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Journal ArticleDOI

Comparison of the Protection Afforded by a Crude Extract of Phyllanthus emblica Fruit and an Equivalent Amount of Synthetic Ascorbic Acid Against the Cytotoxic Effects of Cesium Chloride in Mice

01 Jan 1993-Vol. 31, Iss: 2, pp 116-120
TL;DR: Protective action of orally-administered Phyllanthus extract against damage induced by CsCl is of considerable importance in view of the possible entry of Cs into edible plants from soil and subsequently into the foodchain following radioactive fallout.
Abstract: The relative effects of a crude aqueous extract from Phyllanthus emblica fruit and an equivalent amount of synthetic ascorbic acid (vitamin C) in reducing the clastogenic action of cesium chloride (CsCl) in vivo on mice bone marrow cells were compared. CsCl-induced chromosomal aberrations were observed in the mice 24 hours after exposure in frequencies that were direcdy proportional to the dose administered. Neither ascorbic acid nor the fruit extract induced chromosomal aberrations in high frequency even after treatment for seven days. On the other hand, oral administration of either ascorbic acid or Phyllanthus emblica extract for seven days prior to exposure to CsCl for 24 hours reduced the frequency of chromosomal aberrations. This protective action of orally-administered Phyllanthus extract against damage induced by CsCl is of considerable importance in view of the possible entry of Cs into edible plants from soil and subsequently into the foodchain following radioactive fallout.
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Seven plants contain antioxidant principles, that can explain and justify their use in traditional medicine in the past as well as the present, and are viewed for their historical, etymological, morphological, phytochemical and pharmacological aspects.

801 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
26 Apr 2019
TL;DR: An effort was made to compile the scattered information from ancient Ayurvedic texts and treatises, along with ethnobotanical, ethnopharmacological, and scientifically validated literature, that highlight the role of CP in therapeutics.
Abstract: Chyawanprash (CP) is an Ayurvedic health supplement which is made up of a super-concentrated blend of nutrient-rich herbs and minerals. It is meant to restore drained reserves of life force (ojas) and to preserve strength, stamina, and vitality, while stalling the course of aging. Chyawanprash is formulated by processing around 50 medicinal herbs and their extracts, including the prime ingredient, Amla (Indian gooseberry), which is the world’s richest source of vitamin C. Chyawanprash preparation involves preparing a decoction of herbs, followed by dried extract preparation, subsequent mixture with honey, and addition of aromatic herb powders (namely clove, cardamom, and cinnamon) as standard. The finished product has a fruit jam-like consistency, and a sweet, sour, and spicy flavor. Scientific exploration of CP is warranted to understand its therapeutic efficacy. Scattered information exploring the therapeutic potential of CP is available, and there is a need to assemble it. Thus, an effort was made to compile the scattered information from ancient Ayurvedic texts and treatises, along with ethnobotanical, ethnopharmacological, and scientifically validated literature, that highlight the role of CP in therapeutics. Citations relevant to the topic were screened.

82 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A knowledge of the biochemistry of Cs § thus became necessary in devising methods for reducing the body content of radioactive Cs + (2).
Abstract: Later the work was extended to the effects of the stable forms and application of the interaction with other compounds in counteracting harmful effects. The toxicology of Cs compounds has assumed importance owing to the observation that Cs +, both in radioactive and nonradioactive forms, enters easily into the plant and animal system and finally the food chain. Cs + is then transferred to the human system and deposited in muscles and other soft tissues, giving a relatively long, although individually variable, half-life. A knowledge of the biochemistry of Cs § thus became necessary in devising methods for reducing the body content of radioactive Cs + (2).

31 citations


Cites background from "Comparison of the Protection Afford..."

  • ...When mice were fed the extract or an equivalent amount of vitamin C daily for 7 d and then exposed to CsC1 for 24 h, the frequency of chromosomal aberrations was reduced to a significant level (293,294)....

    [...]

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Genoprotective efficacy of Chyawanprash awaleha(Dabur) was investigated against tobacco smoke on the somatic chromosomes of 25 male bidi smokers to minimise the genotoxic risk caused by mutagenic agents present in tobacco smoke.
Abstract: Genoprotective efficacy of Chyawanprash awaleha(Dabur) was investigated against tobacco smoke on the somatic chromosomes of 25 male bidi smokers. 25 individuals matched with regard to age, sex and ...

17 citations


Cites result from "Comparison of the Protection Afford..."

  • ...Similar results were obtained by Ghosh et al. (1993) , who found protective action of orally administered Phyllanthus extract against damages induced by CsCl to be of considerable importance in reducing the clastogenic action in vivo on mice bone marrow cells....

    [...]

References
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Book
01 Oct 1959
TL;DR: In this article, the authors report critical values (to four significant figures) which have been found by inverse interpolation in the new table of the probability integral of the studentized range.
Abstract: Abstract : The purpose of this paper is to report critical values (to four significant figures) which have been found by inverse interpolation in the new table of the probability integral of the studentized range. Included are corrected tables for significance levels alpha = 0.05, 0.1 and new tables for significance levels alpha = 0.10, 0.005, 0.001-all with sample sizes n = 2(1) 20(2)40(10)100 and degrees of freedom nu = 1(1)20, 24, 30, 60, 120, infinity.

614 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors report critical values (to four significant figures) which have been found by inverse interpolation in the new table of the probability integral of the studentized range.
Abstract: : The purpose of this paper is to report critical values (to four significant figures) which have been found by inverse interpolation in the new table of the probability integral of the studentized range. Included are corrected tables for significance levels alpha = 0.05, 0.1 and new tables for significance levels alpha = 0.10, 0.005, 0.001-all with sample sizes n = 2(1) 20(2)40(10)100 and degrees of freedom nu = 1(1)20, 24, 30, 60, 120, infinity.

579 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this chapter, inhibitors of mutagenesis and carcinogenesis that can arise as components of diet have been reviewed and most of the inhibitors have been demonstrated to be effective against a specific class of mutagens or carcinogens.
Abstract: Dietary inhibitors of mutagenesis and carcinogenesis are of particular interest because they may be useful for human cancer prevention. Several mutagenesis inhibitors have been demonstrated to be carcinogenesis inhibitors also, e.g., ellagic acid, palmitoleic acid, and N-acetylcysteine. This means that the search for mutagenesis inhibitors may be useful for discovering anticarcinogenic agents. Many mutagenesis inhibitors have been discovered by the use of short-term assays, particularly the Ames Salmonella test. This simple in vitro system has provided opportunities to elucidate the mechanisms of inhibition. The elucidation of the mechanism may allow us to infer the possible anticarcinogenic activity of the reagent. In this chapter, inhibitors of mutagenesis and carcinogenesis that can arise as components of diet have been reviewed. Most of the inhibitors have been demonstrated to be effective against a specific class of mutagens or carcinogens. Therefore, it may be argued that these inhibitors are antagonistic only to those particular agents. Here again, understanding of the mechanisms of these inhibitions is necessary for the assessment. Dietary inhibitors reviewed in this article include: (1) as inhibitors of mutagenesis: porphyllins, fatty acids, vitamins, polyphenols, and sulfhydryl compounds, (2) as inhibitors of carcinogenesis: vitamins A, E and C, ellagic acid, sulfhydryl compounds, fats, selenium, calcium, and fiber. Further studies in this area of science appear to help establish the recipe of a healthy diet.

310 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The chemistry of NOC formation and inhibition, the studies in experimental animals which showed that inhibition of endogenous NOC synthesis leads to a reduction of toxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic effects, and the contribution of nitrosation inhibitors to human cancer prevention are reviewed.
Abstract: Although the proof that N-nitroso compounds (NOC), a versatile class of carcinogens in animals, are also carcinogenic in man is lacking, humans are exposed through ingestion or inhalation to preformed NOC in the environment and through the endogenous nitrosation of amino precursors in the body. Activated macrophages can synthesize nitrate, nitrite and nitrosating agents that can form NOC. A number of bacterial strains isolated from human infections can produce NOC enzymatically from precursors at neutral pH. As a consequence endogenous nitrosation may occur at various sites of the body such as the oral cavity, stomach, urinary bladder, lungs, and at other sites of infection or inflammation. Since the demonstration by Mirvish et al. (1972) showing that ascorbate can reduce tumor formation in animals following feeding of nitrite plus amine, numerous substances to which humans are exposed have been identified and shown to inhibit formation of NOC in vitro, in animal models and in humans. Such inhibitors of nitrosation include vitamins C and E, phenolic compounds, and complex mixtures such as fruit and vegetable juices or other plant extracts. Nitrosation inhibitors normally destroy the nitrosating agents and thus act as competitors for the amino compound that serves as substrate for the nitrosating species. Independently, epidemiological studies have already established that fresh fruits and vegetables that are sources of vitamin C, other vitamins and polyphenols have a protective effect against cancers at various sites and in particular gastric cancer. Although the evidence that endogenously formed NOC are involved in human cancers is far from conclusive, it is suggestive and justifies preventive measures for reducing exposure to NOC. This article briefly reviews (i) the chemistry of NOC formation and inhibition, (ii) the studies in experimental animals which showed that inhibition of endogenous NOC synthesis leads to a reduction of toxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic effects, (iii) recent studies in humans where the degree of inhibition of endogenous NOC synthesis was directly quantified and lastly (iv) the contribution of nitrosation inhibitors to human cancer prevention.

294 citations