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Institution

Stanford University

EducationStanford, California, United States
About: Stanford University is a(n) education organization based out in Stanford, California, United States. It is known for research contribution in the topic(s): Population & Transplantation. The organization has 125751 authors who have published 320347 publication(s) receiving 21892059 citation(s). The organization is also known as: Leland Stanford Junior University & University of Stanford.
Topics: Population, Transplantation, Cancer, Gene, Health care
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The data suggest that the rate of uncoating of vector genomes determines the ability of complementary plus and minus single-stranded genomes to anneal together and convert to stable, biologically active double-Stranded molecular forms.
Abstract: Transduction of the liver with single-stranded adeno-associated virus serotype 2 (AAV2) vectors is inefficient; less than 10% of hepatocytes are permissive for stable transduction, and transgene expression is characterized by a lag phase of up to 6 weeks. AAV2-based vector genomes packaged inside AAV6 or AAV8 capsids can transduce the liver with higher efficiency, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon have not been determined. We now show that the primary barrier to transduction of the liver with vectors based on AAV2 capsids is uncoating of vector genomes in the nucleus. The majority of AAV2 genomes persist as encapsidated single-stranded molecules within the nucleus for as long as 6 weeks after vector administration. Double-stranded vector genomes packaged inside AAV2 capsids are at least 50-fold more active than single-stranded counterparts, but these vectors also exhibit a lag phase before maximal gene expression. Vector genomes packaged inside AAV6 or AAV8 capsids do not persist as encapsidated molecules and are more biologically active than vector genomes packaged inside AAV2 capsids. Our data suggest that the rate of uncoating of vector genomes determines the ability of complementary plus and minus single-stranded genomes to anneal together and convert to stable, biologically active double-stranded molecular forms.

356 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: By applying time-distance helioseismology measurements and inversions to Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI) dynamics campaign data, we obtain synoptic maps of subsurface plasma-flow fields at a depth of 0-12 Mm for seven solar Carrington rotations, covering the years 1996-2002, from solar-activity minimum to maximum. Vorticity distribution and both zonal and meridional flows are derived from such synoptic flow maps, which contain an enormous amount of information about solar dynamics. The results for the zonal flows agree well with previous results. The meridional flows of an order of 20 m s-1 are found to remain poleward during the whole period of observations. In addition to the poleward meridional flows observed at the solar minimum, extra meridional circulation cells of flow converging toward the activity belts are found in both hemispheres, which may imply plasma downdrafts in the activity belts. These converging flow cells migrate toward the solar equator together with the activity belts as the solar cycle evolves. The vorticity distributions are largely linear with latitude, and the deviations from the vorticity caused by the mean differential rotation are presented. Patterns of large-scale flows are investigated for a large active region at different depths. Converging flows toward the center of the active region are found near the solar surface, and divergent flows in this large active region are found to be rooted much deeper than similar flows observed in individual sunspots. We conclude that the extremely rich and complicated dynamics of the upper convection zone reveal remarkable organization on the large scale, which can be correlated with the magnetic activity zones.

356 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: While the importance of effective principals is undisputed, few studies have identified specific skills that principals need to promote school success. This study draws on unique data combining survey responses from principals, assistant principals, teachers, and parents with rich administrative data to determine which principal skills correlate most highly with school outcomes. Factor analysis of a 42-item task inventory distinguishes five skill categories, yet only one of them, the principals’ Organization Management skills, consistently predicts student achievement growth and other success measures. Analysis of evaluations of principals by assistant principals supports this central result. The analysis argues for a broad view of principal leadership that includes organizational management skills as a key complement to the work of supporting curriculum and instruction.

356 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Exposure of cultured endothelial cells to steady laminar shear stress induced increased generation of biologically active TGF beta 1, and blockade of endothelial K+ channels with tetraethylammonium significantly inhibited: activation of TGFbeta 1 gene transcription; increase in steady state mRNA levels; and generation of active T GF beta 1 in response to shearstress.
Abstract: The endothelium has the capacity to modulate vascular structure in response to hemodynamic stimuli. We tested the hypothesis that exposure of the endothelium to increased laminar shear stress induces the expression of TGF beta 1 via a signal transduction pathway modulated by K+ channel currents. Although TGF beta 1 is normally secreted in a latent, inactive form, exposure of cultured endothelial cells to steady laminar shear stress (20 dynes/cm2) induced increased generation of biologically active TGF beta 1. This increase in active TGF beta 1 was associated with a sustained increase in TGF beta 1 mRNA expression within 2 h of stimulation. TGF beta 1 mRNA levels increased in direct proportion to the intensity of the shear stress within the physiologic range. The effect of shear stress on TGF beta 1 mRNA expression was regulated at the transcriptional level as defined by nuclear run-off studies and transient transfection of a TGF beta 1 promoter-reporter gene construct. Blockade of endothelial K+ channels with tetraethylammonium significantly inhibited: activation of TGF beta 1 gene transcription; increase in steady state mRNA levels; and generation of active TGF beta 1 in response to shear stress. These data suggest that endothelial K+ channels and autocrine-paracrine TGF beta 1 may be involved in the mechanotransduction mechanisms mediating flow-induced vascular remodeling.

356 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
01 Aug 2009-Bipolar Disorders
TL;DR: Determination and dissemination of a consensus nomenclature serve as the first step toward producing a validated and standardized system to define course and outcome in bipolar disorders in order to identify predictors of outcome and effects of treatment.
Abstract: Objectives: Via an international panel of experts, this paper attempts to document, review, interpret, and propose operational definitions used to describe the course of bipolar disorders for worldwide use, and to disseminate consensus opinion, supported by the existing literature, in order to better predict course and treatment outcomes. Methods: Under the auspices of the International Society for Bipolar Disorders, a task force was convened to examine, report, discuss, and integrate findings from the scientific literature related to observational and clinical trial studies in order to reach consensus and propose terminology describing course and outcome in bipolar disorders. Results: Consensus opinion was reached regarding the definition of nine terms (response, remission, recovery, relapse, recurrence, subsyndromal states, predominant polarity, switch, and functional outcome) commonly used to describe course and outcomes in bipolar disorders. Further studies are needed to validate the proposed definitions. Conclusion: Determination and dissemination of a consensus nomenclature serve as the first step toward producing a validated and standardized system to define course and outcome in bipolar disorders in order to identify predictors of outcome and effects of treatment. The task force acknowledges that there is limited validity to the proposed terms, as for the most part they represent a consensus opinion. These definitions need to be validated in existing databases and in future studies, and the primary goals of the task force are to stimulate research on the validity of proposed concepts and further standardize the technical nomenclature.

356 citations


Authors

Showing all 125751 results

NameH-indexPapersCitations
Eric S. Lander301826525976
George M. Whitesides2401739269833
Yi Cui2201015199725
Yi Chen2174342293080
David Miller2032573204840
David Baltimore203876162955
Edward Witten202602204199
Irving L. Weissman2011141172504
Hongjie Dai197570182579
Robert M. Califf1961561167961
Frank E. Speizer193636135891
Thomas C. Südhof191653118007
Gad Getz189520247560
Mark Hallett1861170123741
John P. A. Ioannidis1851311193612
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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers from the Institution in previous years
YearPapers
2022177
202117,830
202018,226
201916,189
201814,684
201714,653

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Institution's top 5 most impactful journals

Social Science Research Network

6.8K papers, 333.2K citations

bioRxiv

3.6K papers, 19.5K citations

Science

2.5K papers, 719.5K citations

Nature

2.2K papers, 787.1K citations