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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1186/S12938-021-00860-0

Osteosarcoma: a review of current and future therapeutic approaches.

02 Mar 2021-Biomedical Engineering Online (BioMed Central)-Vol. 20, Iss: 1, pp 1-14
Abstract: Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common primary bone malignancy that affects children and young adults. OS is characterized by a high degree of malignancy, strong invasiveness, rapid disease progression, and extremely high mortality rate; it is considered as a serious threat to the human health globally. The incidence of OS is common in the metaphysis of long tubular bones, but rare in the spine, pelvis, and sacrum areas; moreover, majority of the OS patients present with only a single lesion. OS has a bimodal distribution pattern, that is, its incidence peaks in the second decade of life and in late adulthood. We examine historical and current literature to present a succinct review of OS. In this review, we have discussed the types, clinical diagnosis, and modern and future treatment methods of OS. The purpose of this article is to inspire new ideas to develop more effective therapeutic options.

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8 results found


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S00604-021-04843-9
Jiangnan Li1, Yang Liu1, Changbao Wang2, Qiaojuan Jia2  +4 moreInstitutions (2)
28 May 2021-Mikrochimica Acta
Abstract: A porous nanostructured covalent-organic framework (COF) has been prepared via condensation polymerization between the two building blocks of melem and hexaketocyclohexane octahydrate (represented as M-HO-COF). Basic characterizations revealed that the M-HO-COF network was composed of C=N and highly conjugated aromatic moieties, along with a high surface area, large pore size, remarkable electrochemical activity, and strong bioaffinity toward aptamer strands. Given that the vascular endothelial growth factor 165 (VEGF165)-targeted aptamer was stably anchored over M-HO-COF via weak intermolecular forces, the prepared M-HO-COF network exhibited great potential as a sensitive and selective platform for the impedimetric VEGF165 aptasensor. Consequently, the M-HO-COF-based aptasensor displayed an ultralow limit of detection of 0.18 fg mL−1 within a wide range of VEGF165 concentrations from 1 fg mL−1 to 10 ng mL−1. Considering its strong fluorescence performance, excellent biocompatibility, and small nanosheet-like structure, the obtained COF-based aptasensor showed a superior sensing performance and regeneration capability after 7 regeneration cycles for the detection of osteosarcoma cells (K7M2 cells), which overexpressed with VEGF165, with a low limit of detection of 49 cells mL−1. For real f human serum samples, the obtained COF-based aptasensor exhibits acceptable mean apparent recoveries of 97.41% with a relative standard deviation of 4.60%. Furthermore, the proposed bifunctional aptasensor for the detection VEGF165 and K7M2 cells exhibited good stability, appropriate selectivity toward other biomarkers or normal cells, acceptable reproducibility, and applicability.

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1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/CANCERS13164229
23 Aug 2021-Cancers
Abstract: In the last decades, the treatment of primary and secondary bone tumors has faced a slow-down in its development, being mainly based on chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and surgical interventions. However, these conventional therapeutic strategies present a series of disadvantages (e.g., multidrug resistance, tumor recurrence, severe side effects, formation of large bone defects), which limit their application and efficacy. In recent years, these procedures were combined with several adjuvant therapies, with different degrees of success. To overcome the drawbacks of current therapies and improve treatment outcomes, other strategies started being investigated, like carrier-mediated drug delivery, bone substitutes for repairing bone defects, and multifunctional scaffolds with bone tissue regeneration and antitumor properties. Thus, this paper aims to present the types of bone tumors and their current treatment approaches, further focusing on the recent advances in new therapeutic alternatives.

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Topics: Primary bone (54%), Bone tissue (53%)

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/IJMS222312737
Abstract: Osteosarcoma is the most common type of primary malignant bone cancer, and it is associated with high rates of pulmonary metastasis. Integrin αvβ3 is critical for osteosarcoma cell migratory and invasive abilities. Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 4 (CCL4) has diverse effects on different cancer cells through its interaction with its specific receptor, C-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5). Analysis of mRNA expression in human osteosarcoma tissue identified upregulated levels of CCL4, integrin αv and β3 expression. Similarly, an analysis of records from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) dataset showed that CCL4 was upregulated in human osteosarcoma tissue. Importantly, the expression of both CCL4 and integrin αvβ3 correlated positively with osteosarcoma clinical stages and lung metastasis. Analysis of osteosarcoma cell lines identified that CCL4 promotes integrin αvβ3 expression and cell migration by activating the focal adhesion kinase (FAK), protein kinase B (AKT), and hypoxia inducible factor 1 subunit alpha (HIF-1α) signaling pathways, which can downregulate microRNA-3927-3p expression. Pharmacological inhibition of CCR5 by maraviroc (MVC) prevented increases in integrin αvβ3 expression and cell migration. This study is the first to implicate CCL4 as a potential target in the treatment of metastatic osteosarcoma.

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Topics: Osteosarcoma (56%), Cancer cell (55%), Signal transduction (55%) ... read more

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.BCP.2021.114758
Abstract: Osteosarcoma (OS) is an adolescent and young adult malignancy that mostly occurs in long bones. The treatment of OS is still a big challenge for clinicians due to increasing chemoresistance, and many efforts are being made today to find more beneficial treatments. In this regard, the use of microRNAs has shown a high capacity to develop promising therapies. By targeting cancer-involved signaling pathways, microRNAs reduce the cellular level of these protein pathways; thereby reducing the growth and invasion of tumors, and even leading cancer cells to apoptosis. One of these oncogenic pathways that play an important role in OS development and can be targeted by microRNAs is the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Hence, the first goal of this review article is to explain the cross-talk of microRNAs and the Wnt/β-catenin signaling in OS and then discussing recent findings of the use of microRNAs as a therapeutic approach in OS.

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Topics: Wnt signaling pathway (55%)

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/PH14070640
Abstract: New agents are demanded to increase the therapeutic options for osteosarcoma (OS). Although OS is the most common bone cancer in children and adolescents, it is considered a rare disorder. Therefore, finding adjuvant drugs has potential to advance therapy for this disease. In this study, 3',4'-dihydroxyflavonol (DiOHF) was investigated to assess the effects in OS cellular models in combination with doxorubicin (Dox). MG-63 and U2OS human OS cells were exposed to DiOHF and Dox and tested for cell viability and growth. To elucidate the inhibitory effects of DiOHF, additional studies were conducted to assess apoptosis and cell cycle distribution, gene expression quantification of cell cycle regulators, and cytokinesis-block cytome assay to determine nuclear division rate. DiOHF decreased OS cell growth and viability in a concentration-dependent manner. Its combination with Dox enabled Dox dose reduction in both cell lines, with synergistic interactions in U2OS cells. Although no significant apoptotic effects were detected at low concentrations, cytostatic effects were demonstrated in both cell lines. Incubation with DiOHF altered cell cycle dynamics and resulted in differential cyclin and cyclin-dependent kinase expression. Overall, this study presents an antiproliferative action of DiOHF in OS combination therapy via modulation of the cell cycle and nuclear division.

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Topics: Cell cycle (55%), Cell growth (55%), Cancer cell (54%) ... read more

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110 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1245/S10434-010-0985-4
Abstract: The American Joint Committee on Cancer and the International Union for Cancer Control update the tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) cancer staging system periodically. The most recent revision is the 7th edition, effective for cancers diagnosed on or after January 1, 2010. This editorial summarizes the background of the current revision and outlines the major issues revised. Most notable are the marked increase in the use of international datasets for more highly evidenced-based changes in staging, and the enhanced use of nonanatomic prognostic factors in defining the stage grouping. The future of cancer staging lies in the use of enhanced registry data standards to support personalization of cancer care through cancer outcome prediction models and nomograms.

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Topics: Cancer staging (58%), Cancer (53%)

6,329 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NATURE05372
04 Jan 2007-Nature
Abstract: Colon cancer is one of the best-understood neoplasms from a genetic perspective, yet it remains the second most common cause of cancer-related death, indicating that some of its cancer cells are not eradicated by current therapies. What has yet to be established is whether every colon cancer cell possesses the potential to initiate and sustain tumour growth, or whether the tumour is hierarchically organized so that only a subset of cells--cancer stem cells--possess such potential. Here we use renal capsule transplantation in immunodeficient NOD/SCID mice to identify a human colon cancer-initiating cell (CC-IC). Purification experiments established that all CC-ICs were CD133+; the CD133- cells that comprised the majority of the tumour were unable to initiate tumour growth. We calculated by limiting dilution analysis that there was one CC-IC in 5.7 x 10(4) unfractionated tumour cells, whereas there was one CC-IC in 262 CD133+ cells, representing >200-fold enrichment. CC-ICs within the CD133+ population were able to maintain themselves as well as differentiate and re-establish tumour heterogeneity upon serial transplantation. The identification of colon cancer stem cells that are distinct from the bulk tumour cells provides strong support for the hierarchical organization of human colon cancer, and their existence suggests that for therapeutic strategies to be effective, they must target the cancer stem cells.

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Topics: Tumour heterogeneity (68%), Cancer stem cell (63%), Cancer cell (60%) ... read more

3,857 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1200/JCO.20.3.776
Abstract: PURPOSE: To define prognostic factors for response and long-term outcome for a wide spectrum of osteosarcomas, extending well beyond those of the typical young patient with seemingly localized extremity disease. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 1,702 consecutive newly diagnosed patients with high-grade osteosarcoma of the trunk or limbs registered into the neoadjuvant studies of the Cooperative Osteosarcoma Study Group before July 1998 were entered into an analysis of demographic, tumor-related, and treatment-related variables, response, and survival. The intended therapeutic strategy included preoperative and postoperative chemotherapy with multiple agents as well as surgery of all operable lesions. RESULTS: Axial tumor site, male sex, and a long history of symptoms were associated with poor response to chemotherapy in univariate and multivariate analysis. Actuarial 10-year overall and event-free survival rates were 59.8% and 48.9%. Among the variables assessable at diagnosis, patient age (actuarial 10-y...

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Topics: Survival rate (55%), Conventional Osteosarcoma (54%), Sarcoma (52%) ... read more

1,549 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1002/CNCR.24121
01 Apr 2009-Cancer
Abstract: Background Osteosarcoma, the most common primary bone tumor, occurs most frequently in adolescents, but a second incidence peak among individuals over age 60 exists. Most osteosarcoma epidemiology studies have been embedded in large analyses of all bone tumors, or focused on cases occurring in adolescence. Detailed descriptions of osteosarcoma incidence and survival specifically, with direct comparisons among subjects of all ages and ethnicities, are not available.

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1,442 Citations


Open accessJournal Article
01 Oct 1986-Cancer Research
Abstract: The lack of highly exploitable biochemical differences between normal tissues and some tumors can theoretically be circumvented by a strategy utilizing gene insertion prophylactically to create tissue mosaicism for drug sensitivity, thereby ensuring that any tumor arising clonally will differ from part of the normal cell population. Elements of the strategy were tested with neoplastic BALB/c murine cell lines bearing the herpes thymidine kinase gene. Exposure to the herpes thymidine kinase-specific substrate 9-([2-hydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl)ethoxy]methyl)guanine ablated the clonogenic potential of the cells in vitro, and administration of this drug to BALB/c mice bearing tumors produced by the cell lines uniformly induced complete regression of the tumors. The observed responses to therapy imply that the strategy may prove valuable when the genetic technology needed for its human implementation becomes available.

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Topics: HSV-Tk Gene (61%), Thymidine kinase (61%), Tissue mosaicism (57%) ... read more

1,033 Citations


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