European Journal of Applied Physiology
About: European Journal of Applied Physiology is an academic journal. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Isometric exercise & VO2 max. It has an ISSN identifier of 1439-6319. Over the lifetime, 9921 publication(s) have been published receiving 382473 citation(s).
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: The new jumping test seems suitable to evaluate the power output of leg extensor muscles during natural motion because of its high reproducibility and simplicity, and is suitable for laboratory and field conditions.
Abstract: A simple test for the measurement of mechanical power during a vertical rebound jump series has been devised. The test consists of measuring the flight time with a digital timer (+/- 0.001 s) and counting the number of jumps performed during a certain period of time (e.g., 15-60 s). Formulae for calculation of mechanical power from the measured parameters were derived. The relationship between this mechanical power and a modification of the Wingate test (r = 0.87, n = 12 males) and 60 m dash (r = 0.84, n = 12 males) were very close. The mechanical power in a 60 s jumping test demonstrated higher values (20 W X kgBW-1) than the power in a modified (60 s) Wingate test (7 W X kgBW-1) and a Margaria test (14 W X kgBW-1). The estimated powers demonstrated different values because both bicycle riding and the Margaria test reflect primarily chemo-mechanical conversion during muscle contraction, whereas in the jumping test elastic energy is also utilized. Therefore the new jumping test seems suitable to evaluate the power output of leg extensor muscles during natural motion. Because of its high reproducibility (r = 0.95) and simplicity, the test is suitable for laboratory and field conditions.
TL;DR: In this paper, a maximal multistage 20-m shuttle run test for the prediction of O2 max was proposed and validated using the retroextrapolation method, and the results showed that it is a valid and reliable test for predicting the O2max of male and female adults.
Abstract: In order to validate a maximal multistage 20-m shuttle run test for the prediction of $$\dot V$$ O2 max, 91 adults (32 females and 59 males, aged 27.3±9.2 and 24.8±5.5 year respectively and with mean $$\dot V$$ O2 max (± SD) of 39.3±8.3 and 51.6±7.8 ml·kg−1·min−1 respectively) performed the test and had $$\dot V$$ O2 max estimated by the retroextrapolation method (extrapolation to time zero of recovery of the exponential least squares regression of the first four 20-s recovery $$\dot V$$ O2 values). Starting at 8 km·h−1 and increasing by 0.5 km·h−1 every 2 min, the 20-m shuttle run test enabled prediction of the $$\dot V$$ O2 max (y, ml·kg−1·min−1) from the maximal speed (x, km·h−1) by means of the following regression equation: y=5.857x — 19.458; r=0.84 and SEE=5.4. Later, the multistage protocol was slightly modified to its final version, in which the test started at stage 7 Met and continued with a 1 Met (3.5 ml O2·kg−1·min−1) increment every 2 min. Twenty-five of the 91 subjects performed the 20-m shuttle test twice, once on a hard, low-friction surface (vinyl-asbestos tiles) and another time on a rubber floor, as well as a walking maximal multistage test on an inclined treadmill. There was no difference between the means of these tests or between the slopes of the $$\dot V$$ O2max — maximal speed regressions for the two types of surfaces. The 20-m shuttle run test and another maximal multistage field test involving continuous track running gave comparable results (r=0.92, SEE=2.6 ml O2·kg−1·min−1, n=70). Finally, test and retest of the 20-m shuttle run test also yielded comparable results (r=0.975, SEE=2.0 ml O2·kg−1·min−1, n=50). It is concluded that the 20-m shuttle run test is a valid and reliable test for the prediction of the $$\dot V$$ O2 max of male and female adults, individually or in groups, on most gymnasium surfaces.
TL;DR: Low and intermediate RM training appears to induce similar muscular adaptations, at least after short-term training in previously untrained subjects, and both physical performance and the associated physiological adaptations are linked to the intensity and number of repetitions performed, and thus lend support to the strength–endurance continuum.
Abstract: Thirty-two untrained men [mean (SD) age 22.5 (5.8) years, height 178.3 (7.2) cm, body mass 77.8 (11.9) kg] participated in an 8-week progressive resistance-training program to investigate the "strength–endurance continuum". Subjects were divided into four groups: a low repetition group (Low Rep, n=9) performing 3–5 repetitions maximum (RM) for four sets of each exercise with 3 min rest between sets and exercises, an intermediate repetition group (Int Rep, n=11) performing 9–11 RM for three sets with 2 min rest, a high repetition group (High Rep, n=7) performing 20–28 RM for two sets with 1 min rest, and a non-exercising control group (Con, n=5). Three exercises (leg press, squat, and knee extension) were performed 2 days/week for the first 4 weeks and 3 days/week for the final 4 weeks. Maximal strength [one repetition maximum, 1RM), local muscular endurance (maximal number of repetitions performed with 60% of 1RM), and various cardiorespiratory parameters (e.g., maximum oxygen consumption, pulmonary ventilation, maximal aerobic power, time to exhaustion) were assessed at the beginning and end of the study. In addition, pre- and post-training muscle biopsy samples were analyzed for fiber-type composition, cross-sectional area, myosin heavy chain (MHC) content, and capillarization. Maximal strength improved significantly more for the Low Rep group compared to the other training groups, and the maximal number of repetitions at 60% 1RM improved the most for the High Rep group. In addition, maximal aerobic power and time to exhaustion significantly increased at the end of the study for only the High Rep group. All three major fiber types (types I, IIA, and IIB) hypertrophied for the Low Rep and Int Rep groups, whereas no significant increases were demonstrated for either the High Rep or Con groups. However, the percentage of type IIB fibers decreased, with a concomitant increase in IIAB fibers for all three resistance-trained groups. These fiber-type conversions were supported by a significant decrease in MHCIIb accompanied by a significant increase in MHCIIa. No significant changes in fiber-type composition were found in the control samples. Although all three training regimens resulted in similar fiber-type transformations (IIB to IIA), the low to intermediate repetition resistance-training programs induced a greater hypertrophic effect compared to the high repetition regimen. The High Rep group, however, appeared better adapted for submaximal, prolonged contractions, with significant increases after training in aerobic power and time to exhaustion. Thus, low and intermediate RM training appears to induce similar muscular adaptations, at least after short-term training in previously untrained subjects. Overall, however, these data demonstrate that both physical performance and the associated physiological adaptations are linked to the intensity and number of repetitions performed, and thus lend support to the "strength–endurance continuum".
TL;DR: Data suggest that the greater strength of the men was due primarily to larger fibers, and it is difficult to determine the extent to which the larger fibers in men represent a true biological difference rather that a difference in physical activity.
Abstract: Strength and muscle characteristics were examined in biceps brachii and vastus lateralis of eight men and eight women. Measurements included motor unit number, size and activation and voluntary strength of the elbow flexors and knee extensors. Fiber areas and type were determined from needle biopsies and muscle areas by computerized tomographical scanning. The women were approximately 52% and 66% as strong as the men in the upper and lower body respectively. The men were also stronger relative to lean body mass. A significant correlation was found between strength and muscle cross-sectional area (CSA; P≤0.05). The women had 45, 41, 30 and 25% smaller muscle CSAs for the biceps brachii, total elbow flexors, vastus lateralis and total knee extensors respectively. The men had significantly larger type I fiber areas (4597 vs 3483 μm2) and mean fiber areas (6632 vs 3963 μm2) than the women in biceps brachii and significantly larger type II fiber areas (7700 vs 4040 μm2) and mean fiber areas (7070 vs 4290 μm2) in vastus lateralis. No significant gender difference was found in the strength to CSA ratio for elbow flexion or knee extension, in biceps fiber number (180 620 in men vs 156 872 in women), muscle area to fiber area ratio in the vastus lateralis 451 468 vs 465 007) or any motor unit characteristics. Data suggest that the greater strength of the men was due primarily to larger fibers. The greater gender difference in upper body strength can probably be attributed to the fact that women tend to have a lower proportion of their lean tissue distributed in the upper body. It is difficult to determine the extent to which the larger fibers in men represent a true biological difference rather that a difference in physical activity, but these data suggest that it is largely an innate gender difference.
TL;DR: Hypertrophy produced by strength training accounts for 40% of the increase in force while the remaining 60% seems to be attributable to an increased neural drive and possibly to changes in muscle architecture.
Abstract: Four male subjects aged 23–34 years were studied during 60 days of unilateral strength training and 40 days of detraining. Training was carried out four times a week and consisted of six series of ten maximal isokinetic knee extensions at an angular velocity of 2.09 rad·s−1. At the start and at every 20th day of training and detraining, isometric maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), integrated electromyographic activity (iEMG) and quadriceps muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) assessed at seven fractions of femur length (Lf), by nuclear magnetic resonance imaging, were measured on both trained (T) and untrained (UT) legs. Isokinetic torques at 30° before full knee extension were measured before and at the end of training at: 0, 1.05, 2.09, 3.14, 4.19, 5.24 rad·s−1. After 60 days T leg CSA had increased by 8.5%±1.4% (mean±SEM,n=4,p<0.001), iEMG by 42.4%±16.5% (p<0.01) and MVC by 20.8%±5.4% (p<0.01). Changes during detraining had a similar time course to those of training. No changes in UT leg CSA were observed while iEMG and MVC increased by 24.8%±10% (N.S.) and 8.7%±4.3% (N.S.), respectively. The increase in quadriceps muscle CSA was maximal at 2/10 Lf (12.0%±1.5%,p<0.01) and minimal, proximally to the knee, at 8/10 Lf (3.5%±1.2%, N.S.). Preferential hypertrophy of the vastus medialis and intermedius muscles compared to those of the rectus femoris and lateralis muscles was observed. Isoangular torque of T leg increased by 20.9%±5.4% (p<0.05), 23.8%±7.8% (p<0.05) and 22.5%±6.7% (p<0.05) at 0, 1.05 and 2.09 rad·s−1 respectively; no significant change was observed at higher velocities and in the UT leg. Hypertrophy produced by strength training accounts for 40% of the increase in force while the remaining 60% seems to be attributable to an increased neural drive and possibly to changes in muscle architecture.
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