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Proceedings ArticleDOI: 10.1109/ICETECH.2016.7569412

A survey on techniques related to base station sleeping in Green communication and CoMP analysis

17 Mar 2016-pp 1059-1067
Abstract: Energy efficiency is an important factor in wireless networks which is facing a major concern mainly because of environmental, economic and quality of service considerations. Energy saving methods can be implemented with the adoption of renewable energy resources or by making hardware more energy efficient, but the major concern in these approaches are cost of purchasing, installing and transportation of equipment's can be an economical burden. So to improve energy efficiency various methods have been proposed and these methods can be referred as green cellular networking. These methods are far less costly, also implementations and testing becomes easy as it need not require any change in current network architecture. In this survey, we at first discuss about various facts and figure which highlights the necessity of green communication and we have discussed about various techniques which implements BS switching for green cellular networking. Generally based on the traffic pattern, some of the slightly loaded BS are switched off for reducing energy consumption. So at the end this review will discuss the analysis of coordinated multipoint transmission (CoMP) and its various parameters in BS switching.

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Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1109/TNSM.2019.2923881
Abstract: The use of base station (BS) sleep modes is one of the most studied approaches for the reduction of the energy consumption of radio access networks (RANs). Many papers have shown that the potential energy saving of sleep modes is huge, provided the future behavior of the RAN traffic load is known. This paper investigates the effectiveness of sleep modes combined with machine learning (ML) approaches for traffic forecast. A portion of an RAN is considered, comprising one macro BS and a few small cell BSs. Each BS is powered by a photovoltaic (PV) panel, equipped with energy storage units, and a connection to the power grid. The PV panel and battery provide green energy, while the power grid provides brown energy. This paper examines the impacts of different prediction models on the consumed energy mix and on QoS. Numerical results show that the considered ML algorithms succeed in achieving effective trade-offs between energy consumption and QoS. Results also show that energy savings strongly depend on traffic patterns that are typical of the considered area. This implies that a widespread implementation of these energy saving strategies without the support of ML would require a careful tuning that cannot be performed autonomously and that needs continuous updates to follow traffic pattern variations. On the contrary, ML approaches provide a versatile framework for the implementation of the desired trade-off that naturally adapts the network operation to the traffic characteristics typical of each area and to its evolution.

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Topics: Energy consumption (62%), Efficient energy use (58%), Energy mix (53%) ...read more

12 Citations


Open access
01 Jan 2007-
Topics: Carbon footprint (69%)

11 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S11277-017-5031-4
Qiaoshou Liu1, Qiaoshou Liu2, Jiangpan Shi1Institutions (2)
Abstract: To meet the exponential increasing high data rate demand of mobile users, heterogeneous ultra-dense networks (UDN) is widely seen as an essential technology to provide high-rate transmissions to nearby mobile users. However, the dense and random deployment of small base stations (SBSs) overlaid by macro base stations and their uncoordinated operation lead to important questions about the power consumption and aggressive frequency reuse of heterogeneous UDN. For the problem of huge power consumption and spectrum resource tension in heterogeneous UDN, a joint strategy of SBSs sleep and spectrum allocation is proposed. By using stochastic geometry, the coverage probabilities of base stations and the average ergodic rates of mobile users are derived in each tier and the whole network. In addition, we formulate the coverage probability maximization and power consumption minimization problems, and determine the optimal operating regimes for SBSs, and as well as spectrum allocation. The numerical results show that the SBSs sleep and spectrum allocation can reduce the power consumption and interference of the whole network.

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Topics: Frequency allocation (57%), Base station (52%)

6 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.AEUE.2017.01.007
Xiaoping Zeng1, Meng Sun1, Xin Jian1, Derong Du1  +1 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: Through decreasing inter-cell interferences, CoMP (Coordinated Multi-Point) can enhance system capacity and spectral efficiency of cell-edge users significantly. BSs (Base stations) are the front-end accesses of CoMP and their planning influences the overall performance of the system directly. Different from the traditional cellular network, the coverage of BSs in CoMP always overlaps with each other to some degree. In order to investigate the BSs planning for CoMP, this paper builds two optimization models to obtain the location and the number of the BSs. A joint optimization algorithm is proposed to solve models, in which the methodologies of mesh adaptive direct search and successive elimination have been used. Numerical results show that the proposed models can effectively reduce the total transmission power and the number of BSs without losing the quality of service for users, which verifies the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms and the inherent advantage of CoMP.

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5 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.COMNET.2021.108100
19 Jun 2021-Computer Networks
Abstract: The improvement of the energy efficiency and the reduction of the latency are two of the main goals of the next generation of Radio Access Networks (RANs). In order to achieve the latter, Multi-access Edge Computing (MEC) is emerging as a promising solution: it consists of the placement of computing and storage servers, directly at each Base Station (BS) of these networks. For the RAN energy efficiency, the dynamic activation of the BSs is considered an effective approach. In this paper, the caching feature of the MEC paradigm is considered in a portion of an heterogeneous RAN, powered by a renewable energy generator system, energy batteries and the power grid, where micro cell BSs are deactivated in case of renewable energy shortage. The performance of the caching in the RAN is analysed through simulations for different traffic characteristics, as well as for different capacity of the caches and different spread of it. New user association policies are proposed, in order to totally exploit the MEC technology and reduce the network energy consumption. Simulation results reveal that, thanks to this technology and the proposed methodologies, the experienced delay and the energy consumption drop, respectively, up to 60% and 40%.

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Topics: Energy consumption (62%), Efficient energy use (60%), Radio access network (56%) ...read more

4 Citations


References
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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1109/MCOM.2008.4623708
Abstract: The surest way to increase the system capacity of a wireless link is by getting the transmitter and receiver closer to each other, which creates the dual benefits of higher-quality links and more spatial reuse. In a network with nomadic users, this inevitably involves deploying more infrastructure, typically in the form of microcells, hot spots, distributed antennas, or relays. A less expensive alternative is the recent concept of femtocells - also called home base stations - which are data access points installed by home users to get better indoor voice and data coverage. In this article we overview the technical and business arguments for femtocells and describe the state of the art on each front. We also describe the technical challenges facing femtocell networks and give some preliminary ideas for how to overcome them.

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Topics: Femtocell (56%), Macrocell (51%)

3,274 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1109/JSAC.2011.110921
Omur Ozel1, Kaya Tutuncuoglu2, Jing Yang1, Sennur Ulukus1  +1 moreInstitutions (2)
Abstract: Wireless systems comprised of rechargeable nodes have a significantly prolonged lifetime and are sustainable. A distinct characteristic of these systems is the fact that the nodes can harvest energy throughout the duration in which communication takes place. As such, transmission policies of the nodes need to adapt to these harvested energy arrivals. In this paper, we consider optimization of point-to-point data transmission with an energy harvesting transmitter which has a limited battery capacity, communicating in a wireless fading channel. We consider two objectives: maximizing the throughput by a deadline, and minimizing the transmission completion time of the communication session. We optimize these objectives by controlling the time sequence of transmit powers subject to energy storage capacity and causality constraints. We, first, study optimal offline policies. We introduce a directional water-filling algorithm which provides a simple and concise interpretation of the necessary optimality conditions. We show the optimality of an adaptive directional water-filling algorithm for the throughput maximization problem. We solve the transmission completion time minimization problem by utilizing its equivalence to its throughput maximization counterpart. Next, we consider online policies. We use stochastic dynamic programming to solve for the optimal online policy that maximizes the average number of bits delivered by a deadline under stochastic fading and energy arrival processes with causal channel state feedback. We also propose near-optimal policies with reduced complexity, and numerically study their performances along with the performances of the offline and online optimal policies under various different configurations.

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Topics: Fading (55%), Stochastic programming (54%), Throughput (business) (54%) ...read more

1,084 Citations


Open accessPosted Content
Omur Ozel1, Kaya Tutuncuoglu2, Jing Yang1, Sennur Ulukus1  +1 moreInstitutions (2)
Abstract: Wireless systems comprised of rechargeable nodes have a significantly prolonged lifetime and are sustainable. A distinct characteristic of these systems is the fact that the nodes can harvest energy throughout the duration in which communication takes place. As such, transmission policies of the nodes need to adapt to these harvested energy arrivals. In this paper, we consider optimization of point-to-point data transmission with an energy harvesting transmitter which has a limited battery capacity, communicating in a wireless fading channel. We consider two objectives: maximizing the throughput by a deadline, and minimizing the transmission completion time of the communication session. We optimize these objectives by controlling the time sequence of transmit powers subject to energy storage capacity and causality constraints. We, first, study optimal offline policies. We introduce a directional water-filling algorithm which provides a simple and concise interpretation of the necessary optimality conditions. We show the optimality of an adaptive directional water-filling algorithm for the throughput maximization problem. We solve the transmission completion time minimization problem by utilizing its equivalence to its throughput maximization counterpart. Next, we consider online policies. We use stochastic dynamic programming to solve for the optimal online policy that maximizes the average number of bits delivered by a deadline under stochastic fading and energy arrival processes with causal channel state feedback. We also propose near-optimal policies with reduced complexity, and numerically study their performances along with the performances of the offline and online optimal policies under various different configurations.

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Topics: Fading (55%), Stochastic programming (54%), Throughput (business) (54%) ...read more

950 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1109/SURV.2012.020212.00049
Daquan Feng1, Chenzi Jiang2, Gubong Lim2, Leonard J. Cimini2  +2 moreInstitutions (3)
Abstract: Reducing energy consumption in wireless communications has attracted increasing attention recently. Advanced physical layer techniques such as multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) and orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM), cognitive radio, network coding, cooperative communication, etc.; new network architectures such as heterogeneous networks, distributed antennas, multi-hop cellulars, etc.; as well as radio and network resource management schemes such as various cross-layer optimization algorithms, dynamic power saving, multiple radio access technologies coordination, etc. have been proposed to address this issue. In this article, we overview these technologies and present the state-of-the-art on each aspect. Some challenges that need to be solved in the area are also described.

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Topics: Radio resource management (68%), Cognitive radio (65%), Wireless network (63%) ...read more

897 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1109/MCOM.2011.5783984
Congzheng Han1, T Harrold1, Simon Armour1, Ioannis Krikidis2  +10 moreInstitutions (5)
Abstract: Recent analysis by manufacturers and network operators has shown that current wireless networks are not very energy efficient, particularly the base stations by which terminals access services from the network. In response to this observation the Mobile Virtual Centre of Excellence (VCE) Green Radio project was established in 2009 to establish how significant energy savings may be obtained in future wireless systems. This article discusses the technical background to the project and discusses models of current energy consumption in base station devices. It also describes some of the most promising research directions in reducing the energy consumption of future base stations.

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  • Figure 4. a) Example scenario for transmitter and/or receiver interference cancellation showing multiple base stations transmitting to a multiple antenna receiver; and b) performance comparison of three DAS schemes, plotting ECG (relative to no DAS case) vs SNR.
    Figure 4. a) Example scenario for transmitter and/or receiver interference cancellation showing multiple base stations transmitting to a multiple antenna receiver; and b) performance comparison of three DAS schemes, plotting ECG (relative to no DAS case) vs SNR.
  • Figure 1. a) Power consumption of a typical wireless cellular network (source: Vodafone); b) CO2 emissions per subscriber per year as derived for the base station and mobile handset, after [1]. Embodied emissions arise from the manufacturing process rather than operation.
    Figure 1. a) Power consumption of a typical wireless cellular network (source: Vodafone); b) CO2 emissions per subscriber per year as derived for the base station and mobile handset, after [1]. Embodied emissions arise from the manufacturing process rather than operation.
  • Figure 5. a) Direct wireless link with average channel knowledge; b) direct wireless link with instantaneous feedback of channel conditions; c) relay link with average channel knowledge; d) relay link with instantaneous feedback of channel conditions; e) performance gains of relay links after [11].
    Figure 5. a) Direct wireless link with average channel knowledge; b) direct wireless link with instantaneous feedback of channel conditions; c) relay link with average channel knowledge; d) relay link with instantaneous feedback of channel conditions; e) performance gains of relay links after [11].
  • Figure 2. Reference base station architecture for a system with three sectors and four transmit antennas per sector for MIMO capability. For clarity only one
    Figure 2. Reference base station architecture for a system with three sectors and four transmit antennas per sector for MIMO capability. For clarity only one
  • Table 1. Estimated power consumption for base stations in 2010–2011 and target future power consumption values for base stations.
    Table 1. Estimated power consumption for base stations in 2010–2011 and target future power consumption values for base stations.
  • + 1

Topics: Radio resource management (63%), Wireless network (62%), Energy consumption (62%) ...read more

767 Citations


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