scispace - formally typeset
Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/14680629.2019.1634636

Analysis of 4-mm DSR tests: calibration, sample preparation, and evaluation of repeatability and reproducibility

04 Mar 2021-Road Materials and Pavement Design (Informa UK Limited)-Vol. 22, Iss: 3, pp 557-571
Abstract: Rheological characterisation methods are important when it comes to a performance-based selection system for bituminous binders for road applications. Standardised methods exist for the determinati...

... read more

Topics: Dynamic shear rheometer (56%), Repeatability (52%), Reproducibility (50%)
Citations
  More

6 results found


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CONBUILDMAT.2020.118276
Abstract: Nowadays, Reclaimed Asphalt (RA) is widely used in pavement applications as part of new asphalt mixtures. To design high-quality asphalt mixes, the RA material and especially the RA binder must be systematically characterised with the purpose to explore its ageing state, especially when RA is added in high rates (above 20%). In this research, chemical (SARA and FTIR ageing indexes) and rheological properties (master curve parameters, Glower-Rowe parameter and ΔΤc) of a large selection of RA binders (19 samples) were determined to reveal their ageing level. The results of this experimental validation were further analysed statistically to discover clusters of similar chemorheological properties, reflecting in this way their ageing state. The exploratory techniques PCA and HCA were able to detect five clusters of RA binders with different ageing states. The five clusters clearly distinguish the RA binders in groups with statistically different properties, assessed using one-way ANOVA. The method proposed here is a potential tool to “fingerprint” RA binders with similar ageing states, particularly for decision-making strategies, to optimise the use and treatment of RA.

... read more

11 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.JCLEPRO.2020.125596
Geert Jacobs1, Alexandros Margaritis1, David Hernando1, Liang He2  +2 moreInstitutions (2)
Abstract: At the end of their service life, asphalt pavements exhibit distresses such as cracking and ravelling due to the aged bituminous binder. The recycling process of reclaimed asphalt should compensate for the deteriorated binder properties. The main objective of this binder study is to compare two common recycling strategies: the use of a softer binder and a rejuvenator. Three recycling percentages, 0%, 40% and 70% of reclaimed asphalt binder were evaluated. All binder blends were prepared with similar penetration and softening point values. In order to simulate binder performance during service life, ageing protocols by means of rolling thin film oven test and pressure ageing vessel were performed. The investigation included both mechanical and chemical tests. A dynamic shear rheometer was used to assess different rheological parameters over an extensive temperature range. Linear amplitude sweep tests were performed to estimate the fatigue resistance at intermediate temperatures. Resistance to permanent deformation was assessed with a multiple stress creep recovery test. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy was used to assess the formation of bonds that indicate oxidative ageing after the ageing protocols. Moreover, an optimised method was introduced to calculate the carbonyl index for rejuvenated binders, which also allows to detect the presence of a rejuvenator in a bituminous binder. The results show that the inclusion of rejuvenator results in similar rheological behaviour compared to the application of a soft binder. Furthermore, the rejuvenator improves binder fatigue life without reducing the performance at elevated temperatures.

... read more

Topics: Dynamic shear rheometer (57%)

5 Citations


Open accessDOI: 10.24355/DBBS.084-202103181558-0
01 Jan 2021-
Abstract: No standard procedure is available for low temperature asphalt binder testing in the Dynamic Shear Rheometer. In this study, an overview is given of the necessary equipment to use the 4 mm geometry for asphalt binder testing including an explanation of shear compliance correction. Furthermore, the testing conditions of 4 mm geometry including specimen preparation, specimen conditions and test parameter are evaluated. Additionally, practical tips and screenshots on the implementation of recommended parameters and testing conditions in the software rSpace and RheoCompass are provided. Overall, this paper provides extended information and guidelines on how to use the 4 mm geometry and which testing conditions to consider for testing asphalt binder in the low temperature range.

... read more

Topics: Dynamic shear rheometer (66%)

1 Citations



Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/14680629.2021.1994450
Hilde Soenen, Xavier Carbonneau, Xiaohu Lu1, C. Robertus1  +1 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: Field ageing is investigated based on recovered binders. Fifteen sections were considered, consisting of unmodified and polymer-modified binders (PmB). Binders were recovered from the wearing cours...

... read more


References
  More

12 results found


Open access
01 Oct 1993-
Abstract: A result of the Strategic Highway Research Program's asphalt research is the development of performance-based specifications for asphalt binders and mixtures to control 3 distress modes: rutting; fatigue cracking; and thermal cracking. The SHRP A-005 project developed detailed pavement performance models to support these binder and mixture specifications and performance-based mixture designs. This report documents the findings of this extensive research effort and provides supporting data for the performance-based specifications and mixture design procedure called SUPERPAVE. The A-005 contract developed and used a sophisticated, mechanistic-based pavement performance model to define the relationships between asphalt binder and mixture properties and pavement distress. A comprehensive pavement performance model was developed that predicts the amount of fatigue cracking, thermal cracking and rutting in asphalt concrete pavements with time, using results from the accelerated laboratory tests. The pavement performance models for each distress were also used to confirm the relevant binder and mixture properties established by other SHRP contractors. The model has 3 parts: a mixture evaluation model; a pavement response model; and a pavement distress model.

... read more

Topics: Asphalt concrete (62%), Asphalt (50%)

386 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.3141/2179-03
Abstract: A new technique, which uses 4-mm parallel plates on a dynamic shear rheometer (DSR) with machine compliance corrections, was developed to measure low-temperature properties of asphalts. Good results have been achieved at test temperatures as low as -40°C. The test method requires only about 25 mg of material instead of 15 g for the bending beam rheometer (BBR). Also, no specimen premolding is needed, and a relatively low temperature (60°C to 70°C) is required to load the samples into the measuring system. The key to the new technique is correction for errors due to machine compliance. Two types of machine compliance correction were applied to the dynamic frequency sweep data in this work. The following areas were investigated: effects of machine compliance on the measured low-temperature properties, reproducibility of data, consistency among data collected on different sizes of plates after machine compliance corrections, and comparison between the corrected data from DSR and converted BBR data. Results s...

... read more

Topics: Dynamic shear rheometer (58%), Test method (52%), Rheometer (51%)

80 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.3141/2207-06
Abstract: Mechanical measurements on asphalt binders to determine the performance grade of the low-temperature specification are typically carried out with a bending beam rheometer (BBR). The BBR test requires considerable material to fabricate a specimen (approximately 15 g per beam). The relatively large amount of asphalt binder required for the BBR limits its applications. The BBR is difficult to apply to extracted asphalt binder or to other situations in which there is a limited amount of binder, for example, residue from emulsions. This paper proposes an alternate mechanical test to the BBR to determine low-temperature PG. Only approximately 25 mg of asphalt binder are required to perform a test. The test employs 4-mm-diameter parallel plates on a dynamic shear rheometer (DSR) and includes a correction for machine compliance. This correction allows testing to -40°C. A low-temperature specification from the 4-mm rheometry is suggested by the establishment of a correlation between BBR creep stiffness data and DS...

... read more

Topics: Dynamic shear rheometer (61%), Rheometer (54%)

76 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.3141/1875-02
Mihai Marasteanu1Institutions (1)
Abstract: The development of the Strategic Highway Research Program lowtemperature binder specifications was based on the observation that asphalt mixture creep stiffness at 2 h correlated well with instances of transverse cracking. With the correlation extended to asphalt binder stiffness and with time-temperature superposition, a maximum stiffness value was imposed on the binders, and a limiting temperature at which the stiffness at 60 s reached the limiting value was selected as a specification criterion. In addition, the slope at 60 s of the stiffness-versus-time curve on a double logarithmic scale, the so-called m-value, was introduced as an additional criterion. The role played by the stiffness and the m-value in the development of thermal stresses in asphalt pavements was investigated. The analysis showed that thermal stress magnitude was strongly related to the stiffness magnitude. At similar stiffness levels, higher m-values resulted in the faster development of thermal stresses.

... read more

Topics: Bending stiffness (61%), Stiffness (57%), Creep (51%)

31 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.IJPRT.2016.08.010
Xiaohu Lu1, Petri Uhlback1, Hilde Soenen2Institutions (2)
Abstract: This paper investigates the low temperature rheological properties of bitumen using a dynamic shear rheometer with 4 mm parallel plates (4-mm DSR). Different procedures of sample preparation were tested and evaluated. For comparison, low temperature measurements were also carried out using a bending beam rheometer (BBR). Test results show that the 4-mm DSR can perform rheological measurements at very low temperatures (down below −30 °C). With this geometry, very little amount of bitumen sample is required. There are certain statistical correlations between complex modulus measured by 4-mm DSR and creep stiffness by BBR, and also between phase angle and m-value. With the BBR data at 60 s loading time, higher correlation coefficients were observed at lower DSR frequencies or at a frequency corresponding to the 60 s loading time. For the limiting temperatures, a statistical correlation was found in LST between the two test methods; however, there was very weak or no correlation in LmT. The presence of waxes in bitumen seems to have a negative effect on the correlations between the 4-mm DSR and BBR. This is probably due to differences in thermal histories caused by the large differences in sample size between BBR and DSR tests. In addition, DSR with 8-mm plates can be applied to certain low temperatures, depending on instrument compliance and stiffness of the binder to be tested.

... read more

Topics: Dynamic shear rheometer (61%), Rheometer (54%)

31 Citations


Performance
Metrics
No. of citations received by the Paper in previous years
YearCitations
20221
20213
20202