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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1109/TWC.2021.3061407

Downlink Single-Snapshot Localization and Mapping With a Single-Antenna Receiver

02 Mar 2021-IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE))-Vol. 20, Iss: 7, pp 4672-4684
Abstract: 5G mmWave MIMO systems enable accurate estimation of the user position and mapping of the radio environment using a single snapshot when both the base station (BS) and user are equipped with large antenna arrays. However, massive arrays are initially expected only at the BS side, likely leaving users with one or very few antennas. In this paper, we propose a novel method for single-snapshot localization and mapping in the more challenging case of a user equipped with a single-antenna receiver. The joint maximum likelihood (ML) estimation problem is formulated and its solution formally derived. To avoid the burden of a full-dimensional search over the space of the unknown parameters, we present a novel practical approach that exploits the sparsity of mmWave channels to compute an approximate joint ML estimate. A thorough analysis, including the derivation of the Cramer-Rao lower bounds, reveals that accurate localization and mapping can be achieved also in a MISO setup even when the direct line-of-sight path between the BS and the user is severely attenuated.

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Topics: Antenna (radio) (52%), MIMO (51%), Base station (50%)
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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/S20164656
Yu Ge1, Fuxi Wen1, Hyowon Kim2, Meifang Zhu3  +4 moreInstitutions (3)
18 Aug 2020-Sensors
Abstract: 5G communication systems operating above 24 GHz have promising properties for user localization and environment mapping. Existing studies have either relied on simplified abstract models of the signal propagation and the measurements, or are based on direct positioning approaches, which directly map the received waveform to a position. In this study, we consider an intermediate approach, which consists of four phases-downlink data transmission, multi-dimensional channel estimation, channel parameter clustering, and simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) based on a novel likelihood function. This approach can decompose the problem into simpler steps, thus leading to lower complexity. At the same time, by considering an end-to-end processing chain, we are accounting for a wide variety of practical impairments. Simulation results demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed approach.

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14 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/S20123578
Kh Tohidul Islam1, Kh Tohidul Islam2, Ram Gopal Raj2, Syed Islam3  +5 moreInstitutions (5)
24 Jun 2020-Sensors
Abstract: Automatic vehicle license plate recognition is an essential part of intelligent vehicle access control and monitoring systems With the increasing number of vehicles, it is important that an effective real-time system for automated license plate recognition is developed Computer vision techniques are typically used for this task However, it remains a challenging problem, as both high accuracy and low processing time are required in such a system Here, we propose a method for license plate recognition that seeks to find a balance between these two requirements The proposed method consists of two stages: detection and recognition In the detection stage, the image is processed so that a region of interest is identified In the recognition stage, features are extracted from the region of interest using the histogram of oriented gradients method These features are then used to train an artificial neural network to identify characters in the license plate Experimental results show that the proposed method achieves a high level of accuracy as well as low processing time when compared to existing methods, indicating that it is suitable for real-time applications

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6 Citations


Open accessPosted Content
Abstract: MmWave multiple-input single-output (MISO) systems using a single-antenna receiver are regarded as promising solution for the near future, before the full-fledged 5G MIMO will be widespread. However, for MISO systems synchronization cannot be performed jointly with user localization unless two-way transmissions are used. In this paper we show that thanks to the use of a reconfigurable intelligent surface (RIS), joint localization and synchronization is possible with only downlink MISO transmissions. The direct maximum likelihood (ML) estimator for the position and clock offset is derived. To obtain a good initialization for the ML optimization, a decoupled, relaxed estimator of position and delays is also devised, which does not require knowledge of the clock offset. Results show that the proposed approach attains the Cram\'er-Rao lower bound even for moderate values of the system parameters.

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Topics: Synchronization (54%), MIMO (51%)

5 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/FI13060159
18 Jun 2021-Future Internet
Abstract: The race for the 6th generation of wireless networks (6G) has begun. Researchers around the world have started to explore the best solutions for the challenges that the previous generations have experienced. To provide the readers with a clear map of the current developments, several review papers shared their vision and critically evaluated the state of the art. However, most of the work is based on general observations and the big picture vision, and lack the practical implementation challenges of the Internet of Things (IoT) use cases. This paper takes a novel approach in the review, as we present a sample of IoT use cases that are representative of a wide variety of its implementations. The chosen use cases are from the most research-active sectors that can benefit from 6G and its enabling technologies. These sectors are healthcare, smart grid, transport, and Industry 4.0. Additionally, we identified some of the practical challenges and the lessons learned in the implementation of these use cases. The review highlights the cases’ main requirements and how they overlap with the key drivers for the future generation of wireless networks.

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Topics: Industry 4.0 (52%)

4 Citations


Open accessProceedings ArticleDOI: 10.1109/ICASSP39728.2021.9413515
06 Jun 2021-
Abstract: MmWave multiple-input single-output (MISO) systems using a single-antenna receiver are regarded as a promising solution for the near future, before the full-fledged 5G MIMO will be widespread. However, for MISO systems synchronization cannot be performed jointly with user localization unless two-way transmissions are used. In this paper we show that thanks to the use of a reconfigurable intelligent surface (RIS), joint localization and synchronization is possible with only downlink MISO transmissions. The direct maximum likelihood (ML) estimator for the position and clock offset is derived. To obtain a good initialization for the ML optimization, a decoupled, relaxed estimator of position and delays is also devised, which does not require knowledge of the clock offset. Results show that the proposed approach attains the Cramer-Rao lower bound even for moderate values of the system parameters.

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Topics: Synchronization (54%), MIMO (51%)

2 Citations


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54 results found


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1137/S1052623496303470
Abstract: The Nelder--Mead simplex algorithm, first published in 1965, is an enormously popular direct search method for multidimensional unconstrained minimization. Despite its widespread use, essentially no theoretical results have been proved explicitly for the Nelder--Mead algorithm. This paper presents convergence properties of the Nelder--Mead algorithm applied to strictly convex functions in dimensions 1 and 2. We prove convergence to a minimizer for dimension 1, and various limited convergence results for dimension 2. A counterexample of McKinnon gives a family of strictly convex functions in two dimensions and a set of initial conditions for which the Nelder--Mead algorithm converges to a nonminimizer. It is not yet known whether the Nelder--Mead method can be proved to converge to a minimizer for a more specialized class of convex functions in two dimensions.

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Topics: Simplex algorithm (58%), Convex function (56%), Nelder–Mead method (54%) ... show more

6,497 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1109/ACCESS.2013.2260813
Theodore S. Rappaport1, Shu Sun1, Rimma Mayzus1, Hang Zhao1  +6 moreInstitutions (1)
10 May 2013-IEEE Access
Abstract: The global bandwidth shortage facing wireless carriers has motivated the exploration of the underutilized millimeter wave (mm-wave) frequency spectrum for future broadband cellular communication networks. There is, however, little knowledge about cellular mm-wave propagation in densely populated indoor and outdoor environments. Obtaining this information is vital for the design and operation of future fifth generation cellular networks that use the mm-wave spectrum. In this paper, we present the motivation for new mm-wave cellular systems, methodology, and hardware for measurements and offer a variety of measurement results that show 28 and 38 GHz frequencies can be used when employing steerable directional antennas at base stations and mobile devices.

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Topics: Mobile telephony (56%), Cellular network (55%), Cellular communication (54%) ... show more

5,589 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1109/MCOM.2014.6736761
Abstract: Multi-user MIMO offers big advantages over conventional point-to-point MIMO: it works with cheap single-antenna terminals, a rich scattering environment is not required, and resource allocation is simplified because every active terminal utilizes all of the time-frequency bins. However, multi-user MIMO, as originally envisioned, with roughly equal numbers of service antennas and terminals and frequency-division duplex operation, is not a scalable technology. Massive MIMO (also known as large-scale antenna systems, very large MIMO, hyper MIMO, full-dimension MIMO, and ARGOS) makes a clean break with current practice through the use of a large excess of service antennas over active terminals and time-division duplex operation. Extra antennas help by focusing energy into ever smaller regions of space to bring huge improvements in throughput and radiated energy efficiency. Other benefits of massive MIMO include extensive use of inexpensive low-power components, reduced latency, simplification of the MAC layer, and robustness against intentional jamming. The anticipated throughput depends on the propagation environment providing asymptotically orthogonal channels to the terminals, but so far experiments have not disclosed any limitations in this regard. While massive MIMO renders many traditional research problems irrelevant, it uncovers entirely new problems that urgently need attention: the challenge of making many low-cost low-precision components that work effectively together, acquisition and synchronization for newly joined terminals, the exploitation of extra degrees of freedom provided by the excess of service antennas, reducing internal power consumption to achieve total energy efficiency reductions, and finding new deployment scenarios. This article presents an overview of the massive MIMO concept and contemporary research on the topic.

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Topics: 3G MIMO (72%), Multi-user MIMO (66%), Spatial multiplexing (63%) ... show more

5,302 Citations


Open accessBook
10 Sep 2007-
Abstract: Co-authored by four leading scientists from academia and industry, Numerical Recipes Third Edition starts with basic mathematics and computer science and proceeds to complete, working routines. Widely recognized as the most comprehensive, accessible and practical basis for scientific computing, this new edition incorporates more than 400 Numerical Recipes routines, many of them new or upgraded. The executable C++ code, now printed in color for easy reading, adopts an object-oriented style particularly suited to scientific applications. The whole book is presented in the informal, easy-to-read style that made earlier editions so popular. Please visit www.nr.com or www.cambridge.org/us/numericalrecipes for more details. New key features: 2 new chapters, 25 new sections, 25% longer than Second Edition Thorough upgrades throughout the text Over 100 completely new routines and upgrades of many more. New Classification and Inference chapter, including Gaussian mixture models, HMMs, hierarchical clustering, Support Vector MachinesNew Computational Geometry chapter covers KD trees, quad- and octrees, Delaunay triangulation, and algorithms for lines, polygons, triangles, and spheres New sections include interior point methods for linear programming, Monte Carlo Markov Chains, spectral and pseudospectral methods for PDEs, and many new statistical distributions An expanded treatment of ODEs with completely new routines Plus comprehensive coverage of linear algebra, interpolation, special functions, random numbers, nonlinear sets of equations, optimization, eigensystems, Fourier methods and wavelets, statistical tests, ODEs and PDEs, integral equations, and inverse theory And much, much more! Visit the authors' web site for information about electronic subscriptions www.nr.com/aboutNR3book.html

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Topics: Linear algebra (50%)

3,858 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1109/MRA.2006.1638022
Abstract: This paper describes the simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) problem and the essential methods for solving the SLAM problem and summarizes key implementations and demonstrations of the method. While there are still many practical issues to overcome, especially in more complex outdoor environments, the general SLAM method is now a well understood and established part of robotics. Another part of the tutorial summarized more recent works in addressing some of the remaining issues in SLAM, including computation, feature representation, and data association

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3,209 Citations


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20203
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