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Journal ArticleDOI

Pharmacist attire and its impact on patient preference

17 Jun 2011-Pharmacy Practice (internet) (Centro de Investigaciones y Publicaciones Farmacéuticas)-Vol. 9, Iss: 2, pp 66-71

TL;DR: With the exception of approachability, patients indicated preference for pharmacist with the white coat regardless of community setting, and patient-pharmacist communication may not occur regardless of perceived knowledge and competency.

AbstractObjective: To determine the influence of demographics on patient preferences for community pharmacist attire. Methods: A 10-item questionnaire was developed and administered to patients visiting a chain pharmacy or an independent pharmacy in the Birmingham, Alabama metropolitan area. Mann– Whitney was used to examine if statistical differences existed in chain versus independent pharmacy patient’s selections based on pharmacist attire. Results: A statistically significant difference in patient preference for pharmacist attire between the settings in regards to which pharmacist patients felt was more approachable was observed; 51.2% of chain pharmacy respondents compared to 30% of independent pharmacy respondents identified the pharmacist pair with business formal attire and white coat as more approachable. Differences in education was also apparent with 70% of respondents in the independent pharmacy setting reporting having a Bachelor’s degree or higher compared to 45% of respondents in the chain pharmacy setting. Conclusion: With the exception of approachability, patients indicated preference for pharmacist with the white coat regardless of community setting. Given the importance of patient-pharmacist communication for building successful patientpharmacist relationships, if patients do not perceive the pharmacists as approachable, communication and subsequent development of said relationships may not occur regardless of perceived knowledge and competency.

Topics: Pharmacist (66%), Pharmacy (54%)

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A valid and reliable model of patients' image of the pharmacists related to their expectations and reactions to the pharmacist's role was developed and tested and revealed that patients' expectations of the pharmacists are heightened; in turn, these expectations were associated with reactions of patients.
Abstract: Background The roles of community pharmacists are evolving to include provision of expanded professional pharmacy services, thus leading to an increased interest in pharmacist–patient interactions. Role theory can be used to explain the interaction between this pair of individuals, by focusing on the roles performed by each one. Objective To develop and test a model that relates patients' image of the pharmacist to their expectations of pharmacist's role, and how this then influences patients' reactions toward the pharmacist's role. Methods A qualitative study was undertaken, and a questionnaire was created for the development of the model, based on role theory. The content, dimensions, validity and reliability of the questionnaire were pre-tested qualitatively and in a pilot mail survey. The reliability and validity of the proposed model were tested using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Structural equation modelling (SEM) was used to explain relationships between dimensions of the final model. Results A final model was developed. CFA concluded that the model was valid and reliable (Goodness of Fit indices: χ 2 (109) = 227.662, P = 0.000, RMSEA = 0.05, SRMR = 0.05, GFI = 1.00, NNFI = 0.90, CFI = 0.92). SEM indicated that "perceived pharmacist image" was associated positively and significantly with both "professional expectations" (the standardized path coefficient of (H) = 0.719, P P P P P P Conclusions A valid and reliable model of patients' image of the pharmacist related to their expectations and reactions to the pharmacist's role was developed and tested. When the perceived image of the pharmacist is enhanced, patients' expectations of the pharmacist are heightened; in turn, these expectations were associated with reactions of patients.

18 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Understanding patient perceptions regarding pharmacist’s attire and its influence on comfort, confidence, trust, and professionalism may provide guidance on ways to enhance the quality of the provider–patient relationship.
Abstract: The white coat has symbolized professionalism, while representing provider-patient fiduciary relationship. Although well described in the literature for physicians, few studies examine the impact of pharmacist attire on patients' opinions regarding professionalism and trust. Therefore, understanding patient perceptions regarding pharmacist's attire and its influence on comfort, confidence, trust, and professionalism may provide guidance on ways to enhance the quality of the provider-patient relationship. A 43-item Likert-type questionnaire was administered to 347 adults in a community pharmacy setting to determine preferences about the pharmacist's attire, accessories, and body art incorporating 8 photographs depicting a male pharmacist in various degrees of dress formality (ie, casual to professional). Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to summarize and analyze the data. Survey respondents reported it was desirable/strongly desirable that pharmacists be dressed in a shirt and tie, dress shoes, white coat, and name tag (mean 4.21-4.72), whereas they should not be dressed in jeans, casual shoes, or have visible body art (mean 2.17-2.78). Over 86% of the respondents felt that a pharmacist with a white coat instilled feelings of comfort, confidence, trust, and professionalism. In a community pharmacy setting, a pharmacist wearing a white coat appears to be the mainstay in displaying professionalism and inspiring trust in adult patients.

14 citations


Cites background from "Pharmacist attire and its impact on..."

  • ...To date, this is the first study to assess the role of pharmacist attire on trust as well as the first to examine the contemporary (and increasingly common) issues of pharmacist tattoos and facial piercings in the community pharmacy setting.(21,22) Our findings among pharmacists complement and reinforce the existing literature specific to physicians, which indicate that nontraditional facial piercings have a negative effect on the patient perceptions of competency and trustworthiness....

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  • ...However, patients in the independent community pharmacies believe formally dressed pharmacists wearing a white coat are less approachable compared to the patients at their chain community pharmacy counterparts.(21) In another study, patients perceived pharmacists in casual dress with a white coat less favorably, but it was still determined to be less important than the level of patient communication....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A relationship with a respectful, friendly, competent pharmacist represents important pharmacist-related attributes in the process of pharmacy selection, including cost, convenience, and wait times.
Abstract: Objective Patient selection of community pharmacy is based on a multitude of factors. With increasing competition and rapidly changing face of pharmacy, identification of these factors is critical for patient satisfaction and financial success. This systematic review summarizes patient preferences for different attributes of community pharmacy. Data sources Systematic review of peer-reviewed studies conducted on U.S. population, published from 2005 to 2018 in EBSCO, PubMed, and EMBASE, was conducted to identify attributes of community pharmacy that determine patient patronage. Study selection Studies conducted between 2005 and 2018 on U.S. population that examined attributes in choosing a pharmacy were eligible for this systematic review. Data extraction Data were independently extracted, assessed, and evaluated by 2 reviewers. Any disagreements were resolved by the third reviewer. Data obtained included year, setting, number of patients, data collection and evaluation methods, and relevant results and outcomes. Results Of the 713 papers identified, 10 articles met the inclusion criteria and were included in this systematic review. Majority of the studies used surveys to examine key attributes that influence patients’ selection of a pharmacy. Pharmacist traits like friendly, helpful, trustworthy, professional, competent, caring, knowledgeable, responsive, and approachable are critical attributes that influence a patient’s selection of pharmacy. Convenience (i.e., location, hours of operation, wait time, stock availability) also influenced patients’ selection of pharmacy. Cost and contract with insurance were other important factors. Availability of auto-refills appeared consistently in the studies. Medication safety (detecting drug interactions) quality metrics also appeared high among patients’ preferences. Conclusion The results of this review found that a relationship with a respectful, friendly, competent pharmacist represents important pharmacist-related attributes in the process of pharmacy selection. Important pharmacy-related attributes include cost, convenience, and wait times. Availability of auto-refill service was also a frequently reported attribute in this review.

8 citations



Journal ArticleDOI
04 Dec 2018
TL;DR: Although the compliance level of community pharmacies in Bhutan for storing and dispensing of medicines was found to be above 80%, there are several areas that need to be corrected to ensure full compliance.
Abstract: Introduction:Compliance of community pharmacies with the national medicines law for proper storage and dispensing of medicines is crucial for ensuring the quality and safety of medicines. Community...

2 citations


References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Wearing professional dress (ie, a white coat with more formal attire) while providing patient care by physicians may favorably influence trust and confidence-building in the medical encounter.
Abstract: Purpose There are very few studies about the impact of physicians' attire on patients' confidence and trust. The objective of this study was to determine whether the way a doctor dresses is an important factor in the degree of trust and confidence among respondents. Methods A cross-sectional descriptive study using survey methodology was conducted of patients and visitors in the waiting room of an internal medicine outpatient clinic. Respondents completed a written survey after reviewing pictures of physicians in four different dress styles. Respondents were asked questions related to their preference for physician dress as well as their trust and willingness to discuss sensitive issues. Results Four hundred respondents with a mean age of 52.4 years were enrolled; 54% were men, 58% were white, 38% were African-American, and 43% had greater than a high school diploma. On all questions regarding physician dress style preferences, respondents significantly favored the professional attire with white coat (76.3%, P P P P =.54); however, female physicians' dress appeared to be significantly more important to respondents than male physicians' dress ( P Conclusion Respondents overwhelmingly favor physicians in professional attire with a white coat. Wearing professional dress (ie, a white coat with more formal attire) while providing patient care by physicians may favorably influence trust and confidence-building in the medical encounter.

237 citations


Journal Article
TL;DR: Overall, patients seemed to favour a more formal approach to dress, with the male doctor wearing a formal suit and tie and the female doctor in a white coat scoring the most high marks.
Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine how acceptable patients found different styles of doctors' dress and whether patients felt that a doctor's style of dress influenced their respect for his or her opinion. A total of 475 patients from five general practices in Lothian were surveyed using photographs of different styles in a male and female doctor and questions about their attitudes to doctors' dress in general. Overall, patients seemed to favour a more formal approach to dress, with the male doctor wearing a formal suit and tie and the female doctor in a white coat scoring the most high marks. This was particularly true of older patients and those in social classes 1 and 2. The male doctor wearing a tweed jacket and informal shirt and tie scored fewer low marks and this was therefore the least disliked of the outfits. There was a marked variation between preferences of patients registered with different practices. When asked, 28% of patients said they would be unhappy about consulting one of doctors shown, usually the ones who were informally dressed. However, some patients said they would dislike their doctor wearing a white coat. Although there are more important attributes for a general practitioner than the way he or she dresses, a majority of patients (64%) thought that the way their doctor dressed was very important or quite important. Given that 41% of the patients said they would have more confidence in the ability of one of the doctors based on their appearance it would seem logical for doctors to dress in a way that inspires confidence.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

83 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Patients may be less able to judge the technical quality of the care they receive, but they do judge their social interaction with the pharmacist, and Pharmacy professionals must increase patients' awareness of the value of pharmaceutical care services and make it important to their judgment of satisfaction.
Abstract: Objective: To explore the relationships between patients' satisfaction and (1) the level of pharmaceutical care services received, (2) patients' perceptions of the personal attention paid to them by the pharmacist, and (3) patients' perceptions of the pharmacist's ability to help them manage their asthma and prevent asthma-related problems. Design: Exploratory study using mail or telephone survey methods. Patients or Other Participants: Asthma patients (n = 250) enrolled in one of two Florida managed care organizations. Main Outcome Measures: Predictor variables were level of pharmaceutical care and patients' perceptions of personal attention and their pharmacist's ability to help them control their asthma. Outcome variable was patients' overall satisfaction with the care they received from their pharmacist. Results: The direct causal effects of level of care (standardized regression coefficient, (3 = 0.07) and patients' perception of pharmacists' ability to help (p = 0.01) on satisfaction were nonsignificant. Only personal attention had a significant direct path coefficient to patient satisfaction ((3 = 0.63). Although the level of care was associated with patient satisfaction (r= 0.32), its direct effect was not significant because of its joint association (r = 0.27) with personal attention. Patients' satisfaction was associated with the level of pharmaceutical care and their perception of the pharmacist's ability to help them with their asthma. However, personal attention from the pharmacist was most influential. Conclusion: Patients may be less able to judge the technical quality of the care they receive, but they do judge their social interaction with the pharmacist. Pharmacy professionals must increase patients' awareness of the value of pharmaceutical care services and make it important to their judgment of satisfaction.

72 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Research found that all dental care providers displayed a professional appearance as well as behavior, and the attire of the dental care provider affected the comfort and anxiety levels of patients, as did first impressions of both students and faculty.
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine how patients perceived the professionalism of University of Minnesota School of Dentistry students, faculty, and staff. Professionalism is defined by the authors as an image that will promote a successful relationship with the patient. Patients within comprehensive care clinics were asked to assess physical attributes and behaviors of the dental care providers using a questionnaire. The patients read statements dealing with characteristics of the dental care providers and responded as to whether they agreed, were neutral, or disagreed with the statement. The surveyed population consisted of 103 males and 97 females, 64 percent of whom lacked insurance coverage. Fifty-one percent of the patients were between the ages of forty-four and sixty-nine, but the overall age distribution was dispersed over a range of eighteen to one hundred. Our research found that all dental care providers displayed a professional appearance as well as behavior. The attire of the dental care provider affected the comfort and anxiety levels of patients, as did first impressions of both students and faculty. Most patients reported that students and faculty displayed effective time management and used appropriate language during the appointment. Finally, hairstyle, makeup, and jewelry appeared to have little effect on patients' opinions of the various dental care providers.

57 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Whether, reference to gender aside, the old adage “clothes make the man” still contains a measure of truth, and whether the authors' patients actually feel comforted when they are approached by a medical person in formal rather than casual attire is explored.
Abstract: A S I WAS preparing to deliver my annual lecture to the secondyear medical students, I looked out over the audience and realized that the attendees looked different from those in years past: there were a substantial number of women (compared with 5% in my class); some students were unkempt and slouched, reading nonmedical material (as opposed to the bolt-upright, fearful, and attentive position in my day); and none of the men was wearing a tie or white shirt (an integral part of the uniform of the serious student up to the 1970s). Obviously, these men and women were not aware of or chose to ignore Hippocrates’ advice that the physician should “be clean in person, well-dressed, and anointed with sweet smelling unguents.” I looked again at these differences and wondered, “Does it matter?” To answer this question, I reviewed the available literature in several electronic databases using search words such as “dress code,” “professional attire,” “physician attitudes,” “white coat,” and “clothing.” Thirty-one articles were chosen to explore whether, reference to gender aside, the old adage “clothes make the man” still contains a measure of truth, and whether our patients actually feel comforted when they are approached by a medical person in formal rather than casual attire.

57 citations