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Effekter av automatiserade beställningssystem i dagligvaruhandeln

TL;DR: Forbattringar bor dock ske i framtiden da bestallningsstrategin tidigare inte alltid stamde overrens med organisationens mal as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: Syftet med denna uppsats ar att undersoka hur implementeringen av ett automatiserat bestallningssystem paverkar, dels den fysiska forstorelsen och dels arbetssattet i butikerna. Vi amnar samtidigt inspirera till vidare forskning inom omradet i allmanhet och pa butiksniva i synnerhet. Den valda metoden ar en fallstudien utifran en induktiv ansats. Fallstudien har enfallsdesign med flera analysenheter. Studien har baserats pa intervjuer, internt material och observationer. Teorierna i studien grundar sig i ERP-system, lagerhantering, automatiserade bestallningssystem, organisationsforandringar, implementering och incitament. Empirin har sin utgangspunkt i internt material samt intervjuer med nyckelpersoner inom Kristianstad-Blekinge Konsumentforening och Coop, pa central- och butiksniva. Slutsatserna ar att det ar svart att pavisa tydliga effekter pa fysisk forstorelse da fallforetaget fortfarande ar i implementeringsfasen. Forbattringar bor dock ske i framtiden da bestallningsstrategin tidigare inte alltid stamde overrens med organisationens mal. Implementeringen har medfort ett andrat arbetssatt i butik. Personalens ansvar har dock inte minskat. Inforandet av det automatiserade bestallningssystemet har resulterat i okat samarbete och storre flexibilitet vad galler bemanning.

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References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a survey of 101 chain store units was conducted to test a series of hypotheses about retail inventory, and significant positive relationships were found between inventory, service and sales.
Abstract: Effective inventory management is critical to retailing success. Surprisingly, there is little published empirical research examining relationships between retail inventory, sales and customer service. Based on a survey of 101 chain store units, this paper develops and tests a series of hypotheses about retail inventory. Seventy‐five percent of the store owners/managers responded to the mail survey. As expected, significant positive relationships were found between inventory, service and sales. Specifically, support was found for the theory that inventory is a function of the square root of sales. Also, greater product variety leads to higher inventory, and service level is an exponential function of inventory. Finally, demand uncertainty was found to have no apparent effect on inventory levels.

105 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the relationship between internal and external integration processes, their effect on firms' performance and their contribution to the achievement of a competitive advantage is analyzed through costs, stock out and lead time reductions.
Abstract: Adversarial relationships have long dominated business relationships, but Supply Chain Management (SCM) entails a new perspective. SCM requires a movement away from arms-length relationships toward partnership style relations. SCM involves integration, co-ordination and collaboration across organisations and throughout the supply chain. It means that SCM requires internal (intraorganisational) and external (interorganisational) integration. This paper analyses the relationship between internal and external integration processes, their effect on firms' performance and their contribution to the achievement of a competitive advantage. Performance improvements are analysed through costs, stock out and lead time reductions. And, the achievement of a better competitive position is measured by comparing the firm's performance with its competitors' performance. To analyse this, an empirical study has been conducted in the Spanish grocery sector.

104 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A retailer's challenge to balance transportation, shelf space, and inventory costs is reported; either of the two periodic review policies may have substantially higher costs than the continuous review policy, in particular when the warehouse to store lead time is short.
Abstract: Retailers must constantly strive for excellence in operations; extremely narrow profit margins leave little room for waste and inefficiency. This article reports a retailer's challenge to balance transportation, shelf space, and inventory costs. A retailer sells multiple products with stochastic demand. Trucks are dispatched from a warehouse and arrive at a store with a constant lead time. Each truck has a finite capacity and incurs a fixed shipping cost, no matter the number of units shipped. There is a per unit shelf-space cost as well as holding and backorder penalty costs. Three policies are considered for dispatching trucks: a minimum quantity continuous review policy, a full service periodic review policy, and a minimum quantity periodic review policy. The first policy ships a truck when demand since the previous shipment equals a fixed fraction of a truck's capacity, i.e., a minimum truck utilization. The exact analysis of that policy is the same as the analysis of reorder point policies for the multiechelon problem with one-warehouse, multiple retailers, and stochastic demand. That analysis is not computationally prohibitive, but the minimum quantity level can be chosen with a simple economic order quantity (EOQ) heuristic. An extensive numerical study finds the following: Either of the two periodic review policies may have substantially higher costs than the continuous review policy, in particular when the warehouse to store lead time is short; the EOQ heuristic performs quite well; the minimum quantity policy's total cost is relatively insensitive to the chosen transportation utilization, and its total cost is close to a lower bound developed for this problem.

99 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the value of information and value of centralized control in the context of a two-echelon, serial supply chain with one retailer and one supplier that provide a single perishable product to consumers are analyzed.
Abstract: We address the value of information and value of centralized control in the context of a two-echelon, serial supply chain with one retailer and one supplier that provide a single perishable product to consumers. Our analysis is relevant for managing slow-moving perishable products with fixed lot sizes and expiration dates of a week or less. We evaluate two supply chain structures. In the first structure, referred to as decentralized information sharing, the retailer shares its demand, inventory, and ordering policy with the supplier, yet both facilities make their own profit-maximizing replenishment decisions. In the second structure, centralized control, incentives are aligned and the replenishment decisions are coordinated. The latter supply chain structure corresponds to the industry practices of company-owned stores or vendor-managed inventory. We measure the value of information and value of centralized control as the marginal improvement in expected profits that a supply chain achieves relative to the case when no information is shared and decision making is decentralized. Key assumptions of our model include stochastic demand, lost sales, and fixed order quantities. We establish the importance of information sharing and centralized control in the supply chain and identify conditions under which benefits are realized. As opposed to previous work on the value of information, the major benefit in our setting is driven by the supplier's ability to provide the retailer with fresher product. By isolating the benefit by firm, we show that sharing information is not always Pareto-improving for both supply chain partners in the decentralized setting.

99 citations

14 Feb 2007
TL;DR: In this article, the value of information and value of centralized control in the context of a two-echelon, serial supply chain with one retailer and one supplier that provide a single perishable product to consumers are analyzed.
Abstract: We address the value of information and value of centralized control in the context of a two-echelon, serial supply chain with one retailer and one supplier that provide a single perishable product to consumers. Our analysis is relevant for managing slow-moving perishable products with fixed lot sizes and expiration dates of a week or less. We evaluate two supply chain structures. In the first structure, referred to as decentralized information sharing, the retailer shares its demand, inventory, and ordering policy with the supplier, yet both facilities make their own profit-maximizing replenishment decisions. In the second structure, centralized control, incentives are aligned and the replenishment decisions are coordinated. The latter supply chain structure corresponds to the industry practices of company-owned stores or vendor-managed inventory. We measure the value of information and value of centralized control as the marginal improvement in expected profits that a supply chain achieves relative to the case when no information is shared and decision making is decentralized. Key assumptions of our model include stochastic demand, lost sales, and fixed order quantities. We establish the importance of information sharing and centralized control in the supply chain and identify conditions under which benefits are realized. As opposed to previous work on the value of information, the major benefit in our setting is driven by the supplier's ability to provide the retailer with fresher product. By isolating the benefit by firm, we show that sharing information is not always Pareto-improving for both supply chain partners in the decentralized setting.

95 citations