludge from grease traps. Separate anaerobic digestion of this waste type and co-digestion with sewage sludge were evaluated. The methane potential was measured in batch laboratory tests, and the methane yield was determined in continuous pilot-scale digestion. Co-digestion of sludge from grease traps and sewage sludge was successfully performed both in laboratory batch and continuous pilot-scale digestion tests. The addition of grease trap sludge to sewage sludge digesters was seen to increase the methane yield of 9-27% when 10-30% of sludge from grease traps (on VS-basis) was added. It was also seen that the grease trap sludge increases the methane yield without increasing the sludge production. Single-substrate digestion of grease trap sludge gave high methane potentials in batch tests, but could not reach stable methane production in continuous digestion.
TL;DR: It is found that waste segregation, as well as infectious waste treatment prior to disposal, has to be conducted properly by the hospital management, especially when scavenging takes place in landfill sites in developing countries.
Abstract: Healthcare services provided by hospitals may generate some infectious wastes. Although a large percentage of hospital waste is classified as general waste, which has similar nature as that of municipal solid waste and, therefore, could be disposed in municipal landfills, a small portion of infectious waste has to be managed in the proper manner in order to minimize risk to public health. Many factors involved in the hospital waste management system often link to one another, which require a comprehensive analysis to determine the role of each factor in the system. In this paper, we present a hospital waste management model based on system dynamics to determine the interaction among factors in the system using a software package, Stella®. A case study of the City of Jakarta, Indonesia is selected. The hospital waste generation is affected by various factors including the number of beds in the hospitals and the NIMBY (not in my back yard) syndrome. To minimize the risk to public health, we found that waste segregation, as well as infectious waste treatment prior to disposal, has to be conducted properly by the hospital management, especially when scavenging takes place in landfill sites in developing countries.
TL;DR: The possible three-stage processing of SSA, whereby more than 90% of phosphorus can be extracted to make an adequate phosphate fertilizer, is proposed, which was proven to be equal in its plant uptake efficiency.
Abstract: Ashes from sewage sludge incineration are rich in phosphorus content, ranging between 4% and 9%. Due to the current methods of disposal used for these ashes, phosphorus, which is a valuable plant nutrient, is removed from biological cycling. This article proposes the possible three-stage processing of SSA, whereby more than 90% of phosphorus can be extracted to make an adequate phosphate fertilizer. SSA from two Swiss sewage sludge incinerators was used for laboratory investigations. In an initial step, SSA was leached with sulfuric acid using a liquid-to-solid ratio of 2. The leaching time and pH required for high phosphorus dissolution were determined. Inevitably, dissolution of heavy metals takes place that would contaminate the fertilizer. Thus in a second step, leach solution has to be purified by having the heavy metals removed. Both ion exchange using chelating resins and sulfide precipitation turned out to be suitable for removing critical Cu, Ni and Cd. Thirdly, phosphates were precipitated as calcium phosphates with lime water. The resulting phosphate sludge was dewatered, dried and ground to get a powdery fertilizer whose efficacy was demonstrated by plant tests in a greenhouse. By measuring the weight of plants after 6 weeks of growth, fertilized in part with conventional phosphate fertilizer, fertilizer made from SSA was proven to be equal in its plant uptake efficiency.
TL;DR: Changes in soil microbial properties appeared to occur more rapidly than most chemical properties, suggesting that soil microbial processes can function as more sensitive indicators of short-term changes in soil properties due to amendment of organic wastes.
Abstract: A 4-year field trial was established in eastern Sweden to evaluate the effects of organic waste on soil chemical and microbiological variables. A simple crop rotation with barley and oats was treated with either compost from household waste, biogas residue from household waste, anaerobically treated sewage sludge, pig manure, cow manure or mineral fertilizer. All fertilizers were amended in rates corresponding to 100kgNha(-1)year(-1). The effects of the different types of organic waste were evaluated by subjecting soil samples, taken each autumn 4 weeks after harvest, to an extensive set of soil chemical (pH, Org-C, Tot-N, Tot-P, Tot-S, P-AL, P-Olsen, K-AL, and some metals) and microbiological (B-resp, SIR, microSIR active and dormant microorganisms, PDA, microPDA, PAO, Alk-P and N-min) analyses. Results show that compost increased pH, and that compost as well as sewage sludge increased plant available phosphorus; however, the chemical analysis showed few clear trends over the 4 years and few clear relations to plant yield or soil quality. Biogas residues increased substrate induced respiration (SIR) and, compared to the untreated control amendment of biogas residues as well as compost, led to a higher proportion of active microorganisms. In addition, biogas residues increased potential ammonia oxidation rate (PAO), nitrogen mineralization capacity (N-min) as well as the specific growth rate constant of denitrifiers (microPDA). Despite rather large concentrations of heavy metals in some of the waste products, no negative effects could be seen on either chemical or microbiological soil properties. Changes in soil microbial properties appeared to occur more rapidly than most chemical properties. This suggests that soil microbial processes can function as more sensitive indicators of short-term changes in soil properties due to amendment of organic wastes.
TL;DR: This paper investigates the effectiveness of the existing implementation of the WMP method in the Hong Kong construction industry and shows that "Propose methods for on-site reuse of materials" and "Proposed methods for reducing waste" are the main benefits gained from the implementation.
Abstract: The increasing awareness of waste management concerns from construction and demolition waste has led to the development of waste management as an important function of construction project management. The Hong Kong government started employing the implementation of a waste-management-plan (WMP) method for all construction projects in 2003. During the trial period, the government received different version of feedback from the industry. It also came out that detailed descriptions of waste management procedures in the WMP method largely affect the productivity of companies. This paper investigates the effectiveness of the existing implementation of the WMP method in the Hong Kong construction industry. A questionnaire survey and structured interviews were conducted. The result showed that "Propose methods for on-site reuse of materials" and "Propose methods for reducing waste" are the main benefits gained from the implementation of the WMP method. However, "Low financial incentive" and "Increase in overhead cost" are considered as the major difficulties in the implementation. From that, "Use of prefabricated building components" is considered as the major effective measure to encourage the implementation of the WMP method.
TL;DR: Investigation of the utilization potential of several organic residues in clay bricks in Turkey found that sawdust, tobacco residues, and grass can be utilized in an environmentally safe way as organic pore-forming agents in brick-clay.
Abstract: The objective of this study is to investigate the utilization potential of several organic residues in clay bricks. Sawdust, tobacco residues, and grass are widespread by-products of industrial and agricultural processes in Turkey. These residue materials have long cellulose fibres. Sawdust and tobacco residues generally are used as fuel, and the grass is utilized for agricultural purposes. The insulation capacity of brick increases with the increasing porosity of the clay body. Combustible, organic types of pore-forming additives are most frequently used for this purpose. For this reason, increasing amounts of organic residues (0%, 2.5%, 5% and 10% in wt.) were mixed with raw brick-clay. All samples were fired at 900 °C. Effects on shaping, plasticity, density, and mechanical properties were investigated. The organic residue additions were found to be effective for pore-forming in the clay body with the clay maintaining acceptable mechanical properties. It was observed that the fibrous nature of the residues did not create extrusion problems. However, higher residue addition required a higher water content to ensure the right plasticity. As a result, sawdust, tobacco residues, and grass can be utilized in an environmentally safe way as organic pore-forming agents in brick-clay.
TL;DR: The suggested maturity parameter values and metal concentrations of composted animal manures can provide better understanding of maturation process of animal manure compost.
Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate a variety of maturity indices and heavy metal concentrations in the composting process. A full-scale study was performed on animal manures (dairy:beef:swine = 50%:30%:20%, w/w) mixed with sawdust using a self-screwed turner over a time period of 63 days. Several chemical compost characteristics and germination indices were monitored on samples collected weekly at a prototype composting facility. NH(4)-N concentrations decreased during the composting time, on the contrary NO(3)-N concentrations increased sharply after 30 days. As composting proceeded, the humic acids content increased from 1.45% to 2.70% of the organic carbon content, whereas the fulvic acids content decreased gradually. Temperature in the compost pile and concentration of NH(3) averaged 32.4 degrees C and 12.9 ppm at the initial composting phase and 69.5 degrees C and 47.3 ppm at the active bio-oxidation composting phase, respectively. Seed germination and germination index (GI) increased during the composting process, and the compost samples at the end of composting phase had GI values greater than 120. Among the composting processes, there were significant differences (p<0.05) in concentration of Zn, Cu and Pb in the compost. In conclusion, the suggested maturity parameter values and metal concentrations of composted animal manures can provide better understanding of maturation process of animal manure compost.
TL;DR: It is concluded that it is possible to use tyre pyrolysis oil in diesel engines as an alternate fuel in the future.
Abstract: Tests have been carried out to evaluate the performance, emission, and combustion characteristics of a single cylinder direct injection diesel engine fueled with 10%, 30%, and 50% of tyre pyrolysis oil (TPO) blended with diesel fuel (DF). The TPO was derived from waste automobile tyres through vacuum pyrolysis. The combustion parameters such as heat release rate, cylinder peak pressure, and maximum rate of pressure rise also analysed. Results showed that the brake thermal efficiency of the engine fueled with TPO-DF blends increased with an increase in blend concentration and reduction of DF concentration. NO(x), HC, CO, and smoke emissions were found to be higher at higher loads due to the high aromatic content and longer ignition delay. The cylinder peak pressure increased from 71 bars to 74 bars. The ignition delays were longer than with DF. It is concluded that it is possible to use tyre pyrolysis oil in diesel engines as an alternate fuel in the future.