Bio: Maddalena Scotti is an academic researcher from University of Urbino. The author has contributed to research in topics: Ascorbic acid & Mitochondrion. The author has an hindex of 8, co-authored 11 publications receiving 353 citations.
TL;DR: It is shown that the expression profiles obtained are exclusive of carcinoma cells with no contribution of non-epithelial cells, suggesting that the down-regulation of a set of genes may be the basic mechanism of cancer formation, while the up-regulation may characterize and possibly control the state of evolution of individual cancers.
Abstract: Expression profiles of breast carcinomas are difficult to interpret when they are obtained from tissue in toto, which may contain a large proportion of non-cancer cells. To avoid this problem, we microscopically isolated cells from a primary invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast and from an axillary node harboring a metastatic breast carcinoma, to obtain pure populations of carcinoma cells (≈500) and used them for serial analysis of gene expression. The expression profiles generated from both populations of cells were compared with the profile of a disease-free mammary epithelium. We showed that the expression profiles obtained are exclusive of carcinoma cells with no contribution of non-epithelial cells. From a total of 16,939 unique tags analyzed, we detected 559 statistically significant changes in gene expression; some of these genes have not been previously associated with breast cancer. We observed that many of the down-regulated genes are the same in both cancers, whereas the up-regulated genes are completely different, suggesting that the down-regulation of a set of genes may be the basic mechanism of cancer formation, while the up-regulation may characterize and possibly control the state of evolution of individual cancers. The results obtained may help in characterizing the neoplastic process of breast cancer.
TL;DR: The properties of self-renewal, extensive capacity for proliferation, multilineage differentiation potential, and single-cell tumor-initiation potential suggest that LA7 cells are cancer stem cells and can be used as a model system to study the dynamics of tumor formation at the single- cell level.
Abstract: The cancer stem cell hypothesis posits that tumors are derived from a single cancer-initiating cell with stem cell properties. The task of identifying and characterizing a single cancer-initiating cell with stem cell properties has proven technically difficult because of the scarcity of the cancer stem cells in the tissue of origin and the lack of specific markers for cancer stem cells. Here we show that a single LA7 cell derived from rat mammary adenocarcinoma has the following properties: the differentiation potential to generate all of the cell lineages of the mammary gland; the ability to generate branched duct-like structures that recapitulate morphologically and functionally the ductal–alveolar-like architecture of the mammary tree; and the capacity to initiate heterogeneous tumors in nonobese diabetic-SCID mice. In addition, we show that cultured cells derived from tumors generated by a single LA7 cell-injection have properties similar to LA7 cells, can generate all of the cell lineages of the mammary gland, and recapitulate the ductal–alveolar-like architecture of the mammary tree. The properties of self-renewal, extensive capacity for proliferation, multilineage differentiation potential, and single-cell tumor-initiation potential suggest that LA7 cells are cancer stem cells and can be used as a model system to study the dynamics of tumor formation at the single-cell level.
TL;DR: Data is provided showing the growth-promoting function of Tbx3 in several models of MECs, in association with its ability to repress the ARF promoter, the first direct evidence that the level of T bx3 expression positively controls the proliferation of M ECs via pathways alternative to Mdm2-p53.
Abstract: TBX3, the gene mutated in ulnar-mammary syndrome (UMS), is involved in the production of a transcription factor of the T-box family, known to inhibit transcription from the p14ARF (p19ARF in mouse) promoter in fibroblasts and to contribute to cell immortalization. One of the main features of the UMS phenotype is the severe hypoplasia of the breast, associated with haploinsufficiency of the TBX3 gene product. In mice homozygous for the targeted disruption of Tbx3, the mammary glands (MGs) are nearly absent from early stages of embryogenesis, whereas in heterozygous adults, the MGs show reduced ductal branching. All these data strongly suggest a specific role of TBX3 in promoting the growth of mammary epithelial cells (MECs), although direct evidence of this is lacking. Here, we provide data showing the growth-promoting function of Tbx3 in several models of MECs, in association with its ability to repress the ARF promoter. However, no effect of Tbx3 on cell differentiation or apoptosis has been observed. The growth promoting function also entails the down-regulation of p21 ( CIP1/WAF ) and an increase in cyclin D1 but is independent of p53 and Mdm2 cell-cycle regulatory proteins, as p53-null MECs show similar growth responses associated with the up- or down-regulation of Tbx3. This is the first direct evidence that the level of Tbx3 expression positively controls the proliferation of MECs via pathways alternative to Mdm2-p53.
TL;DR: The results presented in this study indicate that the U937 cell mitochondrial transporter of AA, because of its very low requirement for Na+ and independence for Ca++ and Mg++, displays kinetic characteristics surprisingly similar with those of the plasma membrane SVCT2.
Abstract: We recently reported that U937 cell mitochondria express a functional Na+-dependent ascorbic acid (AA) transporter recognised by anti-SVCT2 antibodies. The present study confirms and extends these observations by showing that this transporter is characterised by a Km and a pH-dependence comparable with that reported for the plasma membrane SVCT2. In isolated mitochondria, Na+ increased AA transport rate in a cooperative manner, revealed by a sigmoid curve and a Hill coefficient of 2, as also observed in intact Raw 264.7 cells (uniquely expressing SVCT2). There was however a striking difference on the Na+ concentrations necessary to reach saturation, i.e., 1 or 100 mM for the mitochondrial and plasma membrane transporters, respectively. Furthermore the mitochondrial, unlike the plasma membrane, transporter was fully active also in the absence of added Ca++ and/or Mg++. Taken together, the results presented in this study indicate that the U937 cell mitochondrial transporter of AA, because of its very low requirement for Na+ and independence for Ca++ and Mg++, displays kinetic characteristics surprisingly similar with those of the plasma membrane SVCT2.
TL;DR: MitoO2-./H2 O2 directly mediates DNA damage induced by arsenite and indirectly promotes the formation of additional DNA-damaging species via the induction of MPT.
Abstract: Arsenite is an established DNA-damaging agent and human carcinogen. We initially selected conditions in which the metalloid causes DNA strand scission in the absence of detectable apoptotic DNA degradation in U937 cells. This response was suppressed by catalase and by treatments (rotenone and ascorbic acid), or manipulations (respiration-deficient phenotype), preventing the mitochondrial formation of O2-. ( mitoO2-.). MitoO2-., and its dismutation product, H2 O2 , are therefore critically involved in the arsenite-dependent DNA-damaging response. We then established a link between mitoO2-./H2 O2 and mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT), and found that this second event also promoted the formation of DNA-damaging species. As a consequence, the DNA damage induced by arsenite, in addition to being abolished by the aforementioned treatments/manipulations, was also significantly reduced by the MPT inhibitor cyclosporin A (CsA). A CsA-sensitive induction of p53 mRNA expression was also detected. Finally, evidence of CsA-sensitive DNA strand scission was also obtained in MCF-7, HT22, and NCTC-2544 cells. MitoO2-./H2 O2 therefore directly mediates DNA damage induced by arsenite and indirectly promotes the formation of additional DNA-damaging species via the induction of MPT. © 2017 BioFactors, 43(5):673-684, 2017.
TL;DR: CD44 is a robust marker and is of functional importance for colorectal CSC for cancer initiation and Knockdown of CD44, but not CD133, strongly prevented clonal formation and inhibited tumorigenicity in xenograft model.
Abstract: Purpose: Both CD44 and CD133 were reported as putative markers for isolating colorectal cancer stem cells (CSC). It remains to be resolved if both of these markers are of functional importance for colorectal CSC. Experimental Design: The expression of CD44 and CD133 in normal colonic tissues and primary colorectal cancer was assessed by immunohistochemistry in a series of 60 patients on tissue microarray sections. Both in vitro clonogenic and in vivo tumorigenic assay were applied to measure CSC activities from the cells isolated from patients. Lentiviral RNA interference was used to stably knock down CD44 or CD133 in colorectal cancer cells from patients. Results: We found that CD44 + cells displayed clustered growth and they did not colocalize with CD133 + cells within colorectal cancer. As few as 100 CD44 + cells from a patients9 tumor initiated a xenograft tumor in vivo . A single CD44 + cell from a tumor could form a sphere in vitro which has characteristic stem cell properties and was able to generate a xenograft tumor resembling the properties of the primary tumor. Knockdown of CD44, but not CD133, strongly prevented clonal formation and inhibited tumorigenicity in xenograft model. Conclusions: These results indicate that CD44 is a robust marker and is of functional importance for colorectal CSC for cancer initiation.
TL;DR: The microenvironment-derived signals that regulate stem-cell fate and epithelial differentiation are highlighted and may point towards new insights into the origin of cancer and the maintenance and regulation of cancer stem cells.
Abstract: The identification of intestinal stem cells as well as their malignant counterparts, colon cancer stem cells, has undergone rapid development in recent years. Under physiological conditions, intestinal homeostasis is a carefully balanced and efficient interplay between stem cells, their progeny and the microenvironment. These interactions regulate the astonishingly rapid renewal of the intestinal epithelial layer, which consequently puts us at serious risk of developing cancer. Here we highlight the microenvironment-derived signals that regulate stem-cell fate and epithelial differentiation. As our understanding of normal intestinal crypt homeostasis grows, these developments may point towards new insights into the origin of cancer and the maintenance and regulation of cancer stem cells.
TL;DR: Genetic interactions between ino80 and htz1 support a model in which INO80 catalyzes the removal of unacetylated H2A.Z from chromatin as a mechanism to promote genome stability.
Abstract: INO80 is an evolutionarily conserved, ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeling enzyme that plays roles in transcription, DNA repair, and replication. Here, we show that yeast INO80 facilitates these diverse processes at least in part by controlling genome-wide distribution of the histone variant H2A.Z. In the absence of INO80, H2A.Z nucleosomes are mislocalized, and H2A.Z levels at promoters show reduced responsiveness to transcriptional changes, suggesting that INO80 controls H2A.Z dynamics. Additionally, we demonstrate that INO80 has a histone-exchange activity in which the enzyme can replace nucleosomal H2A.Z/H2B with free H2A/H2B dimers. Genetic interactions between ino80 and htz1 support a model in which INO80 catalyzes the removal of unacetylated H2A.Z from chromatin as a mechanism to promote genome stability.
TL;DR: In this article, the specific markers that have been found to be present on stem cells, cancer cells and CSCs in selected tissues (colon, breast, liver, pancreas and prostate) are compared.
Abstract: Rapid advances in the cancer stem cell (CSC) field have provided cause for optimism for the development of more reliable cancer therapies in the future. Strategies aimed at efficient targeting of CSCs are becoming important for monitoring the progress of cancer therapy and for evaluating new therapeutic approaches. Here, we characterize and compare the specific markers that have been found to be present on stem cells, cancer cells and CSCs in selected tissues (colon, breast, liver, pancreas and prostate). We then discuss future directions of this intriguing new research field in the context of new diagnostic and therapeutic opportunities.
TL;DR: These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the 9p21.3 risk allele contains a functional enhancer, the activity of which is altered in carriers of the risk allele, and may promote atherosclerosis by regulating expression of ANRIL.
Abstract: Objectives— We have investigated the functional significance of conserved sequences within the 9p21.3 risk locus for coronary artery disease (CAD) and determined the relationship of 9p21.3 to expression of ANRIL and to whole genome gene expression. Methods and Results— We demonstrate that a conserved sequence within the 9p21.3 locus has enhancer activity and that the risk variant significantly increases reporter gene expression in primary aortic smooth muscle cells. Whole blood RNA expression of the short variants of ANRIL was increased by 2.2-fold whereas expression of the long ANRIL variant was decreased by 1.2-fold in healthy subjects homozygous for the risk allele. Expression levels of the long and short ANRIL variants were positively correlated with that of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, CDKN2B (p15) and TDGF1 (Cripto), respectively. Relevant to atherosclerosis, genome-wide expression profiling demonstrated upregulation of gene sets modulating cellular proliferation in carriers of the risk al...