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Journal ArticleDOI

A review of active filters for power quality improvement

01 Oct 1999-IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics (IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS)-Vol. 46, Iss: 5, pp 960-971
TL;DR: This paper presents a comprehensive review of active filter configurations, control strategies, selection of components, other related economic and technical considerations, and their selection for specific applications.
Abstract: Active filtering of electric power has now become a mature technology for harmonic and reactive power compensation in two-wire (single phase), three-wire (three phase without neutral), and four-wire (three phase with neutral) AC power networks with nonlinear loads. This paper presents a comprehensive review of active filter (AF) configurations, control strategies, selection of components, other related economic and technical considerations, and their selection for specific applications. It is aimed at providing a broad perspective on the status of AF technology to researchers and application engineers dealing with power quality issues. A list of more than 200 research publications on the subject is also appended for a quick reference.
Citations
More filters
Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper presents an exhaustive review of three-phase improved power quality AC-DC converters configurations, control strategies, selection of components, comparative factors, recent trends, their suitability, and selection for specific applications.
Abstract: Solid-state switch-mode rectification converters have reached a matured level for improving power quality in terms of power-factor correction (PFC), reduced total harmonic distortion at input AC mains and precisely regulated DC output in buck, boost, buck-boost and multilevel modes with unidirectional and bidirectional power flow. This paper deals with a comprehensive review of improved power quality converters (IPQCs) configurations, control approaches, design features, selection of components, other related considerations, and their suitability and selection for specific applications. It is targeted to provide a wide spectrum on the status of IPQC technology to researchers, designers and application engineers working on switched-mode AC-DC converters. A classified list of more than 450 research publications on the state of art of IPQC is also given for a quick reference.

1,691 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
05 Dec 2005
TL;DR: This paper deals with general pure active filters for power conditioning, and specific hybridactive filters for harmonic filtering of three-phase diode rectifiers.
Abstract: Unlike traditional passive harmonic filters, modern active harmonic filters have the following multiple functions: harmonic filtering, damping,isolation and termination, reactive-power control for power factor correction and voltage regulation, load balancing, voltage-flicker reduction, and/or their combinations. Significant cost reductions in both power semiconductor devices and signal processing devices have inspired manufactures to put active filters on the market. This paper deals with general pure active filters for power conditioning, and specific hybrid active filters for harmonic filtering of three-phase diode rectifiers.

954 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a comprehensive review on the unified power quality conditioner (UPQC) to enhance the electric power quality at distribution levels is presented, which is intended to present a broad overview on the different possible UPQC system configurations for single-phase and three-phase (threewire and four-wire) networks, different compensation approaches, and recent developments in the field.
Abstract: This paper presents a comprehensive review on the unified power quality conditioner (UPQC) to enhance the electric power quality at distribution levels. This is intended to present a broad overview on the different possible UPQC system configurations for single-phase (two-wire) and three-phase (three-wire and four-wire) networks, different compensation approaches, and recent developments in the field. It is noticed that several researchers have used different names for the UPQC based on the unique function, task, application, or topology under consideration. Therefore, an acronymic list is developed and presented to highlight the distinguishing feature offered by a particular UPQC. In all 12 acronyms are listed, namely, UPQC-D, UPQC-DG, UPQC-I, UPQC-L, UPQC-MC, UPQC-MD, UPQC-ML, UPQC-P, UPQC-Q, UPQC-R, UPQC-S, and UPQC-VA. More than 150 papers on the topic are rigorously studied and meticulously classified to form these acronyms and are discussed in the paper.

620 citations


Cites methods from "A review of active filters for powe..."

  • ...In general, the UPQC-I, UPQC-MC, UPQC-MD, UPQC-ML, UPQC-D, and UPQC-DG can be based on VSI or CSI converter topology....

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  • ...A CSI-based topology can also be realized for 1P2W UPQC, as given in [11]....

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  • ...The advantages offered by VSI topology over CSI include lighter in weight, no need of blocking diodes, cheaper, capability of multilevel operation, and flexible overall control....

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  • ...3 shows single-line representation of a CSI-based UPQC system configuration....

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  • ...The CSI-based UPQC topology is not popular because of higher losses, cost, and the fact that it cannot be used in multilevel configurations....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a new current control scheme for selective harmonic compensation is proposed for shunt active power filters, which employs an array of resonant current controllers, one for the fundamental, and one for each harmonic, implemented in fundamental reference frame in order to reduce the overall computational effort.
Abstract: A new current control scheme for selective harmonic compensation is proposed for shunt active power filters The method employs an array of resonant current controllers, one for the fundamental, and one for each harmonic, implemented in fundamental reference frame in order to reduce the overall computational effort The proposed controller design is based on the pole-zero cancellation technique, taking into account the load transfer function at each harmonic frequency Two design methods are provided, which give controller transfer functions with superior frequency response The complete current controller is realized as the superposition of all individual harmonic controllers The frequency response of the entire closed loop control is optimal with respect to filtering objectives, ie, the system provides good overall stability and excellent selectivity for interesting harmonics This conclusion is supported by experimental results on a 76-kVA laboratory filter, indicating a reduction in current THD factor from 34% to 2%, while the highest harmonic compensated is the 37th harmonic current

493 citations


Cites background from "A review of active filters for powe..."

  • ...The APF compensation principles were proposed in 1970, and the significant development of power electronics technology has allowed engineers to make the APF a practical reality today [1]–[3]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The results show the effectiveness of the proposed control structure in compensating the voltage unbalance in an islanded microgrid.
Abstract: The concept of microgrid hierarchical control is presented recently. In this paper, a hierarchical scheme is proposed which includes primary and secondary control levels. The primary level comprises distributed generators (DGs) local controllers. The local controllers mainly consist of power, voltage and current controllers, and virtual impedance control loop. The central secondary controller is designed to manage the compensation of voltage unbalance at the point of common coupling (PCC) in an islanded microgrid. Unbalance compensation is achieved by sending proper control signals to the DGs local controllers. The design procedure of the control system is discussed in detail and the simulation results are presented. The results show the effectiveness of the proposed control structure in compensating the voltage unbalance.

407 citations


Cites background from "A review of active filters for powe..."

  • ...Compensation of voltage unbalance is usually done using series active power filter through injection of negative sequence voltage in series with the power distribution line [13]–[15]....

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References
More filters
Journal ArticleDOI

40,330 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a new instantaneous reactive power compensator comprising switching devices is proposed, which requires practically no energy storage components, and is based on the instantaneous value concept for arbitrary voltage and current waveforms.
Abstract: The conventional reactive power in single-phase or three- phase circuits has been defined on the basis of the average value concept for sinusoidal voltage and current waveforms in steady states. The instantaneous reactive power in three-phase circuits is defined on the basis of the instantaneous value concept for arbitrary voltage and current waveforms, including transient states. A new instantaneous reactive power compensator comprising switching devices is proposed which requires practically no energy storage components.

3,331 citations


"A review of active filters for powe..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...[63], synchronous frame d–q theory [145], synchronous detection method [143], and notch filter method...

    [...]

  • ...in the time domain, which are known as instantaneous “p–q” theory [59], [63], [65], [66], [75], [85], [86], [89], [91], synchronous d–q reference frame method [19], [20], [109], [132], [154], synchronous detection method [157], [159],...

    [...]

17 Sep 1991
TL;DR: The advanced static VAr compensator (ASVC) as mentioned in this paper is based on the principle that a self-commutating static inverter can be connected between three-phase AC power lines and an energy storage device, such as an inductor or capacitor, and controlled to draw mainly reactive current from the lines.
Abstract: The advanced static VAr compensator (ASVC) is based on the principle that a self-commutating static inverter can be connected between three-phase AC power lines and an energy-storage device, such as an inductor or capacitor, and controlled to draw mainly reactive current from the lines. This capability is analogous to that of the rotating synchronous condenser and it can be used in a similar way for the dynamic compensation of power transmission systems, providing voltage support, increased transient stability, and improved damping. The authors present a simplified mathematical model of the ASVC that has made it possible to derive the transfer functions needed for control system synthesis. The resulting control system designs are briefly outlined and further analysis is presented to show the behaviour of the ASVC when the line voltage is unbalanced or distorted. The analysis is based on a vectorial transformation of variables, first described by R.H. Park (1928) for AC machine analysis, and later, using complex numbers, by W.V. Lyon (1954) in the theory of instantaneous symmetrical components.

1,039 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jul 1993
TL;DR: In this paper, two fundamentally different types of invertor can be used for this purpose, one providing control of output voltage magnitude and phase angle, and the other having only phase angle control.
Abstract: The advanced static Var compensator (now widely known as the static condenser or STATCON) uses a high power self-commutating inverter to draw reactive current from a transmission line. Two fundamentally different types of invertor can be used for this purpose, one providing control of output voltage magnitude and phase angle, and the other having only phase angle control. For each of these types, the governing equations are derived, and frequency domain analysis is used to obtain the relevant transfer functions for control system synthesis. Further analysis is provided to determine the response of the STATCON to negative sequence and harmonic voltage components on the transmission line. The results are illustrated with measured waveforms obtained from a scaled analogue model of an 80 MVAr STATCON.< >

974 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a generalized theory of instantaneous reactive power for three-phase power systems is proposed, which is valid for sinusoidal or nonsinusoidal, balanced or unbalanced, three phase power systems with or without zero-sequence currents and/or voltages.
Abstract: A generalized theory of instantaneous reactive power for three-phase power systems is proposed in this paper. This theory gives a generalized definition of instantaneous reactive power, which is valid for sinusoidal or nonsinusoidal, balanced or unbalanced, three-phase power systems with or without zero-sequence currents and/or voltages. The properties and physical meanings of the newly defined instantaneous reactive power are discussed in detail. A three-phase harmonic distorted power system with zero-sequence components is then used as an example to show reactive power measurement and compensation using the proposed theory.

755 citations