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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/COATINGS11030293

Developments in Chemical Treatments, Manufacturing Techniques and Potential Applications of Natural-Fibers-Based Biodegradable Composites

04 Mar 2021-THE Coatings (Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute)-Vol. 11, Iss: 3, pp 293
Abstract: The utilization of synthetic materials stimulates environmental concerns, and researchers worldwide are effectively reacting to environmental concerns by transitioning towards biodegradable and sustainable materials. Natural fibers like jute and sisal have been being utilized for ages in several applications, such as ropes, building materials, particle boards, etc. The absence of essential information in preparing the natural-fiber-reinforced materials is still a challenge for future applications. Chemical treatments and surface modifications can improve the quality of the natural fibers. Natural-fiber-based composites are a potential candidate for many lightweight engineering applications with significant mechanical properties. In the view of the progressive literature reported in the field, this work aims to present the significance of natural fibers, their composites, and the main factors influencing these materials for various applications (automotive industry, for instance). Secondly, we aim to address different surface modifications and chemical treatments on natural fibers and finally provide an overview of natural fiber reinforced polymer composites’ potential applications.

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Topics: Natural fiber (51%)
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11 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.RINENG.2021.100232
01 Jun 2021-
Abstract: Polymer-based composites have an exceptional perspective to replace traditional structural materials like steel and aluminium, owing to their low weight, high strength, and outstanding performance at elevated temperatures. However, the utilization of natural reinforcements for functional polymer composites is still in infancy. In this study, the tensile properties of natural and synthetic fiber-reinforced hybrid composites are reported. Glass-jute hybrid composites, prepared through hand layup technique, were used with different glass and jute fiber stacking sequences. The experimental results stipulate that the tensile properties of glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) were merely affected at lower jute fiber concentration. The strength of composites consisting of single jute fabric lamina and four glass-fiber laminas were comparable with five-laminas GFRP composites. For validation of the experimental tensile testing results, a numerical simulation was also executed. Errors between experimental and numerical simulations were found for different stacking sequences due to non-uniformity in jute fiber diameter and the manufacturing process adopted for these hybrid composites. Fractographic analysis revealed the micro voids and adhesive failure at different joining layers of fibers as the primary cause of delamination.

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Topics: Tensile testing (56%), Ultimate tensile strength (56%), Delamination (53%) ... show more

6 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.JMRT.2021.07.016
Abstract: Polymer nanocomposites have attracted increasing interest in research and development with several current and potential industrial applications due to their wide margin of superiority over conventional materials. Polymer composites provide a higher strength-to-weight ratio, easily customizable product properties, flexible manufacturing processes, high resistance to corrosion or erosion, and lower cost. The recent progress in additive manufacturing (AM) methods has paved the way for even a broader range of flexibilities in design and materials in several industrial sectors, including aerospace, biomedical, construction, electronics, telecommunication, mechanical, and defense. However, some hindrances remain in the synthesis of polymer composites and their fabrication through AM technologies. A comparative review of AM processes for polymer composites and their applications is presented in this study. This study aims to provide engineers and scientists with an updated understanding of the underlying issues, barriers, limitations, and opportunities. It will also help the reader to systematically reveal the research problems and future directions related to materials synthesis and AM processes.

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5 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.JMRT.2021.07.128
Abstract: The research interest in sustainable and eco-friendly materials based on natural sources has increased dramatically due to their recyclability, biodegradability, compatibility, and nontoxic behavior. Nanocellulose contains chains of glucose residue and is an abundantly available green material. Recently, nanocellulose-based green composites are under extensive exploration and gained popularity among researchers owing to their lightweight, lost cost, low density, excellent mechanical and physical characteristics. These materials have also shown tremendous potential for applications in biomedical and numerous engineering fields. The mechanical properties of these materials play a vital role in effective utilization and their exploration for future applications. This review article comprehensively presents current developments, results, and findings in the arena of green and sustainable materials. Currently, the main problem is the large variability in their properties and qualities. Nanocellulose properties are influenced by various factors, including the fiber type, ecological conditions, manufacturing methods, and any alteration of the fiber surface. Finally, the review incorporates future challenges and opportunities in the field of nano cellulosic materials.

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Topics: Nanocellulose (53%)

5 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.FINMEC.2021.100038
01 Oct 2021-
Abstract: The aircraft industry is always seeking materials with excellent mechanical properties and good strength to weight ratio. Fiber metal laminates (FMLs) are the emerging class of hybrid composite materials consisting of fiber-reinforced polymers (FRP) plies and metal sheets. Aircraft parts are subjected to different types of mechanical loading during operation. Combining the properties of FRPs and metals provides excellent resistance to impact as well as improves the fatigue performance of the aircraft. In this study, aluminum 7075-T6 sheets were used to fabricate FMLs with varying fiber reinforcements. These sheets were treated with different surface and chemical treatment processes. The short beam shear test is utilized in this work that gives practical information on interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) and it can also be employed in real design applications. The results indicated that the ILSS of carbon fiber reinforced aluminum laminates (CARALL) was higher than glass-reinforced aluminum laminates (GLARE) and aramid-reinforced aluminum laminates (ARALL) at all displacement rates. The reason for the higher ILSS of CARALL is due to the stifness of carbon fiber and the strong adhesion of carbon with aluminum metal. However, ILSS for all three types of FMLs did not change significantly which shows that it is independent of displacement rates.

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Topics: Specific strength (51%), Direct shear test (51%)

5 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.RINENG.2021.100263
01 Sep 2021-
Abstract: In the contemporary world, natural fibers reinforced polymer composite (NFRPC) materials are of great interest owing to their eco-friendly nature, lightweight, life-cycle superiority, biodegradability, low cost, noble mechanical properties. NFRPCs are widely applied in various engineering applications and this research field is continuously developing. However, the researchers are facing numerous challenges regarding the developments and applications of NFPRCs due to the inherent characteristics of natural fibers (NFs). These challenges include quality of the fiber, thermal stability, water absorption capacity, and incompatibility with the polymer matrices. Ecological and economic concerns are animating new research in the field of NFRPCs. Furthermore, considerable research is carried out to improve the performance of NFRPCs in recent years. This review highlights some of the important breakthroughs associated with the NFRPCs in terms of sustainability, eco-friendliness, and economic perspective. It also includes hybridization of NFs with synthetic fibers which is a highly effective way of improving the mechanical properties of NFRPCs along with some chemical treatment procedures. This review also elucidates the significance of using numerical models for NFRPCs. Finally, conclusions and recommendations are drawn to assist the researchers with future research directions.

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3 Citations


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133 results found


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0079-6700(98)00018-5
Abstract: This review article concerning natural and man-made cellulose fibre reinforced plastics, introduces possible applications of this material group. The physical properties of natural fibres are mainly determined by the chemical and physical composition, such as the structure of fibres, cellulose content, angle of fibrils, cross-section, and by the degree of polymerization. Only a few characteristic values, but especially the specific mechanical properties, can reach comparable values of traditional reinforcing fibres. This physical structure can be modified by using alkali treatment and acetylation processes. The application of natural fibres as reinforcements in composite materials requires, just as for glass-fibre reinforced composites, a strong adhesion between the fibre and the matrix, regardless of whether a traditional polymer (thermoplastics or thermosets) matrix, a biodegradable polymer matrix or cement is used. Further this article gives a survey about physical and chemical treatment methods which improve the fibre matrix adhesion, their results and effects on the physical properties of composites. These different treatments change among others the hydrophilic character of the natural fibres, so that moisture effects in the composite are reduced. To bring about hydrophobic properties to natural fibres, a special treatment, termed acetylation, can be used. The effectiveness of this method is strongly influenced by the treatment conditions used. The mechanical and other physical properties of the composite are generally dependent on the fibre content, which also determines the possible amount of coupling agents in the composite. The influence of such treatments by taking into account fibre content on the creep, quasi-static, cyclic dynamic and impact behaviour of natural fibre reinforced plastics are discussed in detail. For special performance requirements, hybrid composites made of natural and conventional fibres can be prepared with desired properties. The processing conditions play, next to the mechanical properties of natural fibres, an important role for the industrial use of these materials. The results presented in this paper show, that natural fibres can be processed with the already commonly applied methods: glass mat thermoplastic matrix (GMT), sheet moulding compound (SMC) or bulk moulding compound (BMC). For the processing of thermoplastics reinforced with natural fibres, new methods (e.g. the “EXPRESS” processing) are of increasing importance. Natural fibres seem to have little resistance towards environmental influences. This can be recognized in the composite and can be advantageously utilized for the development of biological degradable composites with good physical properties.

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3,889 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.PROGPOLYMSCI.2012.04.003
Omar Faruk1, Omar Faruk2, Andrzej K. Bledzki3, Andrzej K. Bledzki1  +2 moreInstitutions (4)
Abstract: Due to environment and sustainability issues, this century has witnessed remarkable achievements in green technology in the field of materials science through the development of biocomposites. The development of high-performance materials made from natural resources is increasing worldwide. The greatest challenge in working with natural fiber reinforced plastic composites is their large variation in properties and characteristics. A biocomposite's properties are influenced by a number of variables, including the fiber type, environmental conditions (where the plant fibers are sourced), processing methods, and any modification of the fiber. It is also known that recently there has been a surge of interest in the industrial applications of composites containing biofibers reinforced with biopolymers. Biopolymers have seen a tremendous increase in use as a matrix for biofiber reinforced composites. A comprehensive review of literature (from 2000 to 2010) on the mostly readily utilized natural fibers and biopolymers is presented in this paper. The overall characteristics of reinforcing fibers used in biocomposites, including source, type, structure, composition, as well as mechanical properties, will be reviewed. Moreover, the modification methods; physical (corona and plasma treatment) and chemical (silane, alkaline, acetylation, maleated coupling, and enzyme treatment) will be discussed. The most popular matrices in biofiber reinforced composites based on petrochemical and renewable resources will also be addressed. The wide variety of biocomposite processing techniques as well as the factors (moisture content, fiber type and content, coupling agents and their influence on composites properties) affecting these processes will be discussed. Prior to the processing of biocomposites, semi-finished product manufacturing is also vital, which will be illustrated. Processing technologies for biofiber reinforced composites will be discussed based on thermoplastic matrices (compression molding, extrusion, injection molding, LFT-D-method, and thermoforming), and thermosets (resin transfer molding, sheet molding compound). Other implemented processes, i.e., thermoset compression molding and pultrusion and their influence on mechanical performance (tensile, flexural and impact properties) will also be evaluated. Finally, the review will conclude with recent developments and future trends of biocomposites as well as key issues that need to be addressed and resolved.

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Topics: Biocomposite (63%), Transfer molding (56%), Compression molding (54%) ... show more

2,573 Citations


D. Nabi Saheb1, Jyoti P. Jog1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Natural fiber reinforced composites is an emerging area in polymer science. These natural fibers are low cost fibers with low density and high specific properties. These are biodegradable and non-abrasive. The natural fiber composites offer specific properties comparable to those of conventional fiber composites. However, in development of these composites, the incompatibility of the fibers and poor resistance to moisture often reduce the potential of natural fibers and these draw backs become critical issue. This review presents the reported work on natural fiber reinforced composites with special reference to the type of fibers, matrix polymers, treatment of fibers and fiber-matrix interface. © 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Adv in Polymer Techn 18: 351–363, 1999

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Topics: Fiber (63%), Natural fiber (62%)

2,031 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S10924-006-0042-3
Xue Li1, Lope G. Tabil1, S. Panigrahi1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Studies on the use of natural fibers as replacement to man-made fiber in fiber-reinforced composites have increased and opened up further industrial possibilities. Natural fibers have the advantages of low density, low cost, and biodegradability. However, the main disadvantages of natural fibers in composites are the poor compatibility between fiber and matrix and the relative high moisture sorption. Therefore, chemical treatments are considered in modifying the fiber surface properties. In this paper, the different chemical modifications on natural fibers for use in natural fiber-reinforced composites are reviewed. Chemical treatments including alkali, silane, acetylation, benzoylation, acrylation, maleated coupling agents, isocyanates, permanganate and others are discussed. The chemical treatment of fiber aimed at improving the adhesion between the fiber surface and the polymer matrix may not only modify the fiber surface but also increase fiber strength. Water absorption of composites is reduced and their mechanical properties are improved.

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Topics: Natural fiber (63%)

1,914 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S11837-006-0234-2
James David Holbery1, Dan Houston2Institutions (2)
01 Nov 2006-JOM
Abstract: In the past decade, natural-fiber composites with thermoplastic and thermoset matrices have been embraced by European car manufacturers and suppliers for door panels, seat backs, headliners, package trays, dashboards, and interior parts. Natural fibers such as kenaf, hemp, flax, jute, and sisal offer such benefits as reductions in weight, cost, and CO2, less reliance on foreign oil sources, and recyclability. However, several major technical considerations must be addressed before the engineering, scientific, and commercial communities gain the confidence to enable wide-scale acceptance, particularly in exterior parts where a Class A surface finish is required. Challenges include the homogenization of the fiber's properties and a full understanding of the degree of polymerization and crystallization, adhesion between the fiber and matrix, moisture repellence, and flame-retardant properties, to name but a few.

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1,049 Citations


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No. of citations received by the Paper in previous years
YearCitations
20221
202110