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Journal ArticleDOI

Organizational information requirements, media richness and structural design

01 May 1986-Management Science (INFORMS)-Vol. 32, Iss: 5, pp 554-571

TL;DR: Models are proposed that show how organizations can be designed to meet the information needs of technology, interdepartmental relations, and the environment to both reduce uncertainty and resolve equivocality.
Abstract: This paper answers the question, "Why do organizations process information?" Uncertainty and equivocality are defined as two forces that influence information processing in organizations. Organization structure and internal systems determine both the amount and richness of information provided to managers. Models are proposed that show how organizations can be designed to meet the information needs of technology, interdepartmental relations, and the environment. One implication for managers is that a major problem is lack of clarity, not lack of data. The models indicate how organizations can be designed to provide information mechanisms to both reduce uncertainty and resolve equivocality.
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Journal ArticleDOI
Andreas M. Kaplan1, Michael Haenlein1Institutions (1)
TL;DR: A classification of Social Media is provided which groups applications currently subsumed under the generalized term into more specific categories by characteristic: collaborative projects, blogs, content communities, social networking sites, virtual game worlds, and virtual social worlds.
Abstract: The concept of Social Media is top of the agenda for many business executives today. Decision makers, as well as consultants, try to identify ways in which firms can make profitable use of applications such as Wikipedia, YouTube, Facebook, Second Life, and Twitter. Yet despite this interest, there seems to be very limited understanding of what the term ''Social Media'' exactly means; this article intends to provide some clarification. We begin by describing the concept of Social Media, and discuss how it differs from related concepts such as Web 2.0 and User Generated Content. Based on this definition, we then provide a classification of Social Media which groups applications currently subsumed under the generalized term into more specific categories by characteristic: collaborative projects, blogs, content communities, social networking sites, virtual game worlds, and virtual social worlds. Finally, we present 10 pieces of advice for companies which decide to utilize Social Media.

12,452 citations


Cites background from "Organizational information requirem..."

  • ...Media richness theory (Daft & Lengel, 1986) is based on the assumption that the goal of any communication is the resolution of ambiguity and the reduction of uncertainty....

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Journal ArticleDOI
Jeffrey H. Dyer1, Harbir Singh1Institutions (1)
Abstract: In this article we offer a view that suggests that a firm's critical resources may span firm boundaries and may be embedded in interfirm resources and routines. We argue that an increasingly important unit of analysis for understanding competitive advantage is the relationship between firms and identify four potential sources of interorganizational competitive advantage: (1) relation-specific assets, (2) knowledge-sharing routines, (3) complementary resources/capabilities, and (4) effective governance. We examine each of these potential sources of rent in detail, identifying key subprocesses, and also discuss the isolating mechanisms that serve to preserve relational rents. Finally, we discuss how the relational view may offer normative prescriptions for firm-level strategies that contradict the prescriptions offered by those with a resource-based view or industry structure view.

10,789 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Donna L. Hoffman1, Thomas P. Novak1Institutions (1)
TL;DR: The authors address the role of marketing in hypermedia computer-mediated environments by considering hypermedia CMEs to be large-scale (i.e., national or global) networked enviro...
Abstract: The authors address the role of marketing in hypermedia computer-mediated environments (CMEs). Their approach considers hypermedia CMEs to be large-scale (i.e., national or global) networked enviro...

4,659 citations


Cites background from "Organizational information requirem..."

  • ...…& Novak (1995), "Marketing in Hypermedia CMEs: Conceptual Foundations" (Rev. 7/11/95) page 16 of sensory dimensions presented and is closely related to media concurrency (Valacich et. al 1993) and media richness (Daft and Lengel 1986; Daft, Lengel and Trevino 1987; Daft and Wiginton 1979)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is suggested that computer conferencing has considerable potential to create a community of inquiry for educational purposes and should be used as a medium for this purpose.
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to provide conceptual order and a tool for the use of computer-mediated communication (CMC) and computer conferencing in supporting an educational experience. Central to the study introduced here is a model of community inquiry that constitutes three elements essential to an educational transaction—cognitive presence, social presence, and teaching presence. Indicators (key words/phrases) for each of the three elements emerged from the analysis of computer-conferencing transcripts. The indicators described represent a template or tool for researchers to analyze written transcripts, as well as a guide to educators for the optimal use of computer conferencing as a medium to facilitate an educational transaction. This research would suggest that computer conferencing has considerable potential to create a community of inquiry for educational purposes.

4,241 citations


Cites background from "Organizational information requirem..."

  • ...Unlike earlier communications theorists (Daft & Lengel, 1986; Short, Williams, & Christie, 1976; Sproull & Kiesler, 1986), we do not believe that the effect of media per se is the most salient factor in determining the degree of social presence that participants develop and share through the…...

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  • ...Dewey (1959) observed nearly a century ago `̀ that the educational process has two sidesÐone psychological and one sociological; and that neither can be subordinated to the other or neglected without evil results following'' (p....

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Journal ArticleDOI
Joseph B. Walther1Institutions (1)
Abstract: While computer-mediated communication use and research are proliferating rapidly, findings offer contrasting images regarding the interpersonal character of this technology. Research trends over the history of these media are reviewed with observations across trends suggested so as to provide integrative principles with which to apply media to different circumstances. First, the notion that the media reduce personal influences—their impersonal effects—is reviewed. Newer theories and research are noted explaining normative “interpersonal” uses of the media. From this vantage point, recognizing that impersonal communication is sometimes advantageous, strategies for the intentional depersonalization of media use are inferred, with implications for Group Decision Support Systems effects. Additionally, recognizing that media sometimes facilitate communication that surpasses normal interpersonal levels, a new perspective on “hyperpersonal” communication is introduced. Subprocesses are discussed pertaining to re...

4,209 citations


References
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Book
01 Jan 1978
Abstract: Among the most widely cited books in the social sciences, The External Control of Organizations has long been required reading for any student of organization studies. The book, reissued on its 25th anniversary as part of the Stanford Business Classics series, includes a new preface written by Jeffrey Pfeffer, which examines the legacy of this influential work in current research and its relationship to other theories.The External Control of Organizations explores how external constraints affect organizations and provides insights for designing and managing organizations to mitigate these constraints. All organizations are dependent on the environment for their survival. As the authors contend, "it is the fact of the organization's dependence on the environment that makes the external constraint and control of organizational behavior both possible and almost inevitable." Organizations can either try to change their environments through political means or form interorganizational relationships to control or absorb uncertainty. This seminal book established the resource dependence approach that has informed so many other important organization theories.

13,184 citations



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12,451 citations


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11,034 citations


Book
01 Jan 1963
Abstract: List of Tables and Figures. Acknowledgements. Preface to Second Edition. 1. Introduction. 2. Antecedents of the Behavioral Theory of the Firm. 3. Organizational Goals. 4. Organizational Expectations. 5. Organizational Choice. 6. A Specific Price and Output Model. 7. A Summary of Basic Concepts in the Behavioral Theory of the Firm. 8. Some Implications. 9. An Epilogue. Index.

8,662 citations


Performance
Metrics
No. of citations received by the Paper in previous years
YearCitations
20226
2021326
2020298
2019325
2018294
2017392