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JournalISSN: 0264-410X

Vaccine

About: Vaccine is an academic journal. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Vaccination & Antigen. It has an ISSN identifier of 0264-410X. Over the lifetime, 27083 publication(s) have been published receiving 864025 citation(s). The journal is also known as: vaccines.

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Topics: Vaccination, Antigen, Immunogenicity ...read more
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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.VACCINE.2007.03.046
28 Jun 2007-Vaccine
Abstract: Background Despite preventive efforts, influenza epidemics are responsible for substantial morbidity and mortality every year in the United States (US). Vaccination strategies to reduce disease burden have been implemented. However, no previous studies have systematically estimated the annual economic burden of influenza epidemics, an estimate necessary to guide policy makers effectively. Objective We estimate age- and risk-specific disease burden, and medical and indirect costs attributable to annual influenza epidemics in the United States. Methods Using a probabilistic model and publicly available epidemiological data we estimated the number of influenza-attributable cases leading to outpatient visits, hospitalization, and mortality, as well as time lost from work absenteeism or premature death. With data from health insurance claims and projections of either earnings or statistical life values, we then estimated healthcare resource utilization associated with influenza cases as were their medical and productivity (indirect) costs in $2003. Results Based on 2003 US population, we estimated that annual influenza epidemics resulted in an average of 610,660 life-years lost (undiscounted), 3.1 million hospitalized days, and 31.4 million outpatient visits. Direct medical costs averaged $10.4 billion (95% confidence interval [C.I.], $4.1, $22.2) annually. Projected lost earnings due to illness and loss of life amounted to $16.3 billion (C.I., $8.7, $31.0) annually. The total economic burden of annual influenza epidemics using projected statistical life values amounted to $87.1 billion (C.I., $47.2, $149.5). Conclusions These results highlight the enormous annual burden of influenza in the US. While hospitalization costs are important contributors, lost productivity from missed work days and lost lives comprise the bulk of the economic burden of influenza.

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Topics: Disease burden (60%), Indirect costs (56%), Population (53%)

1,564 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.VACCINE.2011.12.116
09 Mar 2012-Vaccine
Abstract: Objective Chronic hepatitis B virus infection is one of the most serious infections and a major risk factor for deaths from cirrhosis and liver cancer. We estimate age-, sex- and region-specific prevalence of chronic HBV infection and calculate the absolute number of persons being chronically infected. Methods A systematic review of the literature for studies reporting HBV infection was conducted and worldwide HBsAg seroprevalence data was collected over a 27-year period (1980–2007). Based on observed data, age-specific prevalence and endemicity were estimated on a global level and for all world regions for 1990 and 2005 using an empirical Bayesian hierarchical model. Findings From 1990 to 2005, the prevalence of chronic HBV infection decreased in most regions. This was particularly evident in Central sub-Saharan Africa, Tropical and Central Latin America, South East Asia and Central Europe. Despite this decrease in prevalence, the absolute number of HBsAg positive persons increased from 223 million in 1990 to 240 million in 2005. Age-specific prevalence varied by geographical region with highest endemicity levels in sub-Saharan Africa and prevalence below 2% in regions such as Tropical and Central Latin America, North America and Western Europe. Asian regions showed distinct prevalence patterns with lower intermediate prevalence in South Asia, but up to 8.6% HBsAg prevalence in East Asia. Strong declines were seen in South East Asian children. Conclusion Declines in HBV infection prevalence may be related to expanded immunization. The increasing overall number of individuals being chronically infected with HBV, and the widespread global differences in HBV prevalence call for targeted approaches to tackle HBV-related mortality and morbidity. HBV infection prevalence data are needed at country and sub-national level to estimate disease burden and guide health and vaccine policy.

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Topics: Hepatitis B virus (56%), HBsAg (55%), Seroprevalence (52%) ...read more

1,464 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.VACCINE.2006.05.111
D. Maxwell Parkin1, Freddie BrayInstitutions (1)
21 Aug 2006-Vaccine
Abstract: On the basis of current evidence regarding human papillomavirus (HPV) and cancer, this chapter provides estimates of the global burden of HPV-related cancers, and the proportion that are actually "caused" by infection with HPV types, and therefore potentially preventable. We also present trends in incidence and mortality of these cancers in the past, and consider their likely future evolution.

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1,289 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.VACCINE.2006.05.115
21 Aug 2006-Vaccine
Abstract: The causal role of human papillomavirus (HPV) in all cancers of the uterine cervix has been firmly established biologically and epidemiologically. Most cancers of the vagina and anus are likewise caused by HPV, as are a fraction of cancers of the vulva, penis, and oropharynx. HPV-16 and -18 account for about 70% of cancers of the cervix, vagina, and anus and for about 30–40% of cancers of the vulva, penis, and oropharynx. Other cancers causally linked to HPV are non-melanoma skin cancer and cancer of the conjunctiva. Although HPV is a necessary cause of cervical cancer, it is not a sufficient cause. Thus, other cofactors are necessary for progression from cervical HPV infection to cancer. Long-term use of hormonal contraceptives, high parity, tobacco smoking, and co-infection with HIV have been identified as established cofactors; co-infection with Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and herpes simplex virus type-2 (HSV-2), immunosuppression, and certain dietary deficiencies are other probable cofactors. Genetic and immunological host factors and viral factors other than type, such as variants of type, viral load and viral integration, are likely to be important but have not been clearly identified. © 2006 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

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Topics: HPV infection (66%), Cancer (56%), Cervix (56%) ...read more

1,197 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.VACCINE.2012.07.055
20 Nov 2012-Vaccine
Abstract: The worldwide prevalence of infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) in women without cervical abnormalities is 11-12% with higher rates in sub-Saharan Africa (24%), Eastern Europe (21%) and Latin America (16%). The two most prevalent types are HPV16 (3.2%) and HPV18 (1.4%). Prevalence increases in women with cervical pathology in proportion to the severity of the lesion reaching around 90% in women with grade 3 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive cancer. HPV infection has been identified as a definite human carcinogen for six types of cancer: cervix, penis, vulva, vagina, anus and oropharynx (including the base of the tongue and tonsils). Estimates of the incidence of these cancers for 2008 due to HPV infection have been calculated globally. Of the estimated 12.7 million cancers occurring in 2008, 610,000 (Population Attributable Fraction [PAF]=4.8%) could be attributed to HPV infection. The PAF varies substantially by geographic region and level of development, increasing to 6.9% in less developed regions of the world, 14.2% in sub-Saharan Africa and 15.5% in India, compared with 2.1% in more developed regions, 1.6% in Northern America and 1.2% in Australia/New Zealand. Cervical cancer, for which the PAF is estimated to be 100%, accounted for 530,000 (86.9%) of the HPV attributable cases with the other five cancer types accounting for the residual 80,000 cancers. Cervical cancer is the third most common female malignancy and shows a strong association with level of development, rates being at least four-fold higher in countries defined within the low ranking of the Human Development Index (HDI) compared with those in the very high category. Similar disparities are evident for 5-year survival-less than 20% in low HDI countries and more than 65% in very high countries. There are five-fold or greater differences in incidence between world regions. In those countries for which reliable temporal data are available, incidence rates appear to be consistently declining by approximately 2% per annum. There is, however, a lack of information from low HDI countries where screening is less likely to have been successfully implemented. Estimates of the projected incidence of cervical cancer in 2030, based solely on demographic factors, indicate a 2% increase in the global burden of cervical cancer, i.e., in balance with the current rate of decline. Due to the relative small numbers involved, it is difficult to discern temporal trends for the other cancers associated with HPV infection. Genital warts represent a sexually transmitted benign condition caused by HPV infection, especially HPV6 and HPV11. Reliable surveillance figures are difficult to obtain but data from developed countries indicate an annual incidence of 0.1 to 0.2% with a peak occurring at teenage and young adult ages. This article forms part of a special supplement entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases" Vaccine Volume 30, Supplement 5, 2012.

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  • Figure 1. HPV prevalence among women with normal cytology: meta-analysis based on results from 1,016,719 women. aRegionally-adjusted HPV (see [1] for adjustment methodology). Redrawn from Bruni L et al. [1].
    Figure 1. HPV prevalence among women with normal cytology: meta-analysis based on results from 1,016,719 women. aRegionally-adjusted HPV (see [1] for adjustment methodology). Redrawn from Bruni L et al. [1].
  • Table 1 Results from meta-analysis showing number of women tested for HPV and HPV16, number and percent positive by cervical disease grade.
    Table 1 Results from meta-analysis showing number of women tested for HPV and HPV16, number and percent positive by cervical disease grade.
  • Table 2 Methods for the calculation of the Population Attributable Fraction associated with HPV by cancer site.
    Table 2 Methods for the calculation of the Population Attributable Fraction associated with HPV by cancer site.
  • Table 4 shows a more detailed breakdown of attributable cases by cancer site, cross-tabulated by sex, age group and development status. Cervical cancer accounted for most of the attributable cases (86.9%) with the other five cancer types accounting for the residual 80,000 cancers. Younger women showed a high burden of HPVrelated cancer, with almost half the cases occurring before the age of 50 years.
    Table 4 shows a more detailed breakdown of attributable cases by cancer site, cross-tabulated by sex, age group and development status. Cervical cancer accounted for most of the attributable cases (86.9%) with the other five cancer types accounting for the residual 80,000 cancers. Younger women showed a high burden of HPVrelated cancer, with almost half the cases occurring before the age of 50 years.
  • Table 3 Estimated number of new cancer cases occurring in 2008 attributable to HPV infection by geographic region.
    Table 3 Estimated number of new cancer cases occurring in 2008 attributable to HPV infection by geographic region.
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Topics: HPV infection (61%), Genital warts (60%), Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (60%) ...read more

1,177 Citations


Performance
Metrics
No. of papers from the Journal in previous years
YearPapers
20212,470
20201,902
20191,210
20181,115
20171,187
20161,014

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Journal's top 5 most impactful authors

Gregory A. Poland

161 papers, 5.6K citations

Albert D. M. E. Osterhaus

100 papers, 3.6K citations

Pierre Van Damme

75 papers, 3.6K citations

Umesh D. Parashar

52 papers, 1.3K citations

Rino Rappuoli

36 papers, 2.4K citations

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