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Journal ArticleDOI

Effect of curing on the internal structure of polyphenylene sulphide coatings

01 Sep 1986-Thin Solid Films (Elsevier)-Vol. 142, Iss: 2, pp 213-226
Abstract: Internal structural changes in polyphenylene sulphide coatings have been investigated as a function of curing temperature by means of scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and IR spectroscopy. The adhesion, recrystallization behaviour and chemical resistance of the films were found to be dependent on the curing temperature. These properties have been correlated with the physical and chemical changes taking place during the curing process.

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Topics: Curing (chemistry) (60%)
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
Leonardo C. Lopez1, Garth L. Wilkes1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Among the various high temperature polymers, those based on aromatic units, such as poly(2, 6-dimethylphenylene oxide) (PPO), poly(pheny1ene sulfide) (PPS), poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK), and poly(ether sulfone) (PES), have attracted much attention in the last few years due to their good thermal and chemical resistance. One of these polymers, PPS, is also an important high strength/high temperature engineering thermoplastic that is finding increasing use in technological applications such as molding resins, fibers, and matrices for thermoplastic composites. PPS consists of para-phenylene units alternating with sulfide linkages. The first known report of its synthesis was by Grenvesse in 1898 [1]. However, interest in the synthesis of PPS only began in 1948 when Macallum 121 described the preparation of phenylene sulfide polymers by the melt reaction of p-dichlorobenzene with sodium carbonate and sulfur. Further investigation on the synthesis of PPS by Lenz and coworkers [3–5], and later by Edmo...

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83 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy is employed to examine poly(p-phenylene sulfide) (PPS). The fundamental vibrations of PPS are assigned based on those of known para-substituted benzene modes. Spectra of annealed and quenched PPS are obtained. Based on these spectra, the enhanced crystalline FTIR spectra of PPS are obtained. The spectra of PPS are interpreted based on the symmetry of the molecules. A heated cell is used to study in situ the IR spectroscopic changes upon melt-state and solid-state crystallization of PPS. Changes upon crystallization are identified from the different spectra. The cured and melt-state PPS spectra are also examined. Spectra of high and low molecular weight PPS are also studied.

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36 citations


Book ChapterDOI
J.F. Geibel1, R.W. Campbell1Institutions (1)
TL;DR: Poly(phenylene sulfide), PPS, has a long history in the chemical literature and commercial development activities began approximately 40 years ago, ultimately leading to the first commercial production of PPS in 1973.

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Abstract: Poly(phenylene sulfide), PPS, has a long history in the chemical literature. Reported syntheses of PPS or PPS-related resins date back almost 100 years. Commercial development activities began approximately 40 years ago, ultimately leading to the first commercial production of PPS in 1973.

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9 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Park Min1, Kwang Hee Lee1, Chul Rim Choe1, Won Ho Jo2Institutions (2)
Abstract: Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to investigate the solid-state cure process of poly(phenylene sulfide)(PPS) resin. Virgin PPS resin in an open sample pan was cured in DSC cell. Either air or oxygen was used as a curing atmosphere. Cure temperatures were in the range of 200 and 250 °C, which are below the melting point of PPS resin. Cure temperature as well as atmospheric condition influenced the cure behavior of PPS in the solid state. Both the rate and the amount of cure increased with increasing cure temperature. On the other hand, the time to reach the maximum cure rate was independent of cure temperature. Changing the atmosphere from air to oxygen increased both the cure rate and the amount of cure. The size effect of PPS particles on the cure reaction was also discussed.

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6 citations


Reference EntryDOI
Jon F. Geibel1, John E. Leland1Institutions (1)
04 Dec 2000-
Abstract: Poly(p-phenylene sulfide) (PPS) is an important industrial thermoplastic material. This article reviews the history, syntheses (both laboratory and commercial), and properties of PPS. Characteristics such as thermal transition, thermal stability, rheology, solution viscometry, size-exclusion chromatography, UL temperature indexes, mechanical properties, chemical resistance, and electrical properties of neat PPS resin and reinforced PPS compounds, are all discussed. Significant areas where PPS resins are used are presented. Keywords: Poly(phenylene sulfide); Polymerization; Neat resins; Injection molding compounds; Electrical insulation; Thermal stability; Injection molding; Coatings; Compounds; Fiber; Composites; Films; Blends

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5 citations


References
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Book
01 Jan 1962-
Abstract: This book should be of interest to senior undergraduates, postgraduates and research workers in physics, physical sciences, physical chemistry.

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8,674 citations


Book
01 Jan 1978-

380 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
D. G. Brady1Institutions (1)
Abstract: The crystallinity and crystallizability of poly(phenylene sulfide) have been examined by a number of common techniques. Several provided qualitative information, but only one, x-ray diffraction, was considered sufficiently reliable and reproducible to allow quantitative comparisons. Based on x-ray measurements, an approximate degree of crystallinity, termed crystallinity index (Ci), could be readily assigned. According to this method, virgin polymer possesses significant crystallinity (Ci ≈ 65%). Curing (crosslinking) the resin below its melting point did not change the crystallinity but did affect the crystallizability. Lightly cured resin suitable for molding and film extrusion was easily quenched from the melt to give amorphous polymer. The amorphous samples crystallized rapidly when heated to temperatures > 121°C (250°F). At mold temperatures below 93°C (200°F), moldings with very low surface crystallinity were produced. Annealing (204°C, 400°F) caused rapid crystallization of such moldings, and changes in crystallinity were correlated with observed changes in physical properties. The resin crystallizes so rapidly that these quenched moldings possessed a crystallinity gradient, the internal crystallinity being substantially greater. At high mold temperatures (121–204°C, 250–400°F), moldings very similar to fully annealed specimens were obtained.

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194 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Poly(p‐phenylene) sulfide, poly(m‐phenylene) sulfide, and the newly synthesized polymer poly(thio‐2,8‐dibenzothiophenediyl) have been treated with strong electron acceptors (AsF5, SbF5) to form conducting complexes with p‐type electronic conductivities up to 3 S/cm. Near IR to UV absorption spectra and temperature‐dependent conductivity measurements suggest a localization of charge carriers even at high doping levels. Elemental analysis and IR spectroscopy demonstrate that heavy exposure to AsF5 causes substantial changes in the backbone structure of these polymers. The dopant appears to predominantly induce the formation of carbon–carbon bonds bridging the sulfur linkages to form thiophene rings. This chemical modification enhances the conductivity of the complex and, in the case of poly(m‐phenylene), is shown to be an actual prerequisite for achieving high conductivity.

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160 citations