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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/15476286.2020.1809197

Transfer RNAs: diversity in form and function.

04 Mar 2021-RNA Biology (Informa UK Limited)-Vol. 18, Iss: 3, pp 316-339
Abstract: As the adaptor that decodes mRNA sequence into protein, the basic aspects of tRNA structure and function are central to all studies of biology. Yet the complexities of their properties and cellular roles go beyond the view of tRNAs as static participants in protein synthesis. Detailed analyses through more than 60 years of study have revealed tRNAs to be a fascinatingly diverse group of molecules in form and function, impacting cell biology, physiology, disease and synthetic biology. This review analyzes tRNA structure, biosynthesis and function, and includes topics that demonstrate their diversity and growing importance.

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Topics: Synthetic biology (52%), Translation (biology) (52%), Transfer RNA (51%)

8 results found

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1096/FASEBJ.29.1_SUPPLEMENT.711.21
01 Apr 2015-The FASEB Journal
Abstract: Three of six arginine codons are read by two tRNA(Arg) isoacceptors in Escherichia coli. The anticodon stem and loop of these isoacceptors (ASL(Arg1,2)) differs only in that the position 32 cytidine of tRNA(Arg1) is posttranscriptionally modified to 2-thiocytidine (s(2)C(32)). The tRNA(Arg1,2) are also modified at positions 34 (inosine, I(34)) and 37 (2-methyladenosine, m(2)A(37)). To investigate the roles of modifications in the structure and function, we analyzed six ASL(Arg1,2) constructs differing in their array of modifications by spectroscopy and codon binding assays. Thermal denaturation and circular dichroism spectroscopy indicated that modifications contribute thermodynamic and base stacking properties, resulting in more order but less stability. NMR-derived structures of the ASL(Arg1,2) showed that the solution structures of the ASLs were nearly identical. Surprisingly, none possessed the U-turn conformation required for effective codon binding on the ribosome. Yet, all ASL(Arg1,2) constructs efficiently bound the cognate CGU codon. Three ASLs with I(34) were able to decode CGC, whereas only the singly modified ASL(Arg1,2)(ICG) with I(34) was able to decode CGA. The dissociation constants for all codon bindings were physiologically relevant (0.4-1.4 μM). However, with the introduction of s(2)C(32) or m(2)A(37) to ASL(Arg1,2)(ICG), the maximum amount of ASL bound to CGU and CGC was significantly reduced. These results suggest that, by allowing loop flexibility, the modifications modulate the conformation of the ASL(Arg1,2), which takes one structure free in solution and two others when bound to the cognate arginyl-tRNA synthetase or to codons on the ribosome where modifications reduce or restrict binding to specific codons.

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22 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FMOLB.2021.639587
Abstract: Cell-free protein synthesis (CFPS) systems are gaining more importance as universal tools for basic research, applied sciences, and product development with new technologies emerging for their application. Huge progress was made in the field of synthetic biology using CFPS to develop new proteins for technical applications and therapy. Out of the available CFPS systems, wheat germ cell-free protein synthesis (WG-CFPS) merges the highest yields with the use of a eukaryotic ribosome, making it an excellent approach for the synthesis of complex eukaryotic proteins including, for example, protein complexes and membrane proteins. Separating the translation reaction from other cellular processes, CFPS offers a flexible means to adapt translation reactions to protein needs. There is a large demand for such potent, easy-to-use, rapid protein expression systems, which are optimally serving protein requirements to drive biochemical and structural biology research. We summarize here a general workflow for a wheat germ system providing examples from the literature, as well as applications used for our own studies in structural biology. With this review, we want to highlight the tremendous potential of the rapidly evolving and highly versatile CFPS systems, making them more widely used as common tools to recombinantly prepare particularly challenging recombinant eukaryotic proteins.

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Topics: Synthetic biology (52%)

4 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1093/G3JOURNAL/JKAB218
Matthew D. Berg1, Matthew D. Berg2, Yanrui Zhu2, Bianca Y Ruiz1  +8 moreInstitutions (3)
Abstract: Mistranslation, the misincorporation of an amino acid not specified by the "standard" genetic code, occurs in all organisms. tRNA variants that increase mistranslation arise spontaneously and engineered tRNAs can achieve mistranslation frequencies approaching 10% in yeast and bacteria. Interestingly, human genomes contain tRNA variants with the potential to mistranslate. Cells cope with increased mistranslation through multiple mechanisms, though high levels cause proteotoxic stress. The goal of this study was to compare the genetic interactions and the impact on transcriptome and cellular growth of two tRNA variants that mistranslate at a similar frequency but create different amino acid substitutions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. One tRNA variant inserts alanine at proline codons whereas the other inserts serine for arginine. Both tRNAs decreased growth rate, with the effect being greater for arginine to serine than for proline to alanine. The tRNA that substituted serine for arginine resulted in a heat shock response. In contrast, heat shock response was minimal for proline to alanine substitution. Further demonstrating the significance of the amino acid substitution, transcriptome analysis identified unique up- and down-regulated genes in response to each mistranslating tRNA. Number and extent of negative synthetic genetic interactions also differed depending upon type of mistranslation. Based on the unique responses observed for these mistranslating tRNAs, we predict that the potential of mistranslation to exacerbate diseases caused by proteotoxic stress depends on the tRNA variant. Furthermore, based on their unique transcriptomes and genetic interactions, different naturally occurring mistranslating tRNAs have the potential to negatively influence specific diseases.

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Topics: Amino acid (54%), Transfer RNA (54%), Alanine (51%) ... read more

2 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/GENES12010081
10 Jan 2021-Genes
Abstract: Analysis of RNA by deep-sequencing approaches has found widespread application in modern biology. In addition to measurements of RNA abundance under various physiological conditions, such techniques are now widely used for mapping and quantification of RNA modifications. Transfer RNA (tRNA) molecules are among the frequent targets of such investigation, since they contain multiple modified residues. However, the major challenge in tRNA examination is related to a large number of duplicated and point-mutated genes encoding those RNA molecules. Moreover, the existence of multiple isoacceptors/isodecoders complicates both the analysis and read mapping. Existing databases for tRNA sequencing provide near exhaustive listings of tRNA genes, but the use of such highly redundant reference sequences in RNA-seq analyses leads to a large number of ambiguously mapped sequencing reads. Here we describe a relatively simple computational strategy for semi-automatic collapsing of highly redundant tRNA datasets into a non-redundant collection of reference tRNA sequences. The relevance of the approach was validated by analysis of experimentally obtained tRNA-sequencing datasets for different prokaryotic and eukaryotic model organisms. The data demonstrate that non-redundant tRNA reference sequences allow improving unambiguous mapping of deep sequencing data.

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Topics: RNA (55%), Deep sequencing (54%), Transfer RNA (54%) ... read more

1 Citations


504 results found

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1083/JCB.201211138
Abstract: Cells release into the extracellular environment diverse types of membrane vesicles of endosomal and plasma membrane origin called exosomes and microvesicles, respectively. These extracellular vesicles (EVs) represent an important mode of intercellular communication by serving as vehicles for transfer between cells of membrane and cytosolic proteins, lipids, and RNA. Deficiencies in our knowledge of the molecular mechanisms for EV formation and lack of methods to interfere with the packaging of cargo or with vesicle release, however, still hamper identification of their physiological relevance in vivo. In this review, we focus on the characterization of EVs and on currently proposed mechanisms for their formation, targeting, and function.

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Topics: Exosome (63%), Microvesicles (63%), Circulating microvesicle (60%) ... read more

4,804 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NATURE02026
Won-Ki Huh1, James V. Falvo1, Luke C. Gerke1, Adam S. Carroll1  +3 moreInstitutions (1)
16 Oct 2003-Nature
Abstract: A fundamental goal of cell biology is to define the functions of proteins in the context of compartments that organize them in the cellular environment. Here we describe the construction and analysis of a collection of yeast strains expressing full-length, chromosomally tagged green fluorescent protein fusion proteins. We classify these proteins, representing 75% of the yeast proteome, into 22 distinct subcellular localization categories, and provide localization information for 70% of previously unlocalized proteins. Analysis of this high-resolution, high-coverage localization data set in the context of transcriptional, genetic, and protein-protein interaction data helps reveal the logic of transcriptional co-regulation, and provides a comprehensive view of interactions within and between organelles in eukaryotic cells.

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Topics: Protein subcellular localization prediction (60%), Proteome (55%), Proteomics (53%) ... read more

4,071 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41598-019-56847-4
Ana Rakita1, Nenad Nikolić1, Michael Mildner1, Johannes Matiasek  +1 moreInstitutions (1)
08 Jan 2020-Scientific Reports
Abstract: A large body of literature is available on wound healing in humans. Nonetheless, a standardized ex vivo wound model without disruption of the dermal compartment has not been put forward with compelling justification. Here, we present a novel wound model based on application of negative pressure and its effects for epidermal regeneration and immune cell behaviour. Importantly, the basement membrane remained intact after blister roof removal and keratinocytes were absent in the wounded area. Upon six days of culture, the wound was covered with one to three-cell thick K14+Ki67+ keratinocyte layers, indicating that proliferation and migration were involved in wound closure. After eight to twelve days, a multi-layered epidermis was formed expressing epidermal differentiation markers (K10, filaggrin, DSG-1, CDSN). Investigations about immune cell-specific manners revealed more T cells in the blister roof epidermis compared to normal epidermis. We identified several cell populations in blister roof epidermis and suction blister fluid that are absent in normal epidermis which correlated with their decrease in the dermis, indicating a dermal efflux upon negative pressure. Together, our model recapitulates the main features of epithelial wound regeneration, and can be applied for testing wound healing therapies and investigating underlying mechanisms.

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Topics: Wound healing (58%), Keratinocyte (57%), Epidermis (botany) (55%) ... read more

2,641 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CELL.2009.01.042
Nahum Sonenberg1, Alan G. Hinnebusch2Institutions (2)
20 Feb 2009-Cell
Abstract: Translational control in eukaryotic cells is critical for gene regulation during nutrient deprivation and stress, development and differentiation, nervous system function, aging, and disease. We describe recent advances in our understanding of the molecular structures and biochemical functions of the translation initiation machinery and summarize key strategies that mediate general or gene-specific translational control, particularly in mammalian systems.

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Topics: Translational regulation (63%), Eukaryotic initiation factor (58%), EIF1 (58%) ... read more

2,592 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/0092-8674(83)90117-4
01 Dec 1983-Cell
Abstract: The RNA moieties of ribonuclease P purified from both E. coli (M1 RNA) and B. subtilis (P-RNA) can cleave tRNA precursor molecules in buffers containing either 60 mM Mg2+ or 10 mM Mg2+ plus 1 mM spermidine. The RNA acts as a true catalyst under these conditions whereas the protein moieties of the enzymes alone show no catalytic activity. However, in buffers containing 5-10 mM Mg2+ (in the absence of spermidine) both kinds of subunits are required for enzymatic activity, as shown previously. In the presence of low concentrations of Mg2+, in vitro, the RNA and protein subunits from one species can complement subunits from the other species in reconstitution experiments. When the precursor to E. coli 4.5S RNA is used as a substrate, only the enzyme complexes formed with M1 RNA from E. coli and the protein moieties from either bacterial species are active.

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Topics: Ribonuclease P activity (65%), RNase P (63%), RNA (63%) ... read more

2,422 Citations

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