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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1177/2048872620915655

Acute mesenteric ischaemia in refractory shock on veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.

05 Mar 2021-European heart journal. Acute cardiovascular care (SAGE PublicationsSage UK: London, England)-Vol. 10, Iss: 1, pp 62-70
Abstract: Background:Acute mesenteric ischaemia is a severe complication in critically ill patients, but has never been evaluated in patients on veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (V-A ECMO). ...

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Open access
12 Aug 2017-
Abstract: The use of veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) as a salvage therapy in cardiogenic shock is becoming of current practice. While VA-ECMO is potentially a life-saving technique, results are sometimes mitigated, emphasising the need for selecting the right indication in the right patient. This relies upon a clear definition of the individual therapeutic project, including the potential for recovery as well as the possible complications associated with VA-ECMO. To maximise the benefits of VA-ECMO, the basics of extracorporeal circulation should be perfectly understood since VA-ECMO can sometimes be detrimental. Hence, to be successful, VA-ECMO should be used by teams with sufficient experience and initiated after a thorough multidisciplinary discussion considering patient's medical history, pathology as well the anticipated evolution of the disease.

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Topics: Intensive care unit (58%)

21 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1097/MCC.0000000000000802
Abstract: PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize current evidence on acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI) in critically ill patients, addressing pathophysiology, definition, diagnosis and management.RECENT FINDINGS: A few recent studies showed that a multidiscipliary approach in specialized centers can improve the outcome of AMI. Such approach incorporates current knowledge in pathophysiology, early diagnosis with triphasic computed tomography (CT)-angiography, immediate endovascular or surgical restoration of mesenteric perfusion, and damage control surgery if transmural bowel infarction is present. No specific biomarkers are available to detect early mucosal injury in clinical setting. Nonocclusive mesenteric ischemia presents particular challenges, as the diagnosis based on CT-findings as well as vascular management is more difficult; some recent evidence suggests a possible role of potentially treatable stenosis of superior mesenteric artery and beneficial effect of vasodilator therapy (intravenous or local intra-arterial). Medical management of AMI is supportive, including aiming of euvolemia and balanced systemic oxygen demand/delivery. Enteral nutrition should be withheld during ongoing ischemia-reperfusion injury and be started at low rate after revascularization of the (remaining) bowel is convincingly achieved.SUMMARY: Clinical suspicion leading to tri-phasic CT-angiography is a mainstay for diagnosis. Diagnosis of nonocclusive mesenteric ischemia and early intestinal injury remains challenging. Multidisciplinary team effort may improve the outcome of AMI. (Less)

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Topics: Bowel infarction (59%), Superior mesenteric artery (57%), Revascularization (54%) ... show more

3 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1097/MCO.0000000000000731
Abstract: Purpose of review Circulatory shock is associated with reduced splanchnic blood flow and impaired gut epithelial barrier function (EBF). Early enteral nutrition (EN) has been shown in animal models to preserve EBF. There are limited human data informing early EN in circulatory shock and critical care nutrition guidelines provide disparate recommendations regarding the optimal timing and dose. The purpose of this review is to describe the harms and benefits of early EN in circulatory shock by identifying and appraising recent human data. Recent findings The cumulative risk of nonocclusive bowel ischemia and necrosis in patients with circulatory shock is no higher than 0.3% across observational and randomized controlled trial-level data, and whether the risk is increased by EN delivery remains uncertain. Observational data suggest that early EN in circulatory shock is associated with improved clinical outcomes but data from robust randomized controlled trials remain equivocal, so the optimal timing and dose remain unknown. Summary Based on the best available data, initiating restrictive dose EN into the stomach after initial resuscitation in patients with circulatory shock does not appear to be harmful. In fact, early EN may preserve EBF and improve clinical outcomes.

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Topics: Shock (circulatory) (54%)

2 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1002/NCP.10621
Hasan M. Al-Dorzi1, Yaseen M. Arabi1Institutions (1)
Abstract: This review aims at assessing the safety and efficacy of enteral nutrition in critically ill patients receiving extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, prone positioning, and infusion of neuromuscular blockers. Existing data from randomized controlled trials demonstrate the survival benefit of early enteral nutrition in critically ill patients. Observational data have demonstrated that enteral nutrition in patients receiving extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, prone positioning, and infusion of neuromuscular blockers is generally safe. However, these patients are at increased risk for gastrointestinal complications from enteral nutrition because of critical illness-induced gastrointestinal dysfunction; associated shock; the concomitant use of vasopressor agents, sedatives, and narcotics; possibly mesenteric circulatory compromise; and regurgitation associated with prone positioning. Therefore, early enteral nutrition is generally recommended in these patients in the absence of severe gastrointestinal dysfunction or shock. To reduce the complications, early nutrition should be advanced gradually (trophic feeding or permissive underfeeding), the bed should be tilted to a maximum of 30°, and concentrated nutritional formulae and the use of prokinetics may be considered to treat enteral feeding intolerance. Physicians should be vigilant about monitoring for early signs of acute mesenteric ischemia, which should lead to holding enteral feeding. Parenteral nutrition may be utilized in patients who cannot receive enteral nutrition or are unable to reach their nutrition goals by the end of the first week.

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2 Citations



References
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47 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.7326/0003-4819-147-8-200710160-00010-W1
Abstract: Much medical research is observational. The reporting of observational studies is often of insufficient quality. Poor reporting hampers the assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of a study and the generalizability of its results. Taking into account empirical evidence and theoretical considerations, a group of methodologists, researchers, and editors developed the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) recommendations to improve the quality of reporting of observational studies. The STROBE Statement consists of a checklist of 22 items, which relate to the title, abstract, introduction, methods, results, and discussion sections of articles. Eighteen items are common to cohort studies, case-control studies, and cross-sectional studies, and 4 are specific to each of the 3 study designs. The STROBE Statement provides guidance to authors about how to improve the reporting of observational studies and facilitates critical appraisal and interpretation of studies by reviewers, journal editors, and readers. This explanatory and elaboration document is intended to enhance the use, understanding, and dissemination of the STROBE Statement. The meaning and rationale for each checklist item are presented. For each item, 1 or several published examples and, where possible, references to relevant empirical studies and methodological literature are provided. Examples of useful flow diagrams are also included. The STROBE Statement, this document, and the associated Web site (www.strobe-statement.org) should be helpful resources to improve reporting of observational research.

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2,393 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(17)32146-3
13 Jan 2018-The Lancet
Abstract: Summary Background Whether the route of early feeding affects outcomes of patients with severe critical illnesses is controversial. We hypothesised that outcomes were better with early first-line enteral nutrition than with early first-line parenteral nutrition. Methods In this randomised, controlled, multicentre, open-label, parallel-group study (NUTRIREA-2 trial) done at 44 French intensive-care units (ICUs), adults (18 years or older) receiving invasive mechanical ventilation and vasopressor support for shock were randomly assigned (1:1) to either parenteral nutrition or enteral nutrition, both targeting normocaloric goals (20–25 kcal/kg per day), within 24 h after intubation. Randomisation was stratified by centre using permutation blocks of variable sizes. Given that route of nutrition cannot be masked, blinding of the physicians and nurses was not feasible. Patients receiving parenteral nutrition could be switched to enteral nutrition after at least 72 h in the event of shock resolution (no vasopressor support for 24 consecutive hours and arterial lactate Findings After the second interim analysis, the independent Data Safety and Monitoring Board deemed that completing patient enrolment was unlikely to significantly change the results of the trial and recommended stopping patient recruitment. Between March 22, 2013, and June 30, 2015, 2410 patients were enrolled and randomly assigned; 1202 to the enteral group and 1208 to the parenteral group. By day 28, 443 (37%) of 1202 patients in the enteral group and 422 (35%) of 1208 patients in the parenteral group had died (absolute difference estimate 2·0%; [95% CI −1·9 to 5·8]; p=0·33). Cumulative incidence of patients with ICU-acquired infections did not differ between the enteral group (173 [14%]) and the parenteral group (194 [16%]; hazard ratio [HR] 0·89 [95% CI 0·72–1·09]; p=0·25). Compared with the parenteral group, the enteral group had higher cumulative incidences of patients with vomiting (406 [34%] vs 246 [20%]; HR 1·89 [1·62–2·20]; p vs 393 [33%]; 1·20 [1·05–1·37]; p=0·009), bowel ischaemia (19 [2%] vs five [ vs three [ Interpretation In critically ill adults with shock, early isocaloric enteral nutrition did not reduce mortality or the risk of secondary infections but was associated with a greater risk of digestive complications compared with early isocaloric parenteral nutrition. Funding La Roche-sur-Yon Departmental Hospital and French Ministry of Health.

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232 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1053/J.SEMVASCSURG.2009.12.001
Abstract: The overall incidence rate of acute mesenteric ischemia between 1970 and 1982, diagnosed at either autopsy or operation, in the population of Malmo, Sweden was estimated at 12.9/100,000 person-years. Autopsy rate was 87%. Acute superior mesenteric artery (SMA) occlusion (embolus/thrombus ratio = 1.4), mesenteric venous thrombosis (MVT), and nonocclusive mesenteric ischemia (NOMI) were found in approximately 68%, 16%, and 16%, respectively. Acute SMA occlusion was found to be more common than ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms. The incidence increased exponentially with age, equally distributed among men and women after adjusting for age and gender in the population. Thrombotic occlusions were located more proximally than embolic occlusions and intestinal infarction was more extensive, whereas patients with embolus had a higher frequency of acute myocardial infarction, and had cardiac thrombi in 48% and synchronous emboli in 68% of the patients. The proportion of patients with symptoms inherent with chronic mesenteric ischemia prior to onset of acute thrombotic occlusion has been reported to occur in 73%. Cardiac failure, history of atrial fibrillation, and recent surgery have all been associated with fatal NOMI. MVT is either caused by thrombophilia, direct injury, or local venous congestion or stasis. Multidetector row computed tomography with intravenous contrast enhancement and imaging in the arterial phase for suspicion of acute SMA occlusion and imaging in the venous phase for MVT has become the diagnostic method of choice. In-hospital mortality is highest for NOMI, lower for acute SMA occlusion, and lowest, around 20%, for MVT.

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Topics: Superior mesenteric artery (58%), Embolus (54%), Occlusion (52%) ... show more

190 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1186/S13017-017-0150-5
Miklosh Bala1, Jeffry L. Kashuk2, Ernest E. Moore3, Yoram Kluger4  +15 moreInstitutions (10)
Abstract: Acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI) is typically defined as a group of diseases characterized by an interruption of the blood supply to varying portions of the small intestine, leading to ischemia and secondary inflammatory changes. If untreated, this process will eventuate in life threatening intestinal necrosis. The incidence is low, estimated at 0.09–0.2% of all acute surgical admissions. Therefore, although the entity is an uncommon cause of abdominal pain, diligence is always required because if untreated, mortality has consistently been reported in the range of 50%. Early diagnosis and timely surgical intervention are the cornerstones of modern treatment and are essential to reduce the high mortality associated with this entity. The advent of endovascular approaches in parallel with modern imaging techniques may provide new options. Thus, we believe that a current position paper from World Society of Emergency Surgery (WSES) is warranted, in order to put forth the most recent and practical recommendations for diagnosis and treatment of AMI. This review will address the concepts of AMI with the aim of focusing on specific areas where early diagnosis and management hold the strongest potential for improving outcomes in this disease process. Some of the key points include the prompt use of CT angiography to establish the diagnosis, evaluation of the potential for revascularization to re-establish blood flow to ischemic bowel, resection of necrotic intestine, and use of damage control techniques when appropriate to allow for re-assessment of bowel viability prior to definitive anastomosis and abdominal closure.

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Topics: Mesenteric ischemia (61%), Damage control surgery (54%), Abdominal pain (53%) ... show more

179 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1186/2110-5820-1-45
Nicolas Mongardon1, Florence Dumas2, Sylvie Ricome1, David Grimaldi1  +4 moreInstitutions (2)
Abstract: The prognosis for postcardiac arrest patients remains very bleak, not only because of anoxic-ischemic neurological damage, but also because of the "postcardiac arrest syndrome," a phenomenon often severe enough to cause death before any neurological evaluation. This syndrome includes all clinical and biological manifestations related to the phenomenon of global ischemia-reperfusion triggered by cardiac arrest and return of spontaneous circulation. The main component of the postcardiac arrest syndrome is an early but severe cardiocirculatory dysfunction that may lead to multiple organ failure and death. Cardiovascular support relies on conventional medical and mechanical treatment of circulatory failure. Hemodynamic stabilization is a major objective to limit secondary brain insult. When the cause of cardiac arrest is related to myocardial infarction, percutaneous coronary revascularization is associated with improved prognosis; early angiographic exploration should then be discussed when there is no obvious extracardiac cause. Therapeutic hypothermia is now the cornerstone of postanoxic cerebral protection. Its widespread use is clearly recommended, with a favorable risk-benefit ratio in selected population. Neuroprotection also is based on the prevention of secondary cerebral damages, pending the results of ongoing therapeutic evaluations regarding the potential efficiency of new therapeutic drugs.

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146 Citations