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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41408-021-00444-0

MASS-FIX for the detection of monoclonal proteins and light chain N-glycosylation in routine clinical practice: a cross-sectional study of 6315 patients

04 Mar 2021-Blood Cancer Journal (Nature Publishing Group)-Vol. 11, Iss: 3, pp 50-50
Abstract: Immunoenrichment-based matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS), termed MASS-FIX, offers several advantages over immunofixation for the detection and isotyping of serum monoclonal protein, including superior sensitivity and specificity, the ability to differentiate therapeutic monoclonal antibodies, and the rapid identification of light chain (LC) N-glycosylation. We identified 6315 patients with MASS-FIX performed at our institution since 2018. Of these, 4118 patients (65%) with a wide array of plasma cell disorders (PCD), including rare monoclonal gammopathies of clinical significance, had a positive MASS-FIX. Two-hundred twenty-one (5%) of the MASS-FIX positive patients had evidence of LC N-glycosylation, which was more commonly identified in IgM heavy chain isotype, kappa LC isotype, and in diagnoses of immunoglobulin light chain (AL) amyloidosis and cold agglutinin disease (CAD) compared to other PCD. This cross-sectional study describes the largest cohort of patients to undergo MASS-FIX in routine clinical practice. Our findings demonstrate the widespread utility of this assay, and confirm that LC N-glycosylation should prompt suspicion for AL amyloidosis and CAD in the appropriate clinical context.

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Topics: Immunofixation (56%), AL amyloidosis (53%), Monoclonal (51%) ... show more
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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.BPC.2021.106711
Gareth J. Morgan1Institutions (1)
Abstract: High-resolution structures of amyloid fibrils formed from normally-folded proteins have revealed non-native conformations of the polypeptide chains. Attaining these conformations apparently requires transition from the native state via a highly disordered conformation, in contrast to earlier models that posited a role for assembly of partially folded proteins. Modifications or interactions that extend the lifetime or constrain the conformations of these disordered states could act to enhance or suppress amyloid formation. Understanding how the properties of both the folded and transiently disordered structural ensembles influence the process of amyloid formation is a substantial challenge, but research into the properties of intrinsically disordered proteins will deliver important insights.

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1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41467-021-26553-9
Abstract: Systemic AL amyloidosis is a rare disease that is caused by the misfolding of immunoglobulin light chains (LCs). Potential drivers of amyloid formation in this disease are post-translational modifications (PTMs) and the mutational changes that are inserted into the LCs by somatic hypermutation. Here we present the cryo electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structure of an ex vivo λ1-AL amyloid fibril whose deposits disrupt the ordered cardiomyocyte structure in the heart. The fibril protein contains six mutational changes compared to the germ line and three PTMs (disulfide bond, N-glycosylation and pyroglutamylation). Our data imply that the disulfide bond, glycosylation and mutational changes contribute to determining the fibril protein fold and help to generate a fibril morphology that is able to withstand proteolytic degradation inside the body.

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Topics: Fibril (58%), Amyloid (52%), AL amyloidosis (50%) ... show more

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/HEMATO2030032
06 Aug 2021-
Abstract: The formation and deposition of fibrils derived from immunglobulin light chains is a hallmark of systemic AL amyloidosis. A particularly remarkable feature of the disease is the diversity and complexity in pathophysiology and clinical manifestations. This is related to the variability of immunoglobulins, as virtually every patient has a variety of mutations resulting in their own unique AL protein and thus a unique fibril deposited in the body. Here, I review recent biochemical and biophysical studies that have expanded our knowledge on how versatile the structure of AL fibrils in patients is and highlight their implications for the molecular mechanism of fibril formation in AL amyloidosis.

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Topics: Fibril (58%), AL amyloidosis (50%)

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/MEDICINA57090916
31 Aug 2021-Medicina-lithuania
Abstract: Amyloidoses are characterized by aggregation of proteins into highly ordered amyloid fibrils, which deposit in the extracellular space of tissues, leading to organ dysfunction. In AL (amyloid light chain) amyloidosis, the most common form in Western countries, the amyloidogenic precursor is a misfolding-prone immunoglobulin light chain (LC), which, in the systemic form, is produced in excess by a plasma cell clone and transported to target organs though blood. Due to the primary role that proteins play in the pathogenesis of amyloidoses, mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomic studies have gained an established position in the clinical management and research of these diseases. In AL amyloidosis, in particular, proteomics has provided important contributions for characterizing the precursor light chain, the composition of the amyloid deposits and the mechanisms of proteotoxicity in target organ cells and experimental models of disease. This review will provide an overview of the major achievements of proteomic studies in AL amyloidosis, with a presentation of the most recent acquisitions and a critical discussion of open issues and ongoing trends.

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Topics: Amyloidosis (65%), AL amyloidosis (61%), Amyloid (55%)

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.IJMS.2021.116679
Gordon T Luu1, Laura M. Sanchez1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Ovarian cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer related deaths affecting United States women. Early-stage detection of ovarian cancer has been linked to increased survival, however, current screening methods, such as biomarker testing, have proven to be ineffective in doing so. Therefore, further developments are necessary to be able to achieve positive patient prognosis. Ongoing efforts are being made in biomarker discovery towards clinical applications in screening for early-stage ovarian cancer. In this perspective, we discuss and provide examples for several workflows employing mass spectrometry-based proteomics towards protein biomarker discovery and characterization in the context of ovarian cancer; workflows include protein identification and characterization as well as intact protein profiling. We also discuss the opportunities to merge these workflows for a multiplexed approach for biomarkers. Lastly, we provide our insight as to future developments that may serve to enhance biomarker discovery workflows while also considering translational potential.

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Topics: Biomarker discovery (58%)
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16 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S1470-2045(14)70442-5
01 Nov 2014-Lancet Oncology
Abstract: This International Myeloma Working Group consensus updates the disease defi nition of multiple myeloma to include validated biomarkers in addition to existing requirements of attributable CRAB features (hypercalcaemia, renal failure, anaemia, and bone lesions). These changes are based on the identifi cation of biomarkers associated with near inevitable development of CRAB features in patients who would otherwise be regarded as having smouldering multiple myeloma. A delay in application of the label of multiple myeloma and postponement of therapy could be detrimental to these patients. In addition to this change, we clarify and update the underlying laboratory and radiographic variables that fulfi l the criteria for the presence of myeloma-defi ning CRAB features, and the histological and monoclonal protein requirements for the disease diagnosis. Finally, we provide specifi c metrics that new biomarkers should meet for inclusion in the disease defi nition. The International Myeloma Working Group recommends the implementation of these criteria in routine practice and in future clinical trials, and recommends that future studies analyse any diff erences in outcome that might occur as a result of the new disease defi nition.

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Topics: Smouldering myeloma (65%), Multiple myeloma (52%)

2,274 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(10)60482-5
15 May 2010-The Lancet
Abstract: Summary Background Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) is defined by expression of heavy-chain immunoglobulin (IgH) and is the precursor lesion for 80% of cases of multiple myeloma. The remaining 20% are characterised by absence of IgH expression; we aimed to assess prevalence of a corresponding precursor entity, light-chain MGUS. Methods We used a population-based cohort, previously assembled to estimate MGUS prevalence, of 21 463 residents of Olmsted County, MN, USA, aged 50 years and older. We did a serum free light-chain assay on all samples with sufficient serum remaining, and immunofixation electrophoresis was done for all samples with an abnormal free light-chain ratio or abnormal protein electrophoresis results from the original study. Light-chain MGUS was defined as an abnormal free light-chain ratio with no IgH expression, plus increased concentration of the involved light chain. We calculated age-specific and sex-specific prevalence and rates of progression to lymphoproliferative disorders for light-chain and conventional MGUS and assessed incidence of renal disorders in patients with light-chain MGUS. Findings 610 (3·3%) of 18 357 people tested had an abnormal free light-chain ratio, of whom 213 had IgH expression that was diagnostic of conventional MGUS. 146 of the remaining 397 individuals had an increase of at least one free light chain and met criteria for light-chain MGUS. Prevalence of light-chain MGUS was 0·8% (95% CI 0·7–0·9), contributing to an overall MGUS prevalence of 4·2% (3·9–4·5). Risk of progression to multiple myeloma in patients with light-chain MGUS was 0·3 (0·1–0·8) per 100 person-years. 30 (23%) of 129 patients with light-chain MGUS were diagnosed with renal disease. Interpretation We define a clinical entity representing the light-chain equivalent of conventional MGUS and posing a risk of progression to light-chain multiple myeloma and related disorders. Funding US National Cancer Institute, National Institute of Health.

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253 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1373/CLINCHEM.2009.126664
01 Aug 2009-Clinical Chemistry
Abstract: Background: The repertoire of serologic tests for identifying a monoclonal gammopathy includes serum and urine protein electrophoresis (PEL), serum and urine immunofixation electrophoresis (IFE), and quantitative serum free light chain (FLC). Although there are several reports on the relative diagnostic contribution of these assays, none has looked at the tests singly and in combination for the various plasma cell proliferative disorders (PCPDs). Methods: Patients with a PCPD and all 5 assays performed within 30 days of diagnosis were included (n = 1877). The diagnoses were multiple myeloma (MM) (n = 467), smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) (n = 191), monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) (n = 524), plasmacytoma (n = 29), extramedullary plasmacytoma (n = 10), Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia (WM) (n = 26), primary amyloidosis (AL) (n = 581), light chain deposition disease (LCDD) (n = 18), and POEMS syndrome (n = 31). Results: Of the 1877 patients, 26 were negative in all assays. Omitting urine from the panel lost an additional 23 patients (15 MGUS, 6 AL, 1 plasmacytoma, 1 LCDD), whereas the omission of FLC lost 30 patients (6 MM, 23 AL, and 1 LCDD). The omission of serum IFE as well as urine lost an additional 58 patients (44 MGUS, 7 POEMS, 5 AL, 1 SMM, and 1 plasmacytoma). Conclusions: The major impact of using a simplified screening panel of serum PEL plus FLC rather than PEL, IFE, and FLC is an 8% reduction in sensitivity for MGUS, 23% for POEMS (7 patients), 4% for plasmacytoma (1 patient), 1% for AL, and 0.5% for SMM. There is no diminution in sensitivity for detecting MM, macroglobulinemia, and LCDD.

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234 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1006/JSBI.2000.4248
Abstract: AL amyloidosis is caused by deposition in target tissue of amyloid fibrils constituted by monoclonal immunoglobulin light chains. The amyloidogenic plasma cells derive from a transformed memory B cell that can be identified by anti-idiotype monoclonal antibodies. Comparison of the primary structures of amyloidogenic and nonamyloidogenic light chains does not show any common structural motif in the amyloidogenic variants but reveals peculiar replacements which can destabilize the folding state. Reduced folding stability now appears to be a unifying property of amyloidogenic light chains. The tendency of these proteins to populate a partially unfolded intermediate state is a key event in the self-association that progresses to the formation of oligomers and fibrils. The mechanism of organ damage caused by AL amyloid deposition is not known, but clinical findings suggest that the process of amyloid fibril formation itself exerts tissue toxic effects independently of the amount of amyloid deposited. Since the disease is caused by the neoplastic expansion of the plasma cell population synthesizing the amyloidogenic light chains, the clone represents the prime therapeutic target of conventional chemotherapy and experimental immunotherapy. In common with other types of amyloidosis the therapeutic strategy can take advantage of drugs able to improve the reabsorption of the amyloid deposits or able to bind and stabilize the light chain in the native-like folded state.

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Topics: Immunoglobulin Light-chain Amyloidosis (63%), Amyloidosis (60%), Amyloid (57%) ... show more

173 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.3109/13506120009146835
Fred J. Stevens1Institutions (1)
01 Sep 2000-Amyloid
Abstract: Antibody light chains (LCs) comprise the most structurally diverse family of proteins involved in amyloidosis. Many antibody LCs incorporate structural features that impair their stability and solubility, leading to their assembly into fibrils and to their subsequent pathological deposition when produced in excess during multiple myeloma and primary amyloidosis. The particular amino acid variations in antibody LCs that account for fibril formation and amyloidogenesis have not been identified. This study focuses on amyloidogenesis within the kappa1 family of human LCs. Reanalysis of the current database of primary structures of proteins from more than 100 patients who produced kappa1 LCs, 37 of which were amyloidogenic, reveals apparent structural features that may contribute to amyloidosis. These features include loss of conserved residues or the gain of particular residues through mutation at sites involving a repertoire of approximately 20% of the amino acid positions in the light chain variable domain (V(L)). Moreover 80% of all kappa1 amyloidogenic V(L)s are identifiable by the presence of at least one of three single-site substitutions or the acquisition of an N-linked glycosylation site through mutations. These findings suggest that it is feasible to predict fibril propensity by analysis of primary structure.

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Topics: Fibril (52%)

94 Citations