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Journal ArticleDOI

Effect of frequency of feeding upon food utilization by ruminants.

01 Jan 1967-Vol. 26, Iss: 2, pp 181-190

AboutThe article was published on 1967-01-01 and is currently open access. It has received 38 citation(s) till now.

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Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: There was a significant concentrate feeding frequency with sampling time interaction influence on NH3 N in which feeding concentrate four times daily minimized postprandial fluctuation of rumenNH3 N concentration.
Abstract: Three rumen-cannulated Holstein cows in mid to late lactation were randomly assigned to a 3×3 Latin square with the following concentrate feeding frequencies: one, two, and four times daily. Cows were fed ad libitum a diet containing 55% corn silage and 45% concentrate (DM basis). The forage portion of the diet was fed twice daily to all cows separately from the concentrate. Each experimental period was 20 d in duration. After a 12-d adaptation, daily individual feed consumption and milk production were measured. Rumen digesta were collected prior to (0h) and at 2, 4, and 8h after the morning feeding to measure postprandial changes in protozoa numbers, pH, VFA, and NH 3 N. Chromium-EDTA and ytterbium chloride were used as liquid and particulate markers to estimate liquid and solid digesta turnover rate in the rumen. Concentrate and forage DM intake, ruminal protozoa numbers, pH, VFA, and NH 3 N concentrations, and digesta turnover rate were not affected by concentrate feeding frequency. There was a significant concentrate feeding frequency with sampling time interaction influence on NH 3 N in which feeding concentrate four times daily minimized postprandial fluctuation of rumen NH 3 N concentration. Feeding concentrate four times daily increased milk fat and protein production.

124 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The data suggest that the increased outflow of water was achieved by increasing the net flow of water across the mucosa into the reticulo-rumen, rather than by increasing salivation.
Abstract: Chaffed lucerne hay of 64% apparent organic matter (OM) digestibility was fed to wether sheep under four feeding regimens: two levels of dry matter (D.M.) intake (700 (L) and 1050 (H) g/day) and within each level two feeding frequencies (once a day (daily) and once an hour (hourly)). Three separate groups of sheep were used concurrently: a slaughter group was used to obtain feeding behaviour data and to measure pool sizes and obtain samples from the reticulo-rumen; a digestion group, in which each sheep was prepared with a rumen and a duodenal cannula, was used to measure duodenal digesta flow, rumen microbial growth and reticulo-rumen motility; a balance group was used to measure digestibility and nutrient balances.High D.M. intake increased reticulo-rumen pool sizes and flow rates but it did not affect apparent digestibilities or the proportions of OM, fibre, cellulose, hemicellulose, lipid and nitrogen digested in the stomach and intestines. Increased feeding frequency had a major effect on reticulo-rumen pool sizes but did not affect apparent digestibilities or partition of digestion of non-nitrogenous constituents. Daily feeding resulted in increased total-N flow to the duodenum; however, N retention was significantly greater with frequent feeding. It is suggested that this was due to a more efficient tissue utilization of N.The kinetics of digesta flow within the reticulo-rumen, expressed as fractional flow rates, were studied with data from sheep fed hourly. The fractional inflow, outflow and disappearance rates for OM, fibre, cellulose and hemicellulose did not change with an increase in intake because of an equivalent increase in reticulo-rumen volume. Increasing D.M. intake by 50% resulted in a 24% increase in water intake, a 19% increase in reticulo-rumen water volume, and a 49% increase in water outflow rate. The data suggest that the increased outflow of water was achieved by increasing the net flow of water across the mucosa into the reticulo-rumen, rather than by increasing salivation.There was no difference between treatments in the frequency of reticulo-rumen contractions. It was calculated that for each A sequence contraction, OM flow was 0·26 and 0·37 g and water flow was 4·38 and 0·36 g on L and H intakes respectively. A 50% increase in intake resulted in a 42% increase in OM passage per A sequence contraction. This increased passage with intake was not accompanied by an increase in reticulorumen contraction frequency.

91 citations



Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Frequency of feeding had no effect on almost all measures and components of rumen and whole tract metabolism and digestion of lactating Holstein cows.
Abstract: Three lactating Holstein cows, averaging 510 kg and fitted with T-type duodenal cannulae in the proximal duodenum, were in a 3 X 3 Latin-square experiment to measure digestion in forestomachs and whole tract of feed nitrogen and neutral detergent fiber components as influenced by frequency of feeding. Cows were fed one diet containing 65% chopped grass legume hay, 26% cracked corn, and 8% soybean meal. Mixed ration was fed either once daily, four times daily, or the concentrate portion of the diet was fed once daily and the forage portion four times. Ytterbium, as ytterbium chloride, was included with diets to allow calculation of flow rates of duodenal and fecal dry matter. Assayed ratios of nitrogen to diaminopimelic acid in ruminal bacteria and duodenal digesta or fecal bacteria and feces were used to calculate duodenal and fecal bacterial nitrogen flows respectively. Ratios of nitrogen to diaminopimelic acid in ruminal and fecal bacteria averaged 4.15 and 2.38 g/mmol. Apparent digestibility of organic matter in the forestomachs and whole tract averaged 43.7 and 66.4%. Forestomach and whole tract digestibility of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin averaged 56.1, 52.0, 14.7, and 58.7, 58.5, and 16.8. Bacterial nitrogen flows averaged 255 and 91 g/day at the duodenum and in the feces. Bacterial nitrogen yield in the rumen averaged 36.6 g/kg organic matter apparently digested in the forestomachs. Frequency of feeding had no effect on almost all measures and components of rumen and whole tract metabolism and digestion. For these intakes, frequency of feeding had little effect on feed intake and nutrient utilization.

78 citations


Cites background from "Effect of frequency of feeding upon..."

  • ...Feed intake is not stimulated by offering mixed rations more than once daily ( 5 , 28, 29), and whole tract nutrient digestion also is not affected (12, 22)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It was concluded that cows producing milk of commercially acceptable milk fat concentrations were unlikely to benefit from increased feeding frequency, and increases in milk fat concentration through increasedfeeding frequency were generally insufficient to bring the milkfat concentration up to a commercially acceptable level.
Abstract: Automated feeding systems for dairy cows offer the benefits of ‘little and often’ feeding. Published data were collected and analysed to establish the extent of such benefits. Twenty-three publications reporting the results of 35 experiments were examined. Several statistically significant positive responses indicated that milk fat concentration, and to a lesser extent yield of milk, could sometimes be increased by increasing the feeding frequency. However, for ail experiments the average proportional increases (± s.e.) in milk fat concentration and milk yield were fairly small at 7·3 (± 3·3) % and 2·7 (± 1·3) %, respectively. The responses of milk fat concentration and milk yield were apparently correlated ( r = 0·43, s.e. = 0·20), and the mean proportional response of milk fat yield was 8·3 (± 3·1) %. There was no evidence that milk protein concentration, lactose concentration or changes in body weight were affected by changes in feeding frequency. Increases in food intake were sufficient to explain some, but not all, instances of increased milk fat production. All statistically significant responses to increased feeding frequency occurred when the milk fat concentration was originally depressed, milk fat depression generally being due to feeding pelleted or highly concentrated diets. Increases in milk fat concentration through increased feeding frequency were generally insufficient to bring the milk fat concentration up to a commercially acceptable level. All statistically significant responses were observed on moving from one or two to three or more meals per day, but the possibility of further responses beyond four meals per day could not be ruled out. It was concluded that cows producing milk of commercially acceptable milk fat concentrations were unlikely to benefit from increased feeding frequency.

76 citations


References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It was concluded that the rumen ciliate protozoa are essential for the metabolism and growth of young lambs.
Abstract: A survey of the components of the rumen ciliate population in a series of adult sheep, raised in the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Alexandria, has shown that a mixture of Entodinium, Isotricha, Ophryoscolex, Diplodinium, and Polyplastron species was found in the rumen contents of Egyptian sheep; no Epidinium and a negligible number of Dasytricha ruminantium were also observed. The microbial population, reducing sugars, ammonia, volatile fatty acids (VFA) production, and growth rate of 14 lambs inoculated with whole rumen contents from a mature sheep were compared over a 6-month period with those of 13 lambs maintained under the same conditions, except that they were strictly isolated from other ruminants. Certain large oval organisms and large numbers of flagellates and Oscillospira were frequently observed in the rumen contents of the isolated lambs. The reducing sugars, ammonia, and VFA levels, measured before and at intervals after feeding, in the inoculated lambs showed a pronounced rise above the values found in the ciliate-free animals. The propionic acid-acetic acid ratio in the rumen contents of the faunated lambs was considerably higher than in the nonfaunated controls. The inoculated lambs grew faster than the isolated lambs. Differences in weight gain which ranged from 15 to 17% were statistically significant. The inoculated animals impressed the observers by their good appearance which was superior to that of the ciliate-free lambs. It was, therefore, concluded that the rumen ciliate protozoa are essential for the metabolism and growth of young lambs.

102 citations