About: Chinese Ministry of Education is a government organization based out in Beijing, China. It is known for research contribution in the topics: Population & Microstructure. The organization has 71289 authors who have published 48294 publications receiving 782741 citations.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macro-autophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes.
Abstract: In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. For example, a key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers or volume of autophagic elements (e.g., autophagosomes or autolysosomes) at any stage of the autophagic process versus those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway (i.e., the complete process including the amount and rate of cargo sequestered and degraded). In particular, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation must be differentiated from stimuli that increase autophagic activity, defined as increased autophagy induction coupled with increased delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes and some protists such as Dictyostelium) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). In other words, it is especially important that investigators new to the field understand that the appearance of more autophagosomes does not necessarily equate with more autophagy. In fact, in many cases, autophagosomes accumulate because of a block in trafficking to lysosomes without a concomitant change in autophagosome biogenesis, whereas an increase in autolysosomes may reflect a reduction in degradative activity. It is worth emphasizing here that lysosomal digestion is a stage of autophagy and evaluating its competence is a crucial part of the evaluation of autophagic flux, or complete autophagy. Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to monitor autophagy. Along these lines, because of the potential for pleiotropic effects due to blocking autophagy through genetic manipulation, it is imperative to target by gene knockout or RNA interference more than one autophagy-related protein. In addition, some individual Atg proteins, or groups of proteins, are involved in other cellular pathways implying that not all Atg proteins can be used as a specific marker for an autophagic process. In these guidelines, we consider these various methods of assessing autophagy and what information can, or cannot, be obtained from them. Finally, by discussing the merits and limits of particular assays, we hope to encourage technical innovation in the field.
TL;DR: In order to further improve the power and energy densities of the capacitors, carbon-based composites combining electrical double layer capacitors (EDLC)-capacitance and pseudo-Capacitance have been explored and show not only enhanced capacitance, but as well good cyclability.
Abstract: Carbon materials have attracted intense interests as electrode materials for electrochemical capacitors, because of their high surface area, electrical conductivity, chemical stability and low cost. Activated carbons produced by different activation processes from various precursors are the most widely used electrodes. Recently, with the rapid growth of nanotechnology, nanostructured electrode materials, such as carbon nanotubes and template-synthesized porous carbons have been developed. Their unique electrical properties and well controlled pore sizes and structures facilitate fast ion and electron transportation. In order to further improve the power and energy densities of the capacitors, carbon-based composites combining electrical double layer capacitors (EDLC)-capacitance and pseudo-capacitance have been explored. They show not only enhanced capacitance, but as well good cyclability. In this review, recent progresses on carbon-based electrode materials are summarized, including activated carbons, carbon nanotubes, and template-synthesized porous carbons, in particular mesoporous carbons. Their advantages and disadvantages as electrochemical capacitors are discussed. At the end of this review, the future trends of electrochemical capacitors with high energy and power are proposed.
TL;DR: Examination of grain yields and N loss pathways in 2 of the most intensive double-cropping systems in China found that current agricultural N practices with 550–600 kg of N per hectare fertilizer annually do not significantly increase crop yields but do lead to about 2 times larger N losses to the environment.
Abstract: Excessive N fertilization in intensive agricultural areas of China has resulted in serious environmental problems because of atmospheric, soil, and water enrichment with reactive N of agricultural origin. This study examines grain yields and N loss pathways using a synthetic approach in 2 of the most intensive double-cropping systems in China: waterlogged rice/upland wheat in the Taihu region of east China versus irrigated wheat/rainfed maize on the North China Plain. When compared with knowledge-based optimum N fertilization with 30– 60% N savings, we found that current agricultural N practices with 550–600 kg of N per hectare fertilizer annually do not significantly increase crop yields but do lead to about 2 times larger N losses to the environment. The higher N loss rates and lower N retention rates indicate little utilization of residual N by the succeeding crop in rice/wheat systems in comparison with wheat/maize systems. Periodic waterlogging of upland systems caused large N losses by denitrification in the Taihu region. Calcareous soils and concentrated summer rainfall resulted in ammonia volatilization (19% for wheat and 24% for maize) and nitrate leaching being the main N loss pathways in wheat/maize systems. More than 2-fold increases in atmospheric deposition and irrigation water N reflect heavy air and water pollution and these have become important N sources to agricultural ecosystems. A better N balance can be achieved without sacrificing crop yields but significantly reducing environmental risk by adopting optimum N fertilization techniques, controlling the primary N loss pathways, and improving the performance of the agricultural Extension Service. intensive agriculture synthetic N fertilizer denitrification nitrate leaching N deposition
TL;DR: This work reports a general approach for the fabrication of monodisperse, hydrophilic, and single-crystalline ferrite microspheres by a solvothermal reduction method, and is the first report on the synthesis of single- Crystalline magneticmicrospheres.
Abstract: It has been thought that many novel properties and potential applications would emerge from monodisperse materials with small dimensions. Therefore, the synthesis of monodisperse nanoparticles has been intensively pursued for their technological and fundamental scientific importance. The synthesis of nanostructured magnetic materials has become a particularly important area of research and is attracting a growing interest because of the potential applications such materials have in ferrofluids, advanced magnetic materials, catalysts, colored pigments, high-density magnetic recording media, and medical diagnostics. Spinel ferrites (MFe2O4; M = Fe, Mn, Zn, or Co) are among the most important magnetic materials and have been widely used in electronic devices, information storage, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and drug-delivery technology. 14] Magnetite (Fe3O4) has recently been considered an ideal candidate for biological applications, both as a tag for sensing and imaging, and as an activity agent for antitumor therapy. For high performance in function-specific biological applications, magnetic particles must be spherical and have smooth surfaces, narrow size distributions, large surface areas (for maximal protein or enzyme binding), high magnetic saturation (ss) to provide maximum signal, and good dispersion in liquid media. 18,19] After Sugimoto and Matijević reported the preparation of magnetite particles with a narrow size distribution in the early 1980s, monodisperse ferrite has been fabricated by various chemistry-based synthetic methods, including coprecipitation, the reverse micelle method, microwave plasma synthesis, solgel techniques, freeze drying, ultrasound irradiation, hydrothermal methods, laser pyrolysis techniques, and thermal decomposition of organometallic and coordination compounds. 9,14, 18, 20–27] However, most of these approaches were focused on the synthesis of ferrite particles limited to diameters below 30 nm. There are no reports on the synthesis of well-crystallized ferrite nanoparticles with sizes similar to protein molecules. The development of a facile and economic synthetic strategy for the synthesis of hydrophilic, biocompatible magnetite nanoparticles would benefit their technical use in biomedical fields, especially for applications in vivo. Herein we report a general approach for the fabrication of monodisperse, hydrophilic, and single-crystalline ferrite microspheres by a solvothermal reduction method. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the synthesis of single-crystalline magnetic microspheres. The ferrite spheres had monodisperse diameters that were tunable in the range of 200–800 nm. This work resulted in an important method for obtaining various monodisperse, magnetic, and single-crystalline microspheres, and provided an opportunity to further apply these promising materials. Typical syntheses of Fe3O4 and ferrite microspheres were carried out in a solvothermal system by modified reduction reactions between FeCl3 and ethylene glycol. We confirmed the production of Fe3O4 by conducting controlled oxidation reactions in which aand g-Fe2O3 were produced (Supporting Information). 28–29] The crystalline structures of MFe2O4 were characterized by XRD. As shown in Figure 1, the
TL;DR: Results show that chitosan nanoparticles and copper-loaded nanoparticles could inhibit the growth of various bacteria tested and exposed to S. choleraesuis led to the disruption of cell membranes and the leakage of cytoplasm.
Abstract: Chitosan nanoparticles, such as those prepared in this study, may exhibit potential antibacterial activity as their unique character. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activity of chitosan nanoparticles and copper-loaded nanoparticles against various microorganisms. Chitosan nanoparticles were prepared based on the ionic gelation of chitosan with tripolyphosphate anions. Copper ions were adsorbed onto the chitosan nanoparticles mainly by ion-exchange resins and surface chelation to form copper-loaded nanoparticles. The physicochemical properties of the nanoparticles were determined by size and zeta potential analysis, atomic force microscopy (AFM), FTIR analysis, and XRD pattern. The antibacterial activity of chitosan nanoparticles and copper-loaded nanoparticles against E. coli, S. choleraesuis, S. typhimurium, and S. aureus was evaluated by calculation of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). Results show that chitosan nanoparticles and copper-loaded nanoparticles could inhibit the growth of various bacteria tested. Their MIC values were less than 0.25 microg/mL, and the MBC values of nanoparticles reached 1 microg/mL. AFM revealed that the exposure of S. choleraesuis to the chitosan nanoparticles led to the disruption of cell membranes and the leakage of cytoplasm.
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|Russel J. Reiter||169||1646||121010|
|Derek R. Lovley||168||582||95315|
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