About: University of Innsbruck is a education organization based out in Innsbruck, Austria. It is known for research contribution in the topics: Population & Neopterin. The organization has 13673 authors who have published 28988 publications receiving 1047719 citations.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macro-autophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes.
Abstract: In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. For example, a key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers or volume of autophagic elements (e.g., autophagosomes or autolysosomes) at any stage of the autophagic process versus those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway (i.e., the complete process including the amount and rate of cargo sequestered and degraded). In particular, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation must be differentiated from stimuli that increase autophagic activity, defined as increased autophagy induction coupled with increased delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes and some protists such as Dictyostelium) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). In other words, it is especially important that investigators new to the field understand that the appearance of more autophagosomes does not necessarily equate with more autophagy. In fact, in many cases, autophagosomes accumulate because of a block in trafficking to lysosomes without a concomitant change in autophagosome biogenesis, whereas an increase in autolysosomes may reflect a reduction in degradative activity. It is worth emphasizing here that lysosomal digestion is a stage of autophagy and evaluating its competence is a crucial part of the evaluation of autophagic flux, or complete autophagy. Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to monitor autophagy. Along these lines, because of the potential for pleiotropic effects due to blocking autophagy through genetic manipulation, it is imperative to target by gene knockout or RNA interference more than one autophagy-related protein. In addition, some individual Atg proteins, or groups of proteins, are involved in other cellular pathways implying that not all Atg proteins can be used as a specific marker for an autophagic process. In these guidelines, we consider these various methods of assessing autophagy and what information can, or cannot, be obtained from them. Finally, by discussing the merits and limits of particular assays, we hope to encourage technical innovation in the field.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors demonstrated the feasibility of quantum teleportation over arbitrary distances of the state of a quantum system by using a measurement such that the second photon of the entangled pair acquires the polarization of the initial photon.
Abstract: Quantum teleportation — the transmission and reconstruction over arbitrary distances of the state of a quantum system — is demonstrated experimentally. During teleportation, an initial photon which carries the polarization that is to be transferred and one of a pair of entangled photons are subjected to a measurement such that the second photon of the entangled pair acquires the polarization of the initial photon. This latter photon can be arbitrarily far away from the initial one. Quantum teleportation will be a critical ingredient for quantum computation networks.
TL;DR: This method allows by simple means the generation of high numbers of murine DC with very low B cell or granulocyte contaminations, which will be valuable to study DC biology notably at the molecular level.
Abstract: As dendritic cells (DC) are rare populations in all organs, their generation from hematopoietic precursors in large quantities has proven critical to study their biology. From murine bone marrow about 5 x 10(6) cells at 70% purity are obtained per mouse after 8 days of culture with GM-CSF. We have improved this standard method and routinely achieve a 50-fold higher yield, i.e., 1-3 x 10(8) immature and mature DC per mouse at 90-95% purity. The major modifications were: (i) the avoidance of any active depletion of bone marrow cell subpopulations to circumvent loss of precursors, (ii) a lower plating density of bone marrow cells, (iii) a prolonged culture period of 10-12 days, (iv) the reduction of the GM-CSF dose from day 8 or 10 onwards to reduce granulocyte contaminations. The final non-adherent population at day 10-12 constitutes a mixture of immature and mature DC. Further maturation of DC could be induced by high doses of LPS or TNF-alpha for the last 24 h, where 50-70% of the non-adherent fraction represented mature DC with high levels of NLDC-145, CD86 and CD40. This method allows by simple means the generation of high numbers of murine DC with very low B cell or granulocyte contaminations. It will be valuable to study DC biology notably at the molecular level.
TL;DR: It is shown that the communication efficiency scales polynomially with the channel length, and hence the scheme should be operable over very long distances.
Abstract: Quantum communication holds promise for absolutely secure transmission of secret messages and the faithful transfer of unknown quantum states. Photonic channels appear to be very attractive for the physical implementation of quantum communication. However, owing to losses and decoherence in the channel, the communication fidelity decreases exponentially with the channel length. Here we describe a scheme that allows the implementation of robust quantum communication over long lossy channels. The scheme involves laser manipulation of atomic ensembles, beam splitters, and single-photon detectors with moderate efficiencies, and is therefore compatible with current experimental technology. We show that the communication efficiency scales polynomially with the channel length, and hence the scheme should be operable over very long distances.
TL;DR: In this paper, the Bose-Hubbard model was used to model the phase transition from the superfluid to the Mott insulator phase induced by varying the depth of the optical potential.
Abstract: The dynamics of an ultracold dilute gas of bosonic atoms in an optical lattice can be described by a Bose-Hubbard model where the system parameters are controlled by laser light We study the continuous (zero temperature) quantum phase transition from the superfluid to the Mott insulator phase induced by varying the depth of the optical potential, where the Mott insulator phase corresponds to a commensurate filling of the lattice (``optical crystal'') Examples for formation of Mott structures in optical lattices with a superimposed harmonic trap and in optical superlattices are presented
Showing all 13673 results
|Ralph M. Steinman||171||453||121518|
|Josef M. Penninger||154||700||107295|
|Ming T. Tsuang||140||885||73865|
|Peter M. Elias||127||581||49825|
|Armin Michael Nairz||127||898||75990|
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