scispace - formally typeset
Search or ask a question
Book ChapterDOI

Innovations in Consumer Science: Applications of Neuro-Scientific Research Tools

TL;DR: This chapter presents several examples that highlight the application of neurosciences to study aesthetics and sensory factors that have helped companies innovate and improve their products and in-store experience of their customers.
Abstract: The study of the biological aspects of the consumer behaviour through the application of neuroscience is one among the many innovations in the area of marketing, particularly in understanding the consumer behaviour. Only recently management scientists have started applying the principles of neuroscience in the management applications and theory building. The new methodologies of ‘Consumer Neuroscience’ provide an opportunity to understand the neural level processes in the brains of the consumers which in turn offer valuable insights into the cognitive decision making process of the consumers, which are otherwise not captured through traditional methods of management research. This chapter introduces the readers to the most commonly used tools of neuromarketing, such as fMRI, EEG, and ERP (P300) and then explains their applications in marketing. This chapter presents several examples that highlight the application of neurosciences to study aesthetics and sensory factors that have helped companies innovate and improve their products and in-store experience of their customers.
Citations
More filters
Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An exhaustive overview of measures used in current research is given to categorize these methods along measurement level (physiological, behavioral, and cognitive) and emotional processing level (unconscious sensory, perceptual/early cognitive, and conscious/decision making) level to help researchers to compile a set of complementary measures (“toolbox”) for their studies.
Abstract: Besides sensory characteristics of food, food-evoked emotion is a crucial factor in predicting consumer's food preference and therefore in developing new products. Many measures have been developed to assess food-evoked emotions. The aim of this literature review is (i) to give an exhaustive overview of measures used in current research and (ii) to categorize these methods along measurement level (physiological, behavioral, and cognitive) and emotional processing level (unconscious sensory, perceptual/early cognitive, and conscious/decision making) level. This 3 × 3 categorization may help researchers to compile a set of complementary measures ("toolbox") for their studies. We included 101 peer-reviewed articles that evaluate consumer's emotions and were published between 1997 and 2016, providing us with 59 different measures. More than 60% of these measures are based on self-reported, subjective ratings and questionnaires (cognitive measurement level) and assess the conscious/decision-making level of emotional processing. This multitude of measures and their overrepresentation in a single category hinders the comparison of results across studies and building a complete multi-faceted picture of food-evoked emotions. We recommend (1) to use widely applied, validated measures only, (2) to refrain from using (highly correlated) measures from the same category but use measures from different categories instead, preferably covering all three emotional processing levels, and (3) to acquire and share simultaneously collected physiological, behavioral, and cognitive datasets to improve the predictive power of food choice and other models. © The authors

85 citations


Cites background from "Innovations in Consumer Science: Ap..."

  • ...…as electroencephalography (EEG), magnetoencephalography (MEG), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and positron emission tomography (PET) can be also used to evaluate an individual’s unconscious response to food stimuli at the physiological level (Bercea, 2013; Agarwal and Xavier, 2015)....

    [...]

  • ...In addition to these peripheral physiological measures, measures reflecting brain activity such as electroencephalography (EEG), magnetoencephalography (MEG), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and positron emission tomography (PET) can be also used to evaluate an individual’s unconscious response to food stimuli at the physiological level (Bercea, 2013; Agarwal and Xavier, 2015)....

    [...]

Journal ArticleDOI
18 Nov 2015
TL;DR: In the last decade, neuroscience has informed the marketing science in meaningful ways and the interaction between both of these sciences has helped in generating deeper insights into the consumer behavior as discussed by the authors, which has led to the emergence of a new field of study, termed as neuromarketing or consumer neuroscience.
Abstract: In the last decade, neuroscience has informed the marketing science in meaningful ways and the interaction between both of these sciences has helped in generating deeper insights into the consumer behavior. This has led to the emergence of a new field of study, termed as neuromarketing or consumer neuroscience. This article introduces the readers to this emerging field in marketing literature and practice. It gives an overview of the applications of neuroscience in addressing marketing and consumer behavior research. The article then discusses the role which neuromarketing and consumer neuroscience is expected to play in shaping the future marketing practices. It also introduces the readers to some methodological concepts of neuromarketing along with some progresses in fundamental neuroscience which are likely to advance this field in turn enhancing the rigor of the neuromarketing studies.

72 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A research strategy is presented that emphasizes key environmental touch points throughout the customer journey in grocery retailing and discusses behavioral classifications, methodology, and implications related to the data from consumer tracking efforts.
Abstract: The store is the main laboratory for in-store experimental analysis. This article provides an introduction to a research program aimed at improving research practices in this laboratory, particularly emphasizing the importance of behavioral data and the new opportunities that technology offers. This complex modern-day Skinner box has sets of well-studied stimuli-behavior interactions that constantly adapt to the latest economic environment and as such constantly stretch the boundaries of behavioral analytic theory. However, the retail setting is highly important to applied behavior analysis for such issues as health, debt, environmental conservation, animal welfare, self-control, and consumer protection in general. This article presents a research strategy that emphasizes key environmental touch points throughout the customer journey in grocery retailing. We highlight the latest development by examining a particular research case and discussing the need for behavioral economic understanding of the start of the grocery journey, that is, the consumer choice of in-store product carrying equipment (e.g., cart, basket, or nothing). The conceptual system consists of a molecular four-term contingency framework as well as a more molar approach with conversion-rate modeling, where actual choice behavior is detected through video surveillance. The data are analyzed using a Shopper Flow© Tracking System in which software is designed to provide automatic data on shopper behavior and to assist human observers in tracking individual shopping trips. We discuss behavioral classifications, methodology, and implications related to the data from consumer tracking efforts.

31 citations


Cites background from "Innovations in Consumer Science: Ap..."

  • ...Such technology makes it possible to study the unconscious processes of the human brain (Agarwal & Xavier, 2015)....

    [...]

Journal ArticleDOI
21 Feb 2020-Symmetry
TL;DR: Investigation of the factors influencing managers’ decisions to adopt neuromarketing techniques in sustainable product marketing using the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (AHP) approach revealed that the accuracy and bias of neuromARKeting techniques have been the main critical factors for managers to select neuromarkseting in their business for advertising and branding purposes.
Abstract: Sustainable products and their marketing have played a crucial role in developing more sustainable consumption patterns and solutions for socio-ecological problems. They have been demonstrated to significantly decrease social consumption problems. Neuromarketing has recently gained considerable popularity and helped companies generate deeper insights into consumer behavior. It has provided new ways of conceptualizing consumer behavior and decision making. Thus, this research aims to investigate the factors influencing managers’ decisions to adopt neuromarketing techniques in sustainable product marketing using the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (AHP) approach. Symmetric triangular fuzzy numbers were used to indicate the relative strength of the elements in the hierarchy. Data were collected from the marketing managers of several companies who have experience with sustainable product marketing through online shopping platforms. The results revealed that the accuracy and bias of neuromarketing techniques have been the main critical factors for managers to select neuromarketing in their business for advertising and branding purposes. This research provides important results on the use of neuromarketing techniques for sustainable product marketing, as well as their limitations and implications, and it also presents useful information on the factors impacting business managers’ decision making in adopting neuroscience techniques for sustainable product development and marketing.

22 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors discuss the challenges of non-governmental charities in the competitive market and survive with funding from membership fees and donations from supporters, and how to know and motivate potential donors.
Abstract: Non-governmental charities operate in a competitive market and survive with funding from membership fees and donations from supporters. Knowing and motivating potential donors has become increasing...

21 citations


Cites background from "Innovations in Consumer Science: Ap..."

  • ...The emotional direction, valence, and effects have been researched and applied in the field of market research and consumer behavior in the past (Agarwal & Xavier, 2015; Solnais, Andreu-Perez, Sánchez-Fernández, & Andréu-Abela, 2013; Varan, Lang, Barwise, Weber, & Bellman, 2015; Vecchiato et al.,…...

    [...]

References
More filters
Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The amplitude of the P300 component is controlled multiplicatively by the subjective probability and task relevance of eliciting events, whereas its latency depends on the duration of stimulus evaluation as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: To understand the endogenous components of the event-related brain potential (ERP), we must use data about the components' antecedent conditions to form hypotheses about the information-processing function of the underlying brain activity These hypotheses, in turn, generate testable predictions about the consequences of the component We review the application of this approach to the analysis of the P300 component The amplitude of the P300 is controlled multiplicatively by the subjective probability and the task relevance of the eliciting events, whereas its latency depends on the duration of stimulus evaluation These and other factors suggest that the P300 is a manifestation of activity occurring whenever one's model of the environment must be revised Tests of three predictions based on this “context updating” model are reviewed Verleger's critique is based on a misconstrual of the model as well as a partial and misleading reading of the relevant literature

3,451 citations

Book
05 Aug 2004
TL;DR: The Bottom of the Pyramid (BOP) market as discussed by the authors is the most exciting, fastest-growing new market in the world and it's where people least expect it: at the bottom of the pyramid.
Abstract: The world's most exciting, fastest-growing new market? It's where you least expect it: at the bottom of the pyramid. Collectively, the world's billions of poor people have immense entrepreneurial capabilities and buying power. You can learn how to serve them and help millions of the world's poorest people escape poverty.It is being done-profitably. Whether you're a business leader or an anti-poverty activist, business guru Prahalad shows why you can't afford to ignore "Bottom of the Pyramid" (BOP) markets.In the book and accompanying CD videos, Prahalad presents...Why what you know about BOP markets is wrong A world of surprises-from spending patterns to distribution and marketingUnlocking the "poverty penalty"The most enduring contributions your company can make Delivering dignity, empowerment, and choice-not just productsCorporations and BOP entrepreneurs Profiting together from an inclusive new capitalism "C. K. Prahalad argues that companies must revolutionize how they dobusiness in developing countries if both sides of that economic equation areto prosper. Drawing on a wealth of case studies, his compelling new bookoffers an intriguing blueprint for how to fight poverty with profitability." Bill Gates, Chairman and Chief Software Architect,Microsoft "The Bottom of the Pyramid belongs at the top of the reading list forbusiness people, academics, and experts pursuing the elusive goal ofsustainable growth in the developing world. C. K. Prahalad writes withuncommon insight about consumer needs in poor societies andopportunities for the private sector to serve important public purposes whileenhancing its own bottom line. If you are looking for fresh thinking aboutemerging markets, your search is ended. This is the book for you." Madeleine K. Albright, Former U.S. Secretary of State "Prahalad challenges readers to re-evaluate their pre-conceived notionsabout the commercial opportunities in serving the relatively poor nations ofthe world. The Bottom of the Pyramid highlights the way to commercialsuccess and societal improvement--but only if the developed worldreconceives the way it delivers products and services to the developingworld." Christopher Rodrigues, CEO, Visa International "An important and insightful work showing persuasively how the privatesector can be put at the center of development, not just as a rhetoricalflourish but as a real engine of jobs and services for the poor." Mark Malloch Brown, Administrator, United Nations Development Programme

2,932 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The selection of instructions for subjects, the recording technique, the elimination of a few single trials significantly contaminated by eye movements, and the use of a correction procedure for ocular artifacts with calculable reliability and validity resulted in a set of data, in which 94% of the single trials were suitable for further analysis.
Abstract: The P300 ERP was measured in 10 subjects each for 9 days. The selection of instructions for subjects, the recording technique, the elimination of a few single trials significantly contaminated by eye movements, and the use of a correction procedure for ocular artifacts with calculable reliability and validity resulted in a set of data, in which 94% of the single trials were suitable for further analysis. The correction procedure relies on regression analysis. To reduce coherence between eyeblink activity and ongoing EEG, VEOG and EEG are averaged on eyeblinks. This yields a high reliability and validity of regression factors, determined per day, subject, and lead. In addition, this correction procedure allows for an estimation of the maximal error that must be taken into account. The efficiency of the procedure is demonstrated for single trials and averaged potentials.

2,025 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Nov 1991-Science
TL;DR: This technique was used to generate the first functional magnetic resonance maps of human task activation, by using a visual stimulus paradigm, and localized increases in blood volume were detected in the primary visual cortex during photic stimulation.
Abstract: Knowledge of regional cerebral hemodynamics has widespread application for both physiological research and clinical assessment because of the well-established interrelation between physiological function, energy metabolism, and localized blood supply. A magnetic resonance technique was developed for quantitative imaging of cerebral hemodynamics, allowing for measurement of regional cerebral blood volume during resting and activated cognitive states. This technique was used to generate the first functional magnetic resonance maps of human task activation, by using a visual stimulus paradigm. During photic stimulation, localized increases in blood volume (32 +/- 10 percent, n = 7 subjects) were detected in the primary visual cortex. Center-of-mass coordinates and linear extents of brain activation within the plane of the calcarine fissure are reported.

1,790 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
19 Aug 1977-Science
TL;DR: The data support the proposition that the latency of P300 corresponds to stimulus evaluation time and is independent of response selection.
Abstract: A technique for measuring the latency of the P300 component of event-related brain potentials on individual trials is described. Choice reaction times and the latency of the P300 were compared under speed-maximizing and under accuracy-mazimising instructions. The choice stimuli required different levels of semantic categorization. The data support the proposition that the latency of P300 corresponds to stimulus evaluation time and is independent of response selection.

1,671 citations