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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1103/PHYSREVA.103.033305

Two-dimensional non-Hermitian topological phases induced by asymmetric hopping in a one-dimensional superlattice

05 Mar 2021-Physical Review A (American Physical Society)-Vol. 103, Iss: 3, pp 033305
Abstract: Non-Hermitian systems can host topological states with unusual topological invariants and bulk-edge correspondences that are distinct from conventional Hermitian systems. Here we show that two unique classes of non-Hermitian two-dimensional topological phases, a $2\mathbb{Z}$ non-Hermitian Chern insulator and a ${\mathbb{Z}}_{2}$ topological semimetal, can be realized by solely tuning staggered non-Hermitian or asymmetric hopping strengths in a one-dimensional (1D) superlattice. These non-Hermitian topological phases support real edge modes due to robust $\mathcal{PT}$-symmetric-like spectra and can coexist in a certain parameter regime. The proposed phases can be experimentally realized in photonic or atomic systems and may open an avenue for exploring unique classes of non-Hermitian topological phases with 1D superlattices.

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Topics: Hermitian matrix (54%)
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11 results found


Open accessJournal Article
Huitao Shen1, Bo Zhen1, Bo Zhen2, Liang Fu1Institutions (2)
Abstract: We develop the topological band theory for systems described by non-Hermitian Hamiltonians, whose energy spectra are generally complex. After generalizing the notion of gapped band structures to the non-Hermitian case, we classify ``gapped'' bands in one and two dimensions by explicitly finding their topological invariants. We find nontrivial generalizations of the Chern number in two dimensions, and a new classification in one dimension, whose topology is determined by the energy dispersion rather than the energy eigenstates. We then study the bulk-edge correspondence and the topological phase transition in two dimensions. Different from the Hermitian case, the transition generically involves an extended intermediate phase with complex-energy band degeneracies at isolated ``exceptional points'' in momentum space. We also systematically classify all types of band degeneracies.

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Topics: Topological order (59%), Hermitian matrix (56%), Chern class (53%)

310 Citations


Open access
Tony E. Lee1Institutions (1)
01 Apr 2016-
Abstract: We show that the bulk-boundary correspondence for topological insulators can be modified in the presence of non-Hermiticity. We consider a one-dimensional tight-binding model with gain and loss as well as long-range hopping. The system is described by a non-Hermitian Hamiltonian that encircles an exceptional point in momentum space. The winding number has a fractional value of 1/2. There is only one dynamically stable zero-energy edge state due to the defectiveness of the Hamiltonian. This edge state is robust to disorder due to protection by a chiral symmetry. We also discuss experimental realization with arrays of coupled resonator optical waveguides.

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Topics: Topological order (57%), Position and momentum space (53%), Winding number (53%) ... show more

275 Citations


Open accessJournal Article
Abstract: Geometric phases that characterize the topological properties of Bloch bands play a fundamental role in the band theory of solids. Here we report on the measurement of the geometric phase acquired by cold atoms moving in one-dimensional optical lattices. Using a combination of Bloch oscillations and Ramsey interferometry, we extract the Zak phase—the Berry phase gained during the adiabatic motion of a particle across the Brillouin zone—which can be viewed as an invariant characterizing the topological properties of the band. For a dimerized lattice, which models polyacetylene, we measure a difference of the Zak phase’ Zak D 0:97(2) for the two possible polyacetylene phases with different dimerization. The two dimerized phases therefore belong to different topological classes, such that for a filled band, domain walls have fractional quantum numbers. Our work establishes a new general approach for probing the topological structure of Bloch bands in optical lattices.

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Topics: Bloch oscillations (59%), Geometric phase (55%), Electronic band structure (53%) ... show more

34 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1103/PHYSREVB.102.235151
Tao Liu1, James Jun He, Tsuneya Yoshida2, Ze-Liang Xiang3  +1 moreInstitutions (4)
23 Dec 2020-Physical Review B
Abstract: Non-Hermitian Hamiltonians have been extensively studied at the single-particle level. Here, the authors investigate interaction-induced topological Mott insulators in a non-Hermitian fermionic superlattice system, and discover an anomalous boundary effect without its Hermitian counterpart. The interplay of nonreciprocal hopping, superlattice potential, and interactions leads to the absence of edge excitations, defined via only right eigenvectors, of some in-gap states for both the neutral and charge excitation spectra, which can be restored using biorthogonal eigenvectors.

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Topics: Mott insulator (62%), Biorthogonal system (52%), Hermitian matrix (51%) ... show more

14 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1103/PHYSREVA.103.033325
26 Mar 2021-Physical Review A
Abstract: We investigate the localization and topological transitions in a one-dimensional (interacting) non-Hermitian quasiperiodic lattice, which is described by a generalized Aubry-Andr\'e-Harper model with irrational modulations in the off-diagonal hopping and on-site potential and with non-Hermiticities from the nonreciprocal hopping and complex potential phase. For noninteracting cases, we reveal that the nonreciprocal hopping (the complex potential phase) can enlarge the delocalization (localization) region in the phase diagrams spanned by two quasiperiodic modulation strengths. We show that the localization transition is always accompanied by a topological phase transition characterized the winding numbers of eigenenergies in three different non-Hermitian cases. Moreover, we find that a real-complex eigenenergy transition in the energy spectrum coincides with (occurs before) these two phase transitions in the nonreciprocal (complex potential) case, while the real-complex transition is absent with the coexistence of the two non-Hermiticities. For interacting spinless fermions, we demonstrate that the extended phase and the many-body localized phase can be identified by the entanglement entropy of eigenstates and the level statistics of complex eigenenergies. By making the critical scaling analysis, we further show that the many-body localization transition coincides with the real-complex transition and occurs before the topological transition in the nonreciprocal case, which are absent in the complex phase case.

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Topics: Topological order (57%), Phase transition (55%), Quasiperiodic function (53%) ... show more

9 Citations


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78 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1103/REVMODPHYS.82.1959
Di Xiao1, Ming Che Chang2, Qian Niu3Institutions (3)
Abstract: Ever since its discovery, the Berry phase has permeated through all branches of physics. Over the last three decades, it was gradually realized that the Berry phase of the electronic wave function can have a profound effect on material properties and is responsible for a spectrum of phenomena, such as ferroelectricity, orbital magnetism, various (quantum/anomalous/spin) Hall effects, and quantum charge pumping. This progress is summarized in a pedagogical manner in this review. We start with a brief summary of necessary background, followed by a detailed discussion of the Berry phase effect in a variety of solid state applications. A common thread of the review is the semiclassical formulation of electron dynamics, which is a versatile tool in the study of electron dynamics in the presence of electromagnetic fields and more general perturbations. Finally, we demonstrate a re-quantization method that converts a semiclassical theory to an effective quantum theory. It is clear that the Berry phase should be added as a basic ingredient to our understanding of basic material properties.

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2,671 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NPHOTON.2014.248
28 Aug 2014-Nature Photonics
Abstract: Topological photonics is a rapidly emerging field of research in which geometrical and topological ideas are exploited to design and control the behavior of light. Drawing inspiration from the discovery of the quantum Hall effects and topological insulators in condensed matter, recent advances have shown how to engineer analogous effects also for photons, leading to remarkable phenomena such as the robust unidirectional propagation of light, which hold great promise for applications. Thanks to the flexibility and diversity of photonics systems, this field is also opening up new opportunities to realize exotic topological models and to probe and exploit topological effects in new ways. This article reviews experimental and theoretical developments in topological photonics across a wide range of experimental platforms, including photonic crystals, waveguides, metamaterials, cavities, optomechanics, silicon photonics, and circuit QED. A discussion of how changing the dimensionality and symmetries of photonics systems has allowed for the realization of different topological phases is offered, and progress in understanding the interplay of topology with non-Hermitian effects, such as dissipation, is reviewed. As an exciting perspective, topological photonics can be combined with optical nonlinearities, leading toward new collective phenomena and novel strongly correlated states of light, such as an analog of the fractional quantum Hall effect.

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2,132 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NATURE08293
Zheng Wang1, Yidong Chong2, Yidong Chong1, John D. Joannopoulos1  +1 moreInstitutions (2)
08 Oct 2009-Nature
Abstract: One of the most striking phenomena in condensed-matter physics is the quantum Hall effect, which arises in two-dimensional electron systems subject to a large magnetic field applied perpendicular to the plane in which the electrons reside. In such circumstances, current is carried by electrons along the edges of the system, in so-called chiral edge states (CESs). These are states that, as a consequence of nontrivial topological properties of the bulk electronic band structure, have a unique directionality and are robust against scattering from disorder. Recently, it was theoretically predicted that electromagnetic analogues of such electronic edge states could be observed in photonic crystals, which are materials having refractive-index variations with a periodicity comparable to the wavelength of the light passing through them. Here we report the experimental realization and observation of such electromagnetic CESs in a magneto-optical photonic crystal fabricated in the microwave regime. We demonstrate that, like their electronic counterparts, electromagnetic CESs can travel in only one direction and are very robust against scattering from disorder; we find that even large metallic scatterers placed in the path of the propagating edge modes do not induce reflections. These modes may enable the production of new classes of electromagnetic device and experiments that would be impossible using conventional reciprocal photonic states alone. Furthermore, our experimental demonstration and study of photonic CESs provides strong support for the generalization and application of topological band theories to classical and bosonic systems, and may lead to the realization and observation of topological phenomena in a generally much more controlled and customizable fashion than is typically possible with electronic systems.

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Topics: Photonic crystal (54%), Quantum Hall effect (52%), Scattering (51%)

1,830 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1103/PHYSREVLETT.100.013904
Frederick D. Haldane1, Srinivas Raghu1Institutions (1)
Abstract: We show how, in principle, to construct analogs of quantum Hall edge states in "photonic crystals" made with nonreciprocal (Faraday-effect) media. These form "one-way waveguides" that allow electromagnetic energy to flow in one direction only.

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Topics: Photonic crystal (57%), Quantum Hall effect (52%)

1,764 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NATURE13915
Gregor Jotzu1, Michael Messer1, Rémi Desbuquois1, Martin Lebrat1  +3 moreInstitutions (1)
13 Nov 2014-Nature
Abstract: The Haldane model on a honeycomb lattice is a paradigmatic example of a Hamiltonian featuring topologically distinct phases of matter. It describes a mechanism through which a quantum Hall effect can appear as an intrinsic property of a band structure, rather than being caused by an external magnetic field. Although physical implementation has been considered unlikely, the Haldane model has provided the conceptual basis for theoretical and experimental research exploring topological insulators and superconductors. Here we report the experimental realization of the Haldane model and the characterization of its topological band structure, using ultracold fermionic atoms in a periodically modulated optical honeycomb lattice. The Haldane model is based on breaking both time-reversal symmetry and inversion symmetry. To break time-reversal symmetry, we introduce complex next-nearest-neighbour tunnelling terms, which we induce through circular modulation of the lattice position. To break inversion symmetry, we create an energy offset between neighbouring sites. Breaking either of these symmetries opens a gap in the band structure, which we probe using momentum-resolved interband transitions. We explore the resulting Berry curvatures, which characterize the topology of the lowest band, by applying a constant force to the atoms and find orthogonal drifts analogous to a Hall current. The competition between the two broken symmetries gives rise to a transition between topologically distinct regimes. By identifying the vanishing gap at a single Dirac point, we map out this transition line experimentally and quantitatively compare it to calculations using Floquet theory without free parameters. We verify that our approach, which allows us to tune the topological properties dynamically, is suitable even for interacting fermionic systems. Furthermore, we propose a direct extension to realize spin-dependent topological Hamiltonians.

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1,485 Citations


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