About: Medical Physics is an academic journal published by Wiley. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Dosimetry & Imaging phantom. It has an ISSN identifier of 0094-2405. Over the lifetime, 22213 publications have been published receiving 626958 citations. The journal is also known as: Medical physics online.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: A composite distribution has recently been developed that presents the dose difference in regions that fail both dose-difference and DTA comparison criteria, and a technique is developed to unify dose distribution comparisons using the acceptance criteria.
Abstract: The commissioning of a three-dimensional treatment planning system requires comparisons of measured and calculated dose distributions. Techniques have been developed to facilitate quantitative comparisons, including superimposed isodoses, dose-difference, and distance-to-agreement (DTA) distributions. The criterion for acceptable calculation performance is generally defined as a tolerance of the dose and DTA in regions of low and high dose gradients, respectively. The dose difference and DTA distributions complement each other in their useful regions. A composite distribution has recently been developed that presents the dose difference in regions that fail both dose-difference and DTA comparison criteria. Although the composite distribution identifies locations where the calculation fails the preselected criteria, no numerical quality measure is provided for display or analysis. A technique is developed to unify dose distribution comparisons using the acceptance criteria. The measure of acceptability is the multidimensional distance between the measurement and calculation points in both the dose and the physical distance, scaled as a fraction of the acceptance criteria. In a space composed of dose and spatial coordinates, the acceptance criteria form an ellipsoid surface, the major axis scales of which are determined by individual acceptance criteria and the center of which is located at the measurement point in question. When the calculated dose distribution surface passes through the ellipsoid, the calculation passes the acceptance test for the measurement point. The minimum radial distance between the measurement point and the calculation points (expressed as a surface in the dose–distance space) is termed the γ index. Regions where γ>1 correspond to locations where the calculation does not meet the acceptance criteria. The determination of γ throughout the measured dose distribution provides a presentation that quantitatively indicates the calculation accuracy. Examples of a 6 MV beam penumbra are used to illustrate the γ index.
University of Chicago1, Roy J. and Lucille A. Carver College of Medicine2, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center3, University of California, Los Angeles4, University of Michigan5, Cornell University6, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center7, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai8, National Institute of Standards and Technology9, University of Pittsburgh10, Food and Drug Administration11, Science Applications International Corporation12, Agfa-Gevaert13, iCAD Inc.14, Carestream Health15, Philips16, Siemens17, GE Healthcare18
TL;DR: The goal of this process was to identify as completely as possible all lung nodules in each CT scan without requiring forced consensus and is expected to provide an essential medical imaging research resource to spur CAD development, validation, and dissemination in clinical practice.
Abstract: Purpose: The development of computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) methods for lung nodule detection, classification, and quantitative assessment can be facilitated through a well-characterized repository of computed tomography (CT) scans. The Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC) and Image Database Resource Initiative (IDRI) completed such a database, establishing a publicly available reference for the medical imaging research community. Initiated by the National Cancer Institute (NCI), further advanced by the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health (FNIH), and accompanied by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) through active participation, this public-private partnership demonstrates the success of a consortium founded on a consensus-based process. Methods: Seven academic centers and eight medical imaging companies collaborated to identify, address, and resolve challenging organizational, technical, and clinical issues to provide a solid foundation for a robust database. The LIDC/IDRI Database contains 1018 cases, each of which includes images from a clinical thoracic CT scan and an associated XML file that records the results of a two-phase image annotation process performed by four experienced thoracic radiologists. In the initial blinded-read phase, each radiologist independently reviewed each CT scan and marked lesions belonging to one of three categories (" noduleâ�¥3 mm," " nodule<3 mm," and "non- noduleâ�¥3 mm "). In the subsequent unblinded-read phase, each radiologist independently reviewed their own marks along with the anonymized marks of the three other radiologists to render a final opinion. The goal of this process was to identify as completely as possible all lung nodules in each CT scan without requiring forced consensus. Results: The Database contains 7371 lesions marked "nodule" by at least one radiologist. 2669 of these lesions were marked " nodulâ�¥3 mm " by at least one radiologist, of which 928 (34.7) received such marks from all four radiologists. These 2669 lesions include nodule outlines and subjective nodule characteristic ratings. Conclusions: The LIDC/IDRI Database is expected to provide an essential medical imaging research resource to spur CAD development, validation, and dissemination in clinical practice. Â© 2011 U.S. Government.
Stanford University1, Virginia Commonwealth University2, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center3, University of Michigan4, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center5, Harvard University6, University of Washington7, Cross Cancer Institute8, Netherlands Cancer Institute9, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center10, Johns Hopkins University11
TL;DR: The magnitude of respiratory motion is described, radiotherapy specific problems caused by respiratory motion are discussed, techniques that explicitly manage respiratory motion during radiotherapy are explained, and recommendations in the application of these techniques for patient care are given.
Abstract: This document is the report of a task group of the AAPM and has been prepared primarily to advise medical physicists involved in the external-beam radiation therapy of patients with thoracic, abdominal, and pelvic tumors affected by respiratory motion. This report describes the magnitude of respiratory motion, discusses radiotherapy specific problems caused by respiratory motion, explains techniques that explicitly manage respiratory motion during radiotherapy and gives recommendations in the application of these techniques for patient care, including quality assurance (QA) guidelines for these devices and their use with conformal and intensity modulated radiotherapy. The technologies covered by this report are motion-encompassing methods, respiratory gated techniques, breath-hold techniques, forced shallow-breathing methods, and respiration-synchronized techniques. The main outcome of this report is a clinical process guide for managing respiratory motion. Included in this guide is the recommendation that tumor motion should be measured (when possible) for each patient for whom respiratory motion is a concern. If target motion is greater than 5 mm, a method of respiratory motion management is available, and if the patient can tolerate the procedure, respiratory motion management technology is appropriate. Respiratory motion management is also appropriate when the procedure will increase normal tissue sparing. Respiratory motion management involves further resources, education and the development of and adherence to QA procedures.
TL;DR: This work presents a novel aperture-based algorithm for treatment plan optimization where dose is delivered during a single gantry arc of up to 360 deg, similar to tomotherapy but fundamentally different in that the entire dose volume is delivered in a single source rotation.
Abstract: In this work a novel plan optimization platform is presented where treatment is delivered efficiently and accurately in a single dynamically modulated arc. Improvements in patient care achieved through image-guided positioning and plan adaptation have resulted in an increase in overall treatment times. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy(IMRT) has also increased treatment time by requiring a larger number of beam directions, increased monitor units (MU), and, in the case of tomotherapy, a slice-by-slice delivery. In order to maintain a similar level of patient throughput it will be necessary to increase the efficiency of treatmentdelivery. The solution proposed here is a novel aperture-based algorithm for treatment plan optimization where dose is delivered during a single gantry arc of up to 360 deg. The technique is similar to tomotherapy in that a full 360 deg of beam directions are available for optimization but is fundamentally different in that the entire dose volume is delivered in a single source rotation. The new technique is referred to as volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). Multileaf collimator(MLC) leaf motion and number of MU per degree of gantry rotation is restricted during the optimization so that gantry rotation speed, leaf translation speed, and dose rate maxima do not excessively limit the delivery efficiency. During planning, investigators model continuous gantry motion by a coarse sampling of static gantry positions and fluence maps or MLC aperture shapes. The technique presented here is unique in that gantry and MLC position sampling is progressively increased throughout the optimization. Using the full gantry range will theoretically provide increased flexibility in generating highly conformal treatment plans. In practice, the additional flexibility is somewhat negated by the additional constraints placed on the amount of MLC leaf motion between gantry samples. A series of studies are performed that characterize the relationship between gantry and MLC sampling, dose modeling accuracy, and optimization time. Results show that gantry angle and MLC sample spacing as low as 1 deg and 0.5 cm, respectively, is desirable for accurate dose modeling. It is also shown that reducing the sample spacing dramatically reduces the ability of the optimization to arrive at a solution. The competing benefits of having small and large sample spacing are mutually realized using the progressive sampling technique described here. Preliminary results show that plans generated with VMAT optimization exhibit dose distributions equivalent or superior to static gantry IMRT. Timing studies have shown that the VMAT technique is well suited for on-line verification and adaptation with delivery times that are reduced to ∼ 1.5 – 3 min for a 200 cGy fraction.