Abstract: We revisit the calculation of quantum-gravitational corrections to the power spectra of scalar and tensor perturbations in the Born-Oppenheimer approach to quantum gravity. We focus on the issue of the definition of the inner product of the theory and the unitarity of the corrections to the dynamics of the cosmological perturbations. We argue that the correction terms are unitary, provided the inner product is defined in a suitable way, which can be related to a notion of gauge fixing the time variable and the use of conditional probabilities in quantum cosmology. We compare the corrections obtained within this framework to earlier results in the literature and we conclude with some remarks on the physical interpretation of the correction terms.

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Topics: Unitarity (62%), Quantum cosmology (59%), Quantum gravity (57%) ... show more

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7 results found

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Abstract: Employing internal quantum systems as reference frames is a crucial concept in quantum gravity, gauge theories and quantum foundations whenever external relata are unavailable. In this work, we give a comprehensive and self-contained treatment of such quantum reference frames (QRFs) for the case when the underlying configuration space is a finite Abelian group, significantly extending our previous work. The simplicity of this setup admits a fully rigorous quantum information-theoretic analysis, while maintaining sufficient structure for exploring many of the conceptual and structural questions also pertinent to more complicated setups. We exploit this to derive several important structures of constraint quantization with quantum information-theoretic methods and to reveal the relation between different approaches to QRF covariance. In particular, we characterize the "physical Hilbert space" - the arena of the "perspective-neutral" approach - as the maximal subspace that admits frame-independent descriptions of purifications of states. We then demonstrate the kinematical equivalence and, surprising, dynamical inequivalence of the "perspective-neutral" and the "alignability" approach to QRFs. While the former admits unitaries generating transitions between arbitrary subsystem relations, the latter, remarkably, admits no such dynamics when requiring symmetry-preservation. We illustrate these findings by example of interacting discrete particles, including how dynamics can be described "relative to one of the subystems".

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Topics: Quantization (physics) (61%), Quantum (61%), Quantum gravity (56%) ... show more

1 Citations

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Abstract: In this review, we investigate the question of backreaction in different approaches to cosmological perturbation theory, and with a special focus on quantum theoretical aspects. By backreaction we refer here to the effects of matter field or cosmological inhomogeneities on the homogeneous dynamical background degrees of freedom of cosmology. We begin with an overview of classical cosmological backreaction which is ideally suited for physical situations in the late time Universe. We then proceed backwards in time, considering semiclassical approaches such as semiclassical or stochastic (semiclassical) gravity which take quantum effects of the perturbations into account. Finally, we review approaches to backreaction in quantum cosmology that should apply to the very early Universe where classical and semiclassical approximations break down. The main focus is on a recently proposed implementation of backreaction in quantum cosmology using a Born--Oppenheimer inspired method.

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Topics: Quantum cosmology (63%), Cosmological perturbation theory (58%), Semiclassical physics (57%) ... show more

1 Citations

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Abstract: A geometrodynamical quantization of an inflationary universe is considered in order to estimate quantum-gravity effects for the primordial perturbations. Contrary to previous studies in the literature, the back-reaction produced by all the modes of the system is included in our computations. Even if at a classical level the assumption that every mode evolves independently provides a good estimate for the dynamics, our results explicitly show that this is not the case when considering quantum-gravity effects. More precisely, both the self-interaction, as well as the back-reaction from other modes, provide a correction of the same order of magnitude to the usual power spectrum as computed in the approximation of quantum field theory on classical backgrounds. In particular, these quantum-gravity effects introduce certain characteristic scale-dependence on the expression of the power spectrum.

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Topics: Quantization (physics) (57%), Quantum field theory (51%)

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Abstract: In this review, we investigate the question of backreaction in different approaches to cosmological perturbation theory, and with a special focus on quantum theoretical aspects. By backreaction, we refer here to the effects of matter field or cosmological inhomogeneities on the homogeneous dynamical background degrees of freedom of cosmology. We begin with an overview of classical cosmological backreaction which is ideally suited for physical situations in the late time Universe. We then proceed backwards in time, considering semiclassical approaches such as semiclassical or stochastic (semiclassical) gravity which take quantum effects of the perturbations into account. Finally, we review approaches to backreaction in quantum cosmology that should apply to the very early Universe where classical and semiclassical approximations break down. The main focus is on a recently proposed implementation of backreaction in quantum cosmology using a Born-Oppenheimer inspired method.

... read more

Topics: Quantum cosmology (63%), Cosmological perturbation theory (58%), Semiclassical physics (57%) ... show more

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Abstract: A geometrodynamical quantization of an inflationary universe is considered in order to estimate quantum-gravity effects for the primordial perturbations. Contrary to previous studies in the literature, the back-reaction produced by all the modes of the system is included in our computations. Even if at a classical level the assumption that every mode evolves independently provides a good estimate for the dynamics, our results explicitly show that this is not the case when considering quantum-gravity effects. More precisely, both the self-interaction, as well as the back-reaction from other modes, provide a correction of the same order of magnitude to the usual power spectrum as computed in the approximation of quantum field theory on classical backgrounds. In particular, these quantum-gravity effects introduce certain characteristic scale-dependence on the expression of the power spectrum.

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Topics: Quantization (physics) (57%), Quantum cosmology (55%), Inflation (cosmology) (55%) ... show more

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106 results found

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Abstract: In der Anwendung der Quantentheorie auf die Molekeln kann man folgende Entwicklungsstufen unterscheiden: Das erste Stadium1) ersetzt die zweiatomige Molekel durch das Hantelmodell, das als einfacher „Rotator“ behandelt wird. Mehratomige Molekeln werden in entsprechender Weise als starre „Kreisel“ angesehen.2) Dieser Standpunkt erlaubt es, die einfachsten Gesetze der Bandenspektren und der spezifischen Warme mehratomiger Gase zu erklaren. Das nachste Stadium1) last die Annahme starrer Verbindungen zwischen den Atomen fallen und berucksichtigt die Kernschwingungen, zunachst als harmonische Schwingungen; dabie ergenben sich nach Sponer3) und Kratzer4) Zusammenhange zwischen den einzelnen Banden eines Bandensystems.

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3,812 Citations

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05 Aug 2004-

Topics: Euclidean quantum gravity (77%), Spin foam (76%), Quantum gravity (76%) ... show more

3,573 Citations

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Abstract: Following an historical introduction, the conventional canonical formulation of general relativity theory is presented. The canonical Lagrangian is expressed in terms of the extrinsic and intrinsic curvatures of the hypersurface ${x}^{0}=\mathrm{constant}$, and its relation to the asymptotic field energy in an infinite world is noted. The distinction between finite and infinite worlds is emphasized. In the quantum theory the primary and secondary constraints become conditions on the state vector, and in the case of finite worlds these conditions alone govern the dynamics. A resolution of the factor-ordering problem is proposed, and the consistency of the constraints is demonstrated. A 6-dimensional hyperbolic Riemannian manifold is introduced which takes for its metric the coefficient of the momenta in the Hamiltonian constraint. The geodesic incompletability of this manifold, owing to the existence of a frontier of infinite curvature, is demonstrated. The possibility is explored of relating this manifold to an infinite-dimensional manifold of 3-geometries, and of relating the structure of the latter manifold in turn to the dynamical behavior of space-time. The problem is approached through the WKB approximation and Hamilton-Jacobi theory. Einstein's equations are revealed as geodesic equations in the manifold of 3-geometries, modified by the presence of a "force term." The classical phenomenon of gravitational collapse shows that the force term is not powerful enough to prevent the trajectory of space-time from running into the frontier. The as-yet unresolved problem of determining when the collapse phenomenon represents a real barrier to the quantum-state functional is briefly discussed, and a boundary condition at the barrier is proposed. The state functional of a finite world can depend only on the 3-geometry of the hypersurface ${x}^{0}=\mathrm{constant}$. The label ${x}^{0}$ itself is irrelevant, and "time" must be determined intrinsically. A natural definition for the inner product of two such state functionals is introduced which, however, encounters difficulties with negative probabilities owing to the barrier boundary condition. In order to resolve these difficulties, a simplified model, the quantized Friedmann universe, is studied in detail. In order to obtain nonstatic wave functions which resemble a universe evolving, it is necessary to introduce a clock. In order that the combined wave functions of universe-cum-clock be normalizable, it turns out that the periods of universe and clock must be commensurable. Wave packets exhibiting quasiclassical behavior are constructed, and attention is called to the phenomenological character of "time." The innerproduct definition is rescued from its negative-probability difficulties by making use of the fact that probability flows in a closed finite circuit in configuration space. The article ends with some speculations on the uniqueness of the state functional of the actual universe. It is suggested that a viewpoint due to Everett should be adopted in its interpretation.

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Topics: Riemannian manifold (62%), Geodesic (57%), Hamiltonian mechanics (57%) ... show more

2,414 Citations

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Abstract: Dynamics of non-equilibrium phase transition in the early universe is investigated. The transition is triggered by vacuum fluctuations of a Higgs scalar field which determine the duration of an intermediate inflationary stage and the amplitude of adiabatic perturbations. This amplitude ranges from g2 to one and more depending on scale that presents a serious problem for the inflationary scenario.

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Topics: Inflationary epoch (63%), Eternal inflation (58%), Primordial fluctuations (58%) ... show more

2,103 Citations

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01 Jan 1987-

Abstract: Following an historical introduction, the conventional canonical formulation of general relativity theory is presented. The canonical Lagrangian is expressed in terms of the extrinsic and intrinsic curvatures of the hypersurface ${x}^{0}=\mathrm{constant}$, and its relation to the asymptotic field energy in an infinite world is noted. The distinction between finite and infinite worlds is emphasized. In the quantum theory the primary and secondary constraints become conditions on the state vector, and in the case of finite worlds these conditions alone govern the dynamics. A resolution of the factor-ordering problem is proposed, and the consistency of the constraints is demonstrated. A 6-dimensional hyperbolic Riemannian manifold is introduced which takes for its metric the coefficient of the momenta in the Hamiltonian constraint. The geodesic incompletability of this manifold, owing to the existence of a frontier of infinite curvature, is demonstrated. The possibility is explored of relating this manifold to an infinite-dimensional manifold of 3-geometries, and of relating the structure of the latter manifold in turn to the dynamical behavior of space-time. The problem is approached through the WKB approximation and Hamilton-Jacobi theory. Einstein's equations are revealed as geodesic equations in the manifold of 3-geometries, modified by the presence of a "force term." The classical phenomenon of gravitational collapse shows that the force term is not powerful enough to prevent the trajectory of space-time from running into the frontier. The as-yet unresolved problem of determining when the collapse phenomenon represents a real barrier to the quantum-state functional is briefly discussed, and a boundary condition at the barrier is proposed. The state functional of a finite world can depend only on the 3-geometry of the hypersurface ${x}^{0}=\mathrm{constant}$. The label ${x}^{0}$ itself is irrelevant, and "time" must be determined intrinsically. A natural definition for the inner product of two such state functionals is introduced which, however, encounters difficulties with negative probabilities owing to the barrier boundary condition. In order to resolve these difficulties, a simplified model, the quantized Friedmann universe, is studied in detail. In order to obtain nonstatic wave functions which resemble a universe evolving, it is necessary to introduce a clock. In order that the combined wave functions of universe-cum-clock be normalizable, it turns out that the periods of universe and clock must be commensurable. Wave packets exhibiting quasiclassical behavior are constructed, and attention is called to the phenomenological character of "time." The innerproduct definition is rescued from its negative-probability difficulties by making use of the fact that probability flows in a closed finite circuit in configuration space. The article ends with some speculations on the uniqueness of the state functional of the actual universe. It is suggested that a viewpoint due to Everett should be adopted in its interpretation.

... read more

Topics: Riemannian manifold (62%), Geodesic (57%), Configuration space (56%) ... show more

1,846 Citations