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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1093/NTR/NTAB039

Negative vaccine attitudes and intentions to vaccinate against Covid-19 in relation to smoking status: a population survey of UK adults.

05 Mar 2021-Nicotine & Tobacco Research (Oxford University Press (OUP))-Vol. 23, Iss: 9, pp 1623-1628
Abstract: INTRODUCTION: We examined differences in negative attitudes towards vaccines in general, and intentions to vaccinate against Covid-19 specifically, by smoking status in a large sample of adults in the UK. METHOD: Data were from 29,148 adults participating in the Covid-19 Social Study in September-October 2020. Linear regression analyses examined associations between smoking status (current/former/never) and four types of general negative vaccine attitudes: mistrust of vaccine benefit, worries about unforeseen effects, concerns about commercial profiteering, and preference for natural immunity. Multinomial logistic regression examined associations between smoking status and uncertainty and unwillingness to be vaccinated for Covid-19. Covariates included sociodemographic characteristics and diagnosed health conditions. RESULTS: Relative to never and former smokers, current smokers reported significantly greater mistrust of vaccine benefit, were more worried about unforeseen future effects, had greater concerns about commercial profiteering, and had a stronger preference for natural immunity (Badjs 0.16-0.36, p<0.001). Current smokers were more likely to be uncertain (27.6% vs. 22.7% of never smokers: RRadj 1.43 [95%CI 1.31-1.56]; vs. 19.3% of former smokers: RRadj 1.55 [1.41-1.73]) or unwilling (21.5% vs. 11.6% of never smokers: RRadj 2.12 [1.91-2.34]; vs. 14.7% of former smokers: RRadj 1.53 [1.37-1.71]) to receive a Covid-19 vaccine. CONCLUSIONS: Current smokers hold more negative attitudes towards vaccines in general, and are more likely to be undecided or unwilling to vaccinate against Covid-19, compared with never and former smokers. With a disproportionately high number of smokers belonging to socially clustered and disadvantaged socioeconomic groups, lower vaccine uptake in this group could also exacerbate health inequalities. IMPLICATIONS: These results suggest that without intervention, smokers will be less likely than non-smokers to take up the offer of a Covid-19 vaccine when offered. Targeted policy action may be required to ensure low uptake of Covid-19 vaccination programmes does not compound health inequalities between smokers and non-smokers.

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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/VACCINES9080873
06 Aug 2021-Vaccine
Abstract: Vaccination currently appears to be the only strategy to contain the spread of COVID-19. At the same time, vaccine hesitancy (VH) could limit its efficacy and has, therefore, attracted the attention of Public Health Systems. This systematic review aimed at assessing anti-COVID-19 vaccine acceptance rates worldwide and at identifying populations more prone to vaccine hesitancy, for which specific interventions should be planned. PubMed database was searched using a purposely formulated string. One hundred out of the 9243 studies retrieved were considered pertinent and thus included in the analyses. VH rate was analyzed according to patient geographical origin, ethnicity, age, study setting, and method used for data collection; data from specific populations were separately analyzed. Overall, this study demonstrated significant differences in terms of VH in the general population and in the specific subgroups examined according to geographical, demographic factors, as well as associated comorbidities, underlining the need for purposely designed studies in specific populations from the different countries, to design targeted programs aimed at increasing awareness for confidence and complacency toward COVID-19 vaccines.

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Topics: Population (54%)

3 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1093/CARCIN/BGAB061
Ahmad Besaratinia1Institutions (1)
19 Aug 2021-Carcinogenesis
Abstract: This review highlights the convergence of three global health challenges at a crossroad where the pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) meets the tobacco epidemic and vaping. It begins with an overview of the current knowledge on the biology, pathophysiology and epidemiology of COVID-19. It then presents the state of smoking and vaping during the pandemic by summarizing the published data on prevalence, use patterns, product availability/accessibility, sales records and motivation to quit before and after the start of the pandemic. It highlights the state of evidence on the association of tobacco product use with COVID-19 infection and transmission rates, symptom severity and clinical outcomes. Also discussed are proposed biological mechanisms and behavioral factors that may modulate COVID-19 risk in tobacco product users. Furthermore, competing hypotheses on the protective effect of nicotine against COVID-19 as well as the claimed 'smokers' paradox' are discussed. Considerations and challenges of COVID-19 vaccination in tobacco product users are underscored. Collectively, the present data show an 'incomplete' but rapidly shaping picture on the association of tobacco product use and COVID-19 infection, disease course and clinical outcomes. Evidence is also growing on the mechanisms by which tobacco product use may contribute to COVID-19 pathophysiology. Although we await definitive conclusions on the relative risk of COVID-19 infection in tobacco product users, compelling data confirm that many comorbidities associated with/caused by smoking predispose to COVID-19 infection, severe disease and poor prognosis. Additionally, it is becoming increasing clear that should smokers get the disease, they are more likely to have serious health consequences.

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Topics: Electronic cigarette (58%)

3 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/VACCINES9070765
08 Jul 2021-Vaccine
Abstract: This study aimed to assess the willingness to receive the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and seasonal influenza vaccines and vaccine uptake during the early stage of the national vaccination campaign in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional online survey was conducted among adult Saudis between 20 January and 20 March 2021. The questionnaire addressed vaccine hesitancy, perceived risk, willingness, and vaccine uptake. Approximately 39% of the participants expressed vaccine hesitancy, and 29.8% and 24% felt highly vulnerable to contracting COVID-19 and seasonal influenza, respectively. The majority (59.5%) were willing to receive the COVID-19 vaccine, although only 31.7% were willing to receive the flu vaccine. Adjusted analysis showed that vaccine hesitancy (OR 0.34, 95% CI 0.27-0.43) and the perception of being at high risk (OR 2.78, 95% CI 1.68-4.60) independently affected the intention to be vaccinated. Vaccine hesitancy was similar among those who were willing to be vaccinated (29.8%) and those who had already been vaccinated (33.1%). The perceived risk was significantly higher among those who had been vaccinated (48.1%) than among those who were willing to be vaccinated but had not yet been vaccinated (29.1%). In conclusion, the acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccine in Saudi Arabia is high. Saudis who received the vaccine had a similar level of vaccine hesitancy and a higher level of perceived risk.

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Topics: Vaccination (58%), Population (51%), Pandemic (50%)

2 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.2147/RMHP.S315043
Abstract: Background Vaccination is, without doubt, one of the most outstanding health interventions in reducing unprecedented damages of coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Globally, several vaccines have been produced to be effective against COVID-19. This survey aimed to assess the demand and intent towards the COVID-19 vaccine among the general population in Ethiopia. Also, factors influencing their demand, intention, and willingness to pay for the COVID-19 vaccine were described, which is poorly understood in resource-limited settings. Methods Subjects were 1160 individuals who completed an online questionnaire from February to March 2021. The study used the health belief model (HBM) to evaluate participants' intention to receive and willingness to pay (WTP) regarding the COVID-19 vaccine. Chi-square and binary logistic regression were conducted to identify the prevalence and associated factors of demand and WTP. Multinomial regression was done to examine the intent to receive a vaccine. Results In total 1116 responses were collected. The results indicated a moderate level of demand and WTP among participants (64.7% and 56.0%, respectively). Further, the researchers examined participants' readiness towards COVID-19 vaccination, where 46.6% of participants had a definite intent, and close to half of the participants are unsure (32.8%) or unwilling (20.7%) to get vaccinated. Among other factors, items under perceived susceptibility and perceived benefits constructs in the HBM have been associated with participants' demand, willingness to vaccinate, and WTP. Conclusion This study demonstrates the usefulness of the HBM model in evaluating the demand, intention, and willingness of participants to pay for COVID-19. Improving public awareness of the vulnerability should be a major point of attention to reduce the barriers, and improve demand and intention for COVID-19. Moreover, public health messages should be tailored to enhance vaccine literacy.

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Topics: Willingness to pay (59%), Health belief model (56%), Population (51%)

2 Citations


Open accessPosted ContentDOI: 10.1101/2021.07.13.21260425
18 Jul 2021-medRxiv
Abstract: Introduction Approval for the use of COVID-19 vaccines has been granted in a number of countries but there are concerns that vaccine uptake may be low amongst certain groups. Methods This study used a mixed methods approach based on online survey and an embedded quantitative/qualitative design to explore perceptions and attitudes that were associated with intention to either accept or refuse offers of vaccination in different demographic groups during the early stages of the UK9s mass COVID-19 vaccination programme (December 2020). Analysis used multivariate logistic regression, structural text modelling and anthropological assessments. Results Of 4,535 respondents, 85% (n=3,859) were willing to have a COVID-19 vaccine. The rapidity of vaccine development and uncertainties about safety were common reasons for COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy. There was no evidence for the widespread influence of mis-information, although broader vaccine hesitancy was associated with intentions to refuse COVID-19 vaccines (OR 20.60, 95% CI 14.20-30.30, p<0.001). Low levels of trust in the decision-making (OR 1.63, 95% CI 1.08, 2.48, p=0.021) and truthfulness (OR 8.76, 95% CI 4.15-19.90, p<0.001) of the UK government were independently associated with higher odds of refusing COVID-19 vaccines. Compared to political centrists, conservatives and liberals were respectively more (OR 2.05, 95%CI 1.51-2.80, p<0.001) and less (OR 0.30, 95% CI 0.22-0.41, p<0.001) likely to refuse offered vaccines. Those who were willing to be vaccinated cited both personal and public protection as reasons, with some alluding to having a sense of collective responsibility. Conclusion Dominant narratives of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy are misconceived as primarily being driven by misinformation. Key indicators of UK vaccine acceptance include prior behaviours, transparency of the scientific process of vaccine development, mistrust in science and leadership and individual political views. Vaccine programmes should leverage the sense of altruism, citizenship and collective responsibility that motivated many participants to get vaccinated.

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Topics: Vaccination (53%)

1 Citations


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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1186/1748-5908-6-42
Abstract: Improving the design and implementation of evidence-based practice depends on successful behaviour change interventions. This requires an appropriate method for characterising interventions and linking them to an analysis of the targeted behaviour. There exists a plethora of frameworks of behaviour change interventions, but it is not clear how well they serve this purpose. This paper evaluates these frameworks, and develops and evaluates a new framework aimed at overcoming their limitations. A systematic search of electronic databases and consultation with behaviour change experts were used to identify frameworks of behaviour change interventions. These were evaluated according to three criteria: comprehensiveness, coherence, and a clear link to an overarching model of behaviour. A new framework was developed to meet these criteria. The reliability with which it could be applied was examined in two domains of behaviour change: tobacco control and obesity. Nineteen frameworks were identified covering nine intervention functions and seven policy categories that could enable those interventions. None of the frameworks reviewed covered the full range of intervention functions or policies, and only a minority met the criteria of coherence or linkage to a model of behaviour. At the centre of a proposed new framework is a 'behaviour system' involving three essential conditions: capability, opportunity, and motivation (what we term the 'COM-B system'). This forms the hub of a 'behaviour change wheel' (BCW) around which are positioned the nine intervention functions aimed at addressing deficits in one or more of these conditions; around this are placed seven categories of policy that could enable those interventions to occur. The BCW was used reliably to characterise interventions within the English Department of Health's 2010 tobacco control strategy and the National Institute of Health and Clinical Excellence's guidance on reducing obesity. Interventions and policies to change behaviour can be usefully characterised by means of a BCW comprising: a 'behaviour system' at the hub, encircled by intervention functions and then by policy categories. Research is needed to establish how far the BCW can lead to more efficient design of effective interventions.

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4,560 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1056/NEJMSA0706154
Abstract: BACKGROUND The prevalence of smoking has decreased substantially in the United States over the past 30 years. We examined the extent of the person-to-person spread of smoking behavior and the extent to which groups of widely connected people quit together. METHODS We studied a densely interconnected social network of 12,067 people assessed repeatedly from 1971 to 2003 as part of the Framingham Heart Study. We used network analytic methods and longitudinal statistical models. RESULTS Discernible clusters of smokers and nonsmokers were present in the network, and the clusters extended to three degrees of separation. Despite the decrease in smoking in the overall population, the size of the clusters of smokers remained the same across time, suggesting that whole groups of people were quitting in concert. Smokers were also progressively found in the periphery of the social network. Smoking cessation by a spouse decreased a person's chances of smoking by 67% (95% confidence interval [CI], 59 to 73). Smoking cessation by a sibling decreased the chances by 25% (95% CI, 14 to 35). Smoking cessation by a friend decreased the chances by 36% (95% CI, 12 to 55 ). Among persons working in small firms, smoking cessation by a coworker decreased the chances by 34% (95% CI, 5 to 56). Friends with more education influenced one another more than those with less education. These effects were not seen among neighbors in the immediate geographic area. CONCLUSIONS Network phenomena appear to be relevant to smoking cessation. Smoking behavior spreads through close and distant social ties, groups of interconnected people stop smoking in concert, and smokers are increasingly marginalized socially. These findings have implications for clinical and public health interventions to reduce and prevent smoking.

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Topics: Smoking cessation (65%), Population (52%)

2,011 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1111/J.1749-6632.2011.06202.X
Rosemary Hiscock1, Linda Bauld2, Amanda Amos3, Jennifer A. Fidler4  +1 moreInstitutions (5)
Abstract: Smoking prevalence is higher among disadvantaged groups, and disadvantaged smokers may face higher exposure to tobacco's harms. Uptake may also be higher among those with low socioeconomic status (SES), and quit attempts are less likely to be successful. Studies have suggested that this may be the result of reduced social support for quitting, low motivation to quit, stronger addiction to tobacco, increased likelihood of not completing courses of pharmacotherapy or behavioral support sessions, psychological differences such as lack of self-efficacy, and tobacco industry marketing. Evidence of interventions that work among lower socioeconomic groups is sparse. Raising the price of tobacco products appears to be the tobacco control intervention with the most potential to reduce health inequalities from tobacco. Targeted cessation programs and mass media interventions can also contribute to reducing inequalities. To tackle the high prevalence of smoking among disadvantaged groups, a combination of tobacco control measures is required, and these should be delivered in conjunction with wider attempts to address inequalities in health.

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Topics: Tobacco control (68%), Tobacco harm reduction (65%), Tobacco industry (62%) ... show more

990 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41577-020-00434-6
Abstract: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the most formidable challenge to humanity in a century. It is widely believed that prepandemic normalcy will never return until a safe and effective vaccine strategy becomes available and a global vaccination programme is implemented successfully. Here, we discuss the immunological principles that need to be taken into consideration in the development of COVID-19 vaccine strategies. On the basis of these principles, we examine the current COVID-19 vaccine candidates, their strengths and potential shortfalls, and make inferences about their chances of success. Finally, we discuss the scientific and practical challenges that will be faced in the process of developing a successful vaccine and the ways in which COVID-19 vaccine strategies may evolve over the next few years.

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421 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41565-020-0737-Y
Matthew D Shin1, Sourabh Shukla1, Young Hun Chung1, Veronique Beiss1  +7 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic has infected millions of people with no clear signs of abatement owing to the high prevalence, long incubation period and lack of established treatments or vaccines. Vaccines are the most promising solution to mitigate new viral strains. The genome sequence and protein structure of the 2019-novel coronavirus (nCoV or SARS-CoV-2) were made available in record time, allowing the development of inactivated or attenuated viral vaccines along with subunit vaccines for prophylaxis and treatment. Nanotechnology benefits modern vaccine design since nanomaterials are ideal for antigen delivery, as adjuvants, and as mimics of viral structures. In fact, the first vaccine candidate launched into clinical trials is an mRNA vaccine delivered via lipid nanoparticles. To eradicate pandemics, present and future, a successful vaccine platform must enable rapid discovery, scalable manufacturing and global distribution. Here, we review current approaches to COVID-19 vaccine development and highlight the role of nanotechnology and advanced manufacturing.

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Topics: Viral Vaccine (70%)

262 Citations