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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/10407782.2020.1845560

Optimization and analysis of maximum temperature in a battery pack affected by low to high Prandtl number coolants using response surface methodology and particle swarm optimization algorithm

04 Mar 2021-Numerical Heat Transfer Part A-applications (Taylor & Francis)-Vol. 79, Iss: 5, pp 406-435
Abstract: Thermal analysis of heat-generating battery pack cooled by several coolants is analyzed numerically. The coolant used are gases, oils, thermal oils, nanofluids, and liquid metals to find the best c...

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Topics: Battery pack (59%), Prandtl number (57%), Coolant (55%) ... show more
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15 results found


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S10973-021-10743-0
Abstract: Back-propagation modeling of viscosity and shear stress of Ionic-MXene nanofluid is carried out in this work. The data for Ionic-MXene nanofluid of 0.05, 0.1, and 0.2 mass concentration (mass%) are collected from the experimental analysis. Shear stress and viscosity as a function of shear rate and mass% of MXene nanoparticles is used as input. Additionally, viscosity as a function of temperature and % of MXene nanoparticles is collected separately. Based on the possible combinations, five back-propagation algorithms are developed. In each algorithm, five models depending upon the number of neurons in the hidden layer are used. The training and testing of all the models in each algorithm are performed. Statistical analysis of the network output is done to evaluate the accuracy of models by finding the losses in terms of mean squared error (MAE), root-mean-squared error, mean absolute error, (MAE), and error deviation. Model 1 is found to have lower accuracy than the remaining models as the number of neurons in its hidden layer is only one. The performance evaluation metrices of the back-propagation model show that the error involved is acceptable. The training and testing of the algorithms are satisfactory as the network output is found to be in comfortably good agreement with the desired experimental output.

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Topics: Viscosity (55%), Shear rate (54%), Shear stress (53%) ... show more

6 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1088/1757-899X/1065/1/012035
01 Feb 2021-
Abstract: Now a day’s many companies manufacturing the most advanced submersible pumps with Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) based polymer, which is available in the market for use in domestic, commercial and even research activities. ABS based pumps are widely used in mining, construction and chemical industries. Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrenehasmuch application in the temperature range from -20 to 80°C. The ABS based polymer composites are used in submergible pumps due their important properties such as corrosion resistance, light weight, erosion resistance, etc. In the current work, the technique used for the fabrication of GFRP- ABS laminateis compression molding, as per the ASTM standard. The various tests are conducted as per Design of Experiments. Analysis of experimental data was performed using Minitab software and tests were conducted for Flexural strength, Inter Laminar Shear Stress, Tensile strength. Three factors areconsidered for the Design of Experiments namely, fibre-to-resin ratio, fibre orientation and period of immersion in artificial sea water. The outcomepoints towards Flexural strength; ILSS and Tensile Strength areat highest along 40:60 fibre-to-resin ratio with 0°/90°fiber orientation, longer the contact to sea water more is the fall in the strength of the composite material and also due to sea water diffusing into the composite material specimen, there is an increase in its weight.

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4 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.AEJ.2021.03.074
Abstract: This study discusses the acoustic property variations by introducing new absorption materials. An experimental set up established to simulate virtually as well as experimentally with various biodegradable, biocompatible and naturally absorbable materials for a truck cabin of carrier capacity 3.5Tonnes. The materials were embedded on the sidewall and base of the cabin covering the entire cabin not leaving any air pockets. Experimental and simulation study was carried out for six materials and in the later part a combination of these materials also carried out to see through the possible optimal cases providing due Weightage to cost and weight. A sound quality index study being made to see with each case of material how the sound pressure level affects the rider and the subordinates seating in a cabin. A detailed simulation study carried out to understand the material behavioral characteristics along with convergence study using ANSYS Workbench. The exhaustive work emphasis on percentage error study with simulation and experimental work and proposes an optimal material from sound pressure level and rider comfort aspects.

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Topics: Absorption (acoustics) (55%), Sound pressure (53%)

4 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CSITE.2021.101058
Abstract: Thermal modelling of Li-ion battery system used in electric/hybrid electric vehicles is carried out. The main highlight of this study is the numerical modelling of Li-ion battery using finite volume method with the adoption of realistic coupled heat and fluid flow process. Thermal characters of the battery system are analyzed with the change in parameters like flow Reynolds number, battery internal heat generation, the length to width ratio, and the conduction-convection related parameter at the interface of battery and air. In detail analysis of maximum temperature, heat flux variations, Nusselt number, friction coefficient, coolant temperature, and velocity distributions are carried out. Finally, the effect of channel width formed between two parallel placed battery cells is also carried. The numerical analysis performed reveals that the length to width ratio of battery does not impact the thermal performance of battery. At lower Reynolds number, the conduction-convection parameter plays a significant role in reduction of battery temperature avoiding thermal stresses developed. Channel spacing has a prominent role in variation of battery and coolant temperature. The battery surface temperature is largely affected by parameters considered. However, it is at higher input of conduction-convection parameter, Reynolds number, and channel spacing the thermal variation remains insignificant.

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Topics: Battery (electricity) (66%), Electric-vehicle battery (64%), Nusselt number (56%) ... show more

3 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.MATPR.2021.04.036
Abstract: The effect of machining parameters on the thrust force, torque and burr height while drilling Al 2618, Al2618 with 10% boron carbide (B4C) and Al2618 with 10%B4C and 5% graphite (Gr) hybrid composites are addressed. The composites are produced using a process of liquid metallurgy. The findings indicate that, feed rate had a significant impact on thrust force and the height of the exit burr. The Al2618 + 10% B4C-5%Gr reinforced hybrid composites exhibit smaller thrust force and burr height in contrast to the Al2618 + 10% B4C composite. The reduced thrust force, torque and burr height was due to the strong graphite surface lubrication properties. The chips produced while machining graphitic composites are discontinuous, and hence beneficial.

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Topics: Machinability (53%), Boron carbide (51%), Graphite (51%) ... show more

2 Citations


References
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38 results found


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.RSER.2017.05.001
Abstract: Due to increasing concerns about global warming, greenhouse gas emissions, and the depletion of fossil fuels, the electric vehicles (EVs) receive massive popularity due to their performances and efficiencies in recent decades. EVs have already been widely accepted in the automotive industries considering the most promising replacements in reducing CO2 emissions and global environmental issues. Lithium-ion batteries have attained huge attention in EVs application due to their lucrative features such as lightweight, fast charging, high energy density, low self-discharge and long lifespan. This paper comprehensively reviews the lithium-ion battery state of charge (SOC) estimation and its management system towards the sustainable future EV applications. The significance of battery management system (BMS) employing lithium-ion batteries is presented, which can guarantee a reliable and safe operation and assess the battery SOC. The review identifies that the SOC is a crucial parameter as it signifies the remaining available energy in a battery that provides an idea about charging/discharging strategies and protect the battery from overcharging/over discharging. It is also observed that the SOC of the existing lithium-ion batteries have a good contribution to run the EVs safely and efficiently with their charging/discharging capabilities. However, they still have some challenges due to their complex electro-chemical reactions, performance degradation and lack of accuracy towards the enhancement of battery performance and life. The classification of the estimation methodologies to estimate SOC focusing with the estimation model/algorithm, benefits, drawbacks and estimation error are extensively reviewed. The review highlights many factors and challenges with possible recommendations for the development of BMS and estimation of SOC in next-generation EV applications. All the highlighted insights of this review will widen the increasing efforts towards the development of the advanced SOC estimation method and energy management system of lithium-ion battery for the future high-tech EV applications.

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726 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.APENERGY.2013.09.003
01 Jan 2014-Applied Energy
Abstract: This paper represents the evaluation of ageing parameters in lithium iron phosphate based batteries, through investigating different current rates, working temperatures and depths of discharge. From these analyses, one can derive the impact of the working temperature on the battery performances over its lifetime. At elevated temperature (40 °C), the performances are less compared to at 25 °C. The obtained mathematical expression of the cycle life as function of the operating temperature reveals that the well-known Arrhenius law cannot be applied to derive the battery lifetime from one temperature to another. Moreover, a number of cycle life tests have been performed to illustrate the long-term capabilities of the proposed battery cells at different discharge constant current rates. The results reveal the harmful impact of high current rates on battery characteristics. On the other hand, the cycle life test at different depth of discharge levels indicates that the battery is able to perform 3221 cycles (till 80% DoD) compared to 34,957 shallow cycles (till 20% DoD). To investigate the cycle life capabilities of lithium iron phosphate based battery cells during fast charging, cycle life tests have been carried out at different constant charge current rates. The experimental analysis indicates that the cycle life of the battery degrades the more the charge current rate increases. From this analysis, one can conclude that the studied lithium iron based battery cells are not recommended to be charged at high current rates. This phenomenon affects the viability of ultra-fast charging systems. Finally, a cycle life model has been developed, which is able to predict the battery cycleability accurately.

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Topics: Battery (electricity) (66%), Depth of discharge (63%), Lithium iron phosphate (53%) ... show more

407 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.JPOWSOUR.2011.02.076
Rajib Mahamud1, Chan-Woo Park1Institutions (1)
Abstract: The thermal management of traction battery systems for electrical-drive vehicles directly affects vehicle dynamic performance, long-term durability and cost of the battery systems. In this paper, a new battery thermal management method using a reciprocating air flow for cylindrical Li-ion (LiMn 2 O 4 /C) cells was numerically analyzed using (i) a two-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model and (ii) a lumped-capacitance thermal model for battery cells and a flow network model. The battery heat generation was approximated by uniform volumetric joule and reversible (entropic) losses. The results of the CFD model were validated with the experimental results of in-line tube-bank systems which approximates the battery cell arrangement considered for this study. The numerical results showed that the reciprocating flow can reduce the cell temperature difference of the battery system by about 4 °C (72% reduction) and the maximum cell temperature by 1.5 °C for a reciprocation period of τ = 120 s as compared with the uni-directional flow case ( τ = ∞). Such temperature improvement attributes to the heat redistribution and disturbance of the boundary layers on the formed on the cells due to the periodic flow reversal.

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Topics: Heat generation (54%), Reciprocating motion (53%)

363 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.APENERGY.2014.08.013
01 Dec 2014-Applied Energy
Abstract: Thermal management needs to be carefully considered in the lithium-ion battery module design to guarantee the temperature of batteries in operation within a narrow optimal range. This article firstly explores the thermal performance of battery module under different cell arrangement structures, which includes: 1 × 24, 3 × 8 and 5 × 5 arrays rectangular arrangement, 19 cells hexagonal arrangement and 28 cells circular arrangement. In addition, air-cooling strategies are also investigated by installing the fans in the different locations of the battery module to improve the temperature uniformity. Factors that influence the cooling capability of forced air cooling are discussed based on the simulations. The three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method and lumped model of single cell have been applied in the simulation. The temperature distributions of batteries are quantitatively described based on different module patterns, fan locations as well as inter-cell distance, and the conclusions are arrived as follows: when the fan locates on top of the module, the best cooling performance is achieved; the most desired structure with forced air cooling is cubic arrangement concerning the cooling effect and cost, while hexagonal structure is optimal when focus on the space utilization of battery module. Besides, the optimized inter-cell distance in battery module structure has been recommended.

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300 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.JPOWSOUR.2013.03.050
Li-Wu Fan1, Jay M. Khodadadi1, Ahmad Pesaran2Institutions (2)
Abstract: Three-dimensional transient thermal analyses of an air-cooled module that contains prismatic lithium-ion cells operating under an aggressive driving profile were performed using a commercial computational fluid dynamics code. The existing module utilized air cooling through evenly-spaced channels on both sides of each cell. It was found that lowering the gap spacing and/or higher flow rate of the fan lead to a decrease of the maximum temperature rise. To achieve improved temperature uniformity over the module, the gap spacing should be of a moderate size. For the given module, operating with a uniform gap spacing of 3 mm and an air flow rate of 40.8 m3 h−1 appears to be the best choice that satisfies the trade-off requirements of the fan power, maximum temperature rise and temperature uniformity. Using the same gap spacing and air flow rate, a proposed design of one-side cooling is less effective than two-side cooling. Uneven gap spacing affects the temperature distributions, but it does not impact the maximum temperature rise markedly. Considering the variety of the design change options and their combinations, it is concluded that the temperature gradients along the air flow direction can be affected but are generally unavoidable.

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Topics: Total air temperature (61%), Air cooling (59%), Airflow (54%)

296 Citations