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Proceedings Article

Neural Machine Translation by Jointly Learning to Align and Translate

01 Jan 2015-
TL;DR: It is conjecture that the use of a fixed-length vector is a bottleneck in improving the performance of this basic encoder-decoder architecture, and it is proposed to extend this by allowing a model to automatically (soft-)search for parts of a source sentence that are relevant to predicting a target word, without having to form these parts as a hard segment explicitly.

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Abstract: Neural machine translation is a recently proposed approach to machine translation. Unlike the traditional statistical machine translation, the neural machine translation aims at building a single neural network that can be jointly tuned to maximize the translation performance. The models proposed recently for neural machine translation often belong to a family of encoder-decoders and consists of an encoder that encodes a source sentence into a fixed-length vector from which a decoder generates a translation. In this paper, we conjecture that the use of a fixed-length vector is a bottleneck in improving the performance of this basic encoder-decoder architecture, and propose to extend this by allowing a model to automatically (soft-)search for parts of a source sentence that are relevant to predicting a target word, without having to form these parts as a hard segment explicitly. With this new approach, we achieve a translation performance comparable to the existing state-of-the-art phrase-based system on the task of English-to-French translation. Furthermore, qualitative analysis reveals that the (soft-)alignments found by the model agree well with our intuition.

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Posted Content
Ilya Sutskever1, Oriol Vinyals1, Quoc V. Le1Institutions (1)
TL;DR: This paper presents a general end-to-end approach to sequence learning that makes minimal assumptions on the sequence structure, and finds that reversing the order of the words in all source sentences improved the LSTM's performance markedly, because doing so introduced many short term dependencies between the source and the target sentence which made the optimization problem easier.

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Abstract: Deep Neural Networks (DNNs) are powerful models that have achieved excellent performance on difficult learning tasks. Although DNNs work well whenever large labeled training sets are available, they cannot be used to map sequences to sequences. In this paper, we present a general end-to-end approach to sequence learning that makes minimal assumptions on the sequence structure. Our method uses a multilayered Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) to map the input sequence to a vector of a fixed dimensionality, and then another deep LSTM to decode the target sequence from the vector. Our main result is that on an English to French translation task from the WMT'14 dataset, the translations produced by the LSTM achieve a BLEU score of 34.8 on the entire test set, where the LSTM's BLEU score was penalized on out-of-vocabulary words. Additionally, the LSTM did not have difficulty on long sentences. For comparison, a phrase-based SMT system achieves a BLEU score of 33.3 on the same dataset. When we used the LSTM to rerank the 1000 hypotheses produced by the aforementioned SMT system, its BLEU score increases to 36.5, which is close to the previous best result on this task. The LSTM also learned sensible phrase and sentence representations that are sensitive to word order and are relatively invariant to the active and the passive voice. Finally, we found that reversing the order of the words in all source sentences (but not target sentences) improved the LSTM's performance markedly, because doing so introduced many short term dependencies between the source and the target sentence which made the optimization problem easier.

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11,927 citations


Cites methods or result from "Neural Machine Translation by Joint..."

  • ...We were initially convinced that the LSTM would fail on long sentences due to its limited memory, and other researchers reported poor performance on long sentences with a model similar to ours [5, 2, 26]....

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  • ...[2] also attempted direct translations with a neural network that used an attention mechanism to overcome the poor performance on long sentences experienced by Cho et al....

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  • ...This way of evaluating the BELU score is consistent with [5] and [2], and reproduces the 33....

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Proceedings Article
Ilya Sutskever1, Oriol Vinyals1, Quoc V. Le1Institutions (1)
08 Dec 2014-
Abstract: Deep Neural Networks (DNNs) are powerful models that have achieved excellent performance on difficult learning tasks. Although DNNs work well whenever large labeled training sets are available, they cannot be used to map sequences to sequences. In this paper, we present a general end-to-end approach to sequence learning that makes minimal assumptions on the sequence structure. Our method uses a multilayered Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) to map the input sequence to a vector of a fixed dimensionality, and then another deep LSTM to decode the target sequence from the vector. Our main result is that on an English to French translation task from the WMT-14 dataset, the translations produced by the LSTM achieve a BLEU score of 34.8 on the entire test set, where the LSTM's BLEU score was penalized on out-of-vocabulary words. Additionally, the LSTM did not have difficulty on long sentences. For comparison, a phrase-based SMT system achieves a BLEU score of 33.3 on the same dataset. When we used the LSTM to rerank the 1000 hypotheses produced by the aforementioned SMT system, its BLEU score increases to 36.5, which is close to the previous state of the art. The LSTM also learned sensible phrase and sentence representations that are sensitive to word order and are relatively invariant to the active and the passive voice. Finally, we found that reversing the order of the words in all source sentences (but not target sentences) improved the LSTM's performance markedly, because doing so introduced many short term dependencies between the source and the target sentence which made the optimization problem easier.

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9,680 citations


Posted Content
Ashish Vaswani1, Noam Shazeer1, Niki Parmar2, Jakob Uszkoreit1  +4 moreInstitutions (2)
TL;DR: A new simple network architecture, the Transformer, based solely on attention mechanisms, dispensing with recurrence and convolutions entirely is proposed, which generalizes well to other tasks by applying it successfully to English constituency parsing both with large and limited training data.

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Abstract: The dominant sequence transduction models are based on complex recurrent or convolutional neural networks in an encoder-decoder configuration. The best performing models also connect the encoder and decoder through an attention mechanism. We propose a new simple network architecture, the Transformer, based solely on attention mechanisms, dispensing with recurrence and convolutions entirely. Experiments on two machine translation tasks show these models to be superior in quality while being more parallelizable and requiring significantly less time to train. Our model achieves 28.4 BLEU on the WMT 2014 English-to-German translation task, improving over the existing best results, including ensembles by over 2 BLEU. On the WMT 2014 English-to-French translation task, our model establishes a new single-model state-of-the-art BLEU score of 41.8 after training for 3.5 days on eight GPUs, a small fraction of the training costs of the best models from the literature. We show that the Transformer generalizes well to other tasks by applying it successfully to English constituency parsing both with large and limited training data.

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6,974 citations


Cites background or methods from "Neural Machine Translation by Joint..."

  • ...Most competitive neural sequence transduction models have an encoder-decoder structure [5, 2, 29]....

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  • ...This mimics the typical encoder-decoder attention mechanisms in sequence-to-sequence models such as [31, 2, 8]....

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  • ...The two most commonly used attention functions are additive attention [2], and dot-product (multiplicative) attention....

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  • ...Attention mechanisms have become an integral part of compelling sequence modeling and transduction models in various tasks, allowing modeling of dependencies without regard to their distance in the input or output sequences [2, 16]....

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  • ...Recurrent neural networks, long short-term memory [12] and gated recurrent [7] neural networks in particular, have been firmly established as state of the art approaches in sequence modeling and transduction problems such as language modeling and machine translation [29, 2, 5]....

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Proceedings ArticleDOI
17 Aug 2015-
TL;DR: A global approach which always attends to all source words and a local one that only looks at a subset of source words at a time are examined, demonstrating the effectiveness of both approaches on the WMT translation tasks between English and German in both directions.

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Abstract: An attentional mechanism has lately been used to improve neural machine translation (NMT) by selectively focusing on parts of the source sentence during translation. However, there has been little work exploring useful architectures for attention-based NMT. This paper examines two simple and effective classes of attentional mechanism: a global approach which always attends to all source words and a local one that only looks at a subset of source words at a time. We demonstrate the effectiveness of both approaches on the WMT translation tasks between English and German in both directions. With local attention, we achieve a significant gain of 5.0 BLEU points over non-attentional systems that already incorporate known techniques such as dropout. Our ensemble model using different attention architectures yields a new state-of-the-art result in the WMT’15 English to German translation task with 25.9 BLEU points, an improvement of 1.0 BLEU points over the existing best system backed by NMT and an n-gram reranker. 1

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6,374 citations


Cites background or methods or result from "Neural Machine Translation by Joint..."

  • ...On the other hand, in (Bahdanau et al., 2015; Jean et al., 2015) and this work, s, in fact, implies a set of source hidden states which are consulted throughout the entire course of the translation process....

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  • ...Comparison to other work – Bahdanau et al. (2015) use context vectors, similar to our ct, in building subsequent hidden states, which can also achieve the “coverage” effect....

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  • ...…part of at and for long sentences, we ignore words near the end. goes through a deep-output and a maxout layer before making predictions.7 Lastly, Bahdanau et al. (2015) only experimented with one alignment function, the concat product; whereas we show later that the other alternatives are…...

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  • ...The former approach resembles the model of (Bahdanau et al., 2015) but is simpler architecturally....

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  • ...Bahdanau et al. (2015), on the other hand, use the concatenation of the forward and backward source hidden states in the bi-directional encoder and target hidden states in their non-stacking uni-directional decoder....

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Proceedings ArticleDOI
12 Aug 2016-
TL;DR: This paper introduces a simpler and more effective approach, making the NMT model capable of open-vocabulary translation by encoding rare and unknown words as sequences of subword units, and empirically shows that subword models improve over a back-off dictionary baseline for the WMT 15 translation tasks English-German and English-Russian by 1.3 BLEU.

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Abstract: Neural machine translation (NMT) models typically operate with a fixed vocabulary, but translation is an open-vocabulary problem. Previous work addresses the translation of out-of-vocabulary words by backing off to a dictionary. In this paper, we introduce a simpler and more effective approach, making the NMT model capable of open-vocabulary translation by encoding rare and unknown words as sequences of subword units. This is based on the intuition that various word classes are translatable via smaller units than words, for instance names (via character copying or transliteration), compounds (via compositional translation), and cognates and loanwords (via phonological and morphological transformations). We discuss the suitability of different word segmentation techniques, including simple character ngram models and a segmentation based on the byte pair encoding compression algorithm, and empirically show that subword models improve over a back-off dictionary baseline for the WMT 15 translation tasks English!German and English!Russian by up to 1.1 and 1.3 BLEU, respectively.

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5,164 citations


References
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Journal ArticleDOI
Sepp Hochreiter1, Jürgen Schmidhuber2Institutions (2)
01 Nov 1997-Neural Computation
TL;DR: A novel, efficient, gradient based method called long short-term memory (LSTM) is introduced, which can learn to bridge minimal time lags in excess of 1000 discrete-time steps by enforcing constant error flow through constant error carousels within special units.

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Abstract: Learning to store information over extended time intervals by recurrent backpropagation takes a very long time, mostly because of insufficient, decaying error backflow. We briefly review Hochreiter's (1991) analysis of this problem, then address it by introducing a novel, efficient, gradient based method called long short-term memory (LSTM). Truncating the gradient where this does not do harm, LSTM can learn to bridge minimal time lags in excess of 1000 discrete-time steps by enforcing constant error flow through constant error carousels within special units. Multiplicative gate units learn to open and close access to the constant error flow. LSTM is local in space and time; its computational complexity per time step and weight is O. 1. Our experiments with artificial data involve local, distributed, real-valued, and noisy pattern representations. In comparisons with real-time recurrent learning, back propagation through time, recurrent cascade correlation, Elman nets, and neural sequence chunking, LSTM leads to many more successful runs, and learns much faster. LSTM also solves complex, artificial long-time-lag tasks that have never been solved by previous recurrent network algorithms.

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49,735 citations


"Neural Machine Translation by Joint..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...This gated unit is similar to a long short-term memory (LSTM) unit proposed earlier by Hochreiter and Schmidhuber (1997), sharing with it the ability to better model and learn long-term dependencies....

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Proceedings ArticleDOI
01 Jan 2014-
Abstract: In this paper, we propose a novel neural network model called RNN Encoder‐ Decoder that consists of two recurrent neural networks (RNN). One RNN encodes a sequence of symbols into a fixedlength vector representation, and the other decodes the representation into another sequence of symbols. The encoder and decoder of the proposed model are jointly trained to maximize the conditional probability of a target sequence given a source sequence. The performance of a statistical machine translation system is empirically found to improve by using the conditional probabilities of phrase pairs computed by the RNN Encoder‐Decoder as an additional feature in the existing log-linear model. Qualitatively, we show that the proposed model learns a semantically and syntactically meaningful representation of linguistic phrases.

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14,140 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: A goal of statistical language modeling is to learn the joint probability function of sequences of words in a language. This is intrinsically difficult because of the curse of dimensionality: a word sequence on which the model will be tested is likely to be different from all the word sequences seen during training. Traditional but very successful approaches based on n-grams obtain generalization by concatenating very short overlapping sequences seen in the training set. We propose to fight the curse of dimensionality by learning a distributed representation for words which allows each training sentence to inform the model about an exponential number of semantically neighboring sentences. The model learns simultaneously (1) a distributed representation for each word along with (2) the probability function for word sequences, expressed in terms of these representations. Generalization is obtained because a sequence of words that has never been seen before gets high probability if it is made of words that are similar (in the sense of having a nearby representation) to words forming an already seen sentence. Training such large models (with millions of parameters) within a reasonable time is itself a significant challenge. We report on experiments using neural networks for the probability function, showing on two text corpora that the proposed approach significantly improves on state-of-the-art n-gram models, and that the proposed approach allows to take advantage of longer contexts.

...read more

6,194 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This work shows why gradient based learning algorithms face an increasingly difficult problem as the duration of the dependencies to be captured increases, and exposes a trade-off between efficient learning by gradient descent and latching on information for long periods.

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Abstract: Recurrent neural networks can be used to map input sequences to output sequences, such as for recognition, production or prediction problems. However, practical difficulties have been reported in training recurrent neural networks to perform tasks in which the temporal contingencies present in the input/output sequences span long intervals. We show why gradient based learning algorithms face an increasingly difficult problem as the duration of the dependencies to be captured increases. These results expose a trade-off between efficient learning by gradient descent and latching on information for long periods. Based on an understanding of this problem, alternatives to standard gradient descent are considered. >

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5,798 citations


"Neural Machine Translation by Joint..." refers background or methods in this paper

  • ...Since Bengio et al. (2003) introduced a neural probabilistic language model which uses a neural network to model the conditional probability of a word given a fixed number of the preceding words, neural networks have widely been used in machine translation. However, the role of neural networks has been largely limited to simply providing a single feature to an existing statistical machine translation system or to re-rank a list of candidate translations provided by an existing system. For instance, Schwenk (2012) proposed using a feedforward neural network to compute the score of a pair of source and target phrases and to use the score as an additional feature in the phrase-based statistical machine translation system. More recently, Kalchbrenner and Blunsom (2013) and Devlin et al. (2014) reported the successful use of the neural networks as a sub-component of the existing translation system....

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  • ...These paths allow gradients to flow backward easily without suffering too much from the vanishing effect (Hochreiter, 1991; Bengio et al., 1994; Pascanu et al., 2013a)....

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  • ...Since Bengio et al. (2003) introduced a neural probabilistic language model which uses a neural network to model the conditional probability of a word given a fixed number of the preceding words, neural networks have widely been used in machine translation....

    [...]

  • ...Since Bengio et al. (2003) introduced a neural probabilistic language model which uses a neural network to model the conditional probability of a word given a fixed number of the preceding words, neural networks have widely been used in machine translation. However, the role of neural networks has been largely limited to simply providing a single feature to an existing statistical machine translation system or to re-rank a list of candidate translations provided by an existing system. For instance, Schwenk (2012) proposed using a feedforward neural network to compute the score of a pair of source and target phrases and to use the score as an additional feature in the phrase-based statistical machine translation system....

    [...]


Posted Content
22 Dec 2012-arXiv: Learning
TL;DR: A novel per-dimension learning rate method for gradient descent called ADADELTA that dynamically adapts over time using only first order information and has minimal computational overhead beyond vanilla stochastic gradient descent is presented.

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Abstract: We present a novel per-dimension learning rate method for gradient descent called ADADELTA. The method dynamically adapts over time using only first order information and has minimal computational overhead beyond vanilla stochastic gradient descent. The method requires no manual tuning of a learning rate and appears robust to noisy gradient information, different model architecture choices, various data modalities and selection of hyperparameters. We show promising results compared to other methods on the MNIST digit classification task using a single machine and on a large scale voice dataset in a distributed cluster environment.

...read more

5,567 citations


"Neural Machine Translation by Joint..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...We use a minibatch stochastic gradient descent (SGD) algorithm together with Adadelta (Zeiler, 2012) to train each model....

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  • ...Adadelta (Zeiler, 2012) was used to automatically adapt the learning rate of each parameter ( = 10−6 and ρ = 0.95)....

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Network Information
Related Papers (5)
01 Nov 1997, Neural Computation

Sepp Hochreiter, Jürgen Schmidhuber

12 Jun 2017

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01 Jan 2015

Diederik P. Kingma, Jimmy Ba

08 Dec 2014

Ilya Sutskever, Oriol Vinyals +1 more

06 Jul 2002

Kishore Papineni, Salim Roukos +2 more

Performance
Metrics
No. of citations received by the Paper in previous years
YearCitations
202242
20213,275
20203,721
20193,799
20182,637
20171,473