scispace - formally typeset
Search or ask a question
Author

William F. McDonough

Bio: William F. McDonough is an academic researcher from University of Maryland, College Park. The author has contributed to research in topics: Mantle (geology) & Continental crust. The author has an hindex of 69, co-authored 279 publications receiving 43476 citations. Previous affiliations of William F. McDonough include Sul Ross State University & Harvard University.


Papers
More filters
Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors compared the relative abundances of the refractory elements in carbonaceous, ordinary, and enstatite chondritic meteorites and found that the most consistent composition of the Earth's core is derived from the seismic profile and its interpretation, compared with primitive meteorites, and chemical and petrological models of peridotite-basalt melting relationships.

10,830 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, peridotite xenoliths carried in Paleozoic kimberlites and Tertiary alkali basalts confirm previous suggestions that the refractory and chemically buoyant lithospheric keel present beneath the eastern block of the North China craton is indeed Archean in age.

829 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Fengpeng An1, Guangpeng An, Qi An2, Vito Antonelli3  +226 moreInstitutions (55)
TL;DR: The Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO) as mentioned in this paper is a 20kton multi-purpose underground liquid scintillator detector with the determination of neutrino mass hierarchy (MH) as a primary physics goal.
Abstract: The Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO), a 20 kton multi-purpose underground liquid scintillator detector, was proposed with the determination of the neutrino mass hierarchy (MH) as a primary physics goal. The excellent energy resolution and the large fiducial volume anticipated for the JUNO detector offer exciting opportunities for addressing many important topics in neutrino and astro-particle physics. In this document, we present the physics motivations and the anticipated performance of the JUNO detector for various proposed measurements. Following an introduction summarizing the current status and open issues in neutrino physics, we discuss how the detection of antineutrinos generated by a cluster of nuclear power plants allows the determination of the neutrino MH at a 3–4σ significance with six years of running of JUNO. The measurement of antineutrino spectrum with excellent energy resolution will also lead to the precise determination of the neutrino oscillation parameters ${\mathrm{sin}}^{2}{\theta }_{12}$, ${\rm{\Delta }}{m}_{21}^{2}$, and $| {\rm{\Delta }}{m}_{{ee}}^{2}| $ to an accuracy of better than 1%, which will play a crucial role in the future unitarity test of the MNSP matrix. The JUNO detector is capable of observing not only antineutrinos from the power plants, but also neutrinos/antineutrinos from terrestrial and extra-terrestrial sources, including supernova burst neutrinos, diffuse supernova neutrino background, geoneutrinos, atmospheric neutrinos, and solar neutrinos. As a result of JUNO's large size, excellent energy resolution, and vertex reconstruction capability, interesting new data on these topics can be collected. For example, a neutrino burst from a typical core-collapse supernova at a distance of 10 kpc would lead to ∼5000 inverse-beta-decay events and ∼2000 all-flavor neutrino–proton ES events in JUNO, which are of crucial importance for understanding the mechanism of supernova explosion and for exploring novel phenomena such as collective neutrino oscillations. Detection of neutrinos from all past core-collapse supernova explosions in the visible universe with JUNO would further provide valuable information on the cosmic star-formation rate and the average core-collapse neutrino energy spectrum. Antineutrinos originating from the radioactive decay of uranium and thorium in the Earth can be detected in JUNO with a rate of ∼400 events per year, significantly improving the statistics of existing geoneutrino event samples. Atmospheric neutrino events collected in JUNO can provide independent inputs for determining the MH and the octant of the ${\theta }_{23}$ mixing angle. Detection of the (7)Be and (8)B solar neutrino events at JUNO would shed new light on the solar metallicity problem and examine the transition region between the vacuum and matter dominated neutrino oscillations. Regarding light sterile neutrino topics, sterile neutrinos with ${10}^{-5}\,{{\rm{eV}}}^{2}\lt {\rm{\Delta }}{m}_{41}^{2}\lt {10}^{-2}\,{{\rm{eV}}}^{2}$ and a sufficiently large mixing angle ${\theta }_{14}$ could be identified through a precise measurement of the reactor antineutrino energy spectrum. Meanwhile, JUNO can also provide us excellent opportunities to test the eV-scale sterile neutrino hypothesis, using either the radioactive neutrino sources or a cyclotron-produced neutrino beam. The JUNO detector is also sensitive to several other beyondthe-standard-model physics. Examples include the search for proton decay via the $p\to {K}^{+}+\bar{ u }$ decay channel, search for neutrinos resulting from dark-matter annihilation in the Sun, search for violation of Lorentz invariance via the sidereal modulation of the reactor neutrino event rate, and search for the effects of non-standard interactions. The proposed construction of the JUNO detector will provide a unique facility to address many outstanding crucial questions in particle and astrophysics in a timely and cost-effective fashion. It holds the great potential for further advancing our quest to understanding the fundamental properties of neutrinos, one of the building blocks of our Universe.

807 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors used trace element signatures of carbonatite melts responsible for modal metasomatism of peridotite xenoliths from the Olmani cinder cone, northern Tanzania.

717 citations


Cited by
More filters
01 Jan 1989
TL;DR: In this article, trace-element data for mid-ocean ridge basalts and ocean island basalts are used to formulate chemical systematics for oceanic basalts, interpreted in terms of partial-melting conditions, variations in residual mineralogy, involvement of subducted sediment, recycling of oceanic lithosphere and processes within the low velocity zone.
Abstract: Summary Trace-element data for mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORBs) and ocean island basalts (OIB) are used to formulate chemical systematics for oceanic basalts. The data suggest that the order of trace-element incompatibility in oceanic basalts is Cs ≈ Rb ≈ (≈ Tl) ≈ Ba(≈ W) > Th > U ≈ Nb = Ta ≈ K > La > Ce ≈ Pb > Pr (≈ Mo) ≈ Sr > P ≈ Nd (> F) > Zr = Hf ≈ Sm > Eu ≈ Sn (≈ Sb) ≈ Ti > Dy ≈ (Li) > Ho = Y > Yb. This rule works in general and suggests that the overall fractionation processes operating during magma generation and evolution are relatively simple, involving no significant change in the environment of formation for MORBs and OIBs. In detail, minor differences in element ratios correlate with the isotopic characteristics of different types of OIB components (HIMU, EM, MORB). These systematics are interpreted in terms of partial-melting conditions, variations in residual mineralogy, involvement of subducted sediment, recycling of oceanic lithosphere and processes within the low velocity zone. Niobium data indicate that the mantle sources of MORB and OIB are not exact complementary reservoirs to the continental crust. Subduction of oceanic crust or separation of refractory eclogite material from the former oceanic crust into the lower mantle appears to be required. The negative europium anomalies observed in some EM-type OIBs and the systematics of their key element ratios suggest the addition of a small amount (⩽1% or less) of subducted sediment to their mantle sources. However, a general lack of a crustal signature in OIBs indicates that sediment recycling has not been an important process in the convecting mantle, at least not in more recent times (⩽2 Ga). Upward migration of silica-undersaturated melts from the low velocity zone can generate an enriched reservoir in the continental and oceanic lithospheric mantle. We propose that the HIMU type (eg St Helena) OIB component can be generated in this way. This enriched mantle can be re-introduced into the convective mantle by thermal erosion of the continental lithosphere and by the recycling of the enriched oceanic lithosphere back into the mantle.

19,221 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors compared the relative abundances of the refractory elements in carbonaceous, ordinary, and enstatite chondritic meteorites and found that the most consistent composition of the Earth's core is derived from the seismic profile and its interpretation, compared with primitive meteorites, and chemical and petrological models of peridotite-basalt melting relationships.

10,830 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Apr 1988-Nature
TL;DR: In this paper, a sedimentological core and petrographic characterisation of samples from eleven boreholes from the Lower Carboniferous of Bowland Basin (Northwest England) is presented.
Abstract: Deposits of clastic carbonate-dominated (calciclastic) sedimentary slope systems in the rock record have been identified mostly as linearly-consistent carbonate apron deposits, even though most ancient clastic carbonate slope deposits fit the submarine fan systems better. Calciclastic submarine fans are consequently rarely described and are poorly understood. Subsequently, very little is known especially in mud-dominated calciclastic submarine fan systems. Presented in this study are a sedimentological core and petrographic characterisation of samples from eleven boreholes from the Lower Carboniferous of Bowland Basin (Northwest England) that reveals a >250 m thick calciturbidite complex deposited in a calciclastic submarine fan setting. Seven facies are recognised from core and thin section characterisation and are grouped into three carbonate turbidite sequences. They include: 1) Calciturbidites, comprising mostly of highto low-density, wavy-laminated bioclast-rich facies; 2) low-density densite mudstones which are characterised by planar laminated and unlaminated muddominated facies; and 3) Calcidebrites which are muddy or hyper-concentrated debrisflow deposits occurring as poorly-sorted, chaotic, mud-supported floatstones. These

9,929 citations