Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology
About: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology is an academic journal. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Population & Toxicity. It has an ISSN identifier of 0273-2300. Over the lifetime, 4405 publication(s) have been published receiving 118858 citation(s).
Topics: Population, Toxicity, Risk assessment, Environmental exposure, No-observed-adverse-effect level
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: This paper evaluates several approaches to allow the relative potency of the different PAHs to be considered in a site-specific risk assessment and presents a modified version that it feels more accurately reflects the state of knowledge on the Relative potency of these compounds.
Abstract: The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs; also referred to as the polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons or PNAs) are commonly encountered at hazardous waste sites and are often the focus of site remediation activities. However, toxicity criteria are not available for all the PAHs. In the past, EPA has assessed risks posed by mixtures of PAHs by assuming that all carcinogenic PAHs are as potent as benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), one of the most potent PAHs. The available information on the toxicity of the PAHs suggests that most are considerably less potent than B[a]P and therefore, the EPA approach is likely to overestimate risks. Several approaches have been developed to allow the relative potency of the different PAHs to be considered in a site-specific risk assessment. This paper evaluates these approaches and presents a modified version that we feel more accurately reflects the state of knowledge on the relative potency of these compounds.
TL;DR: The survey results support the value of in vivo toxicology studies to predict for many significant HTs associated with pharmaceuticals and have helped to identify HT categories that may benefit from improved methods.
Abstract: This report summarizes the results of a multinational pharmaceutical company survey and the outcome of an International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) Workshop (April 1999), which served to better understand concordance of the toxicity of pharmaceuticals observed in humans with that observed in experimental animals. The Workshop included representatives from academia, the multinational pharmaceutical industry, and international regulatory scientists. The main aim of this project was to examine the strengths and weaknesses of animal studies to predict human toxicity (HT). The database was developed from a survey which covered only those compounds where HTs were identified during clinical development of new pharmaceuticals, determining whether animal toxicity studies identified concordant target organ toxicities in humans. Data collected included codified compounds, therapeutic category, the HT organ system affected, and the species and duration of studies in which the corresponding HT was either first identified or not observed. This survey includes input from 12 pharmaceutical companies with data compiled from 150 compounds with 221 HT events reported. Multiple HTs were reported in 47 cases. The results showed the true positive HT concordance rate of 71% for rodent and nonrodent species, with nonrodents alone being predictive for 63% of HTs and rodents alone for 43%. The highest incidence of overall concordance was seen in hematological, gastrointestinal, and cardiovascular HTs, and the least was seen in cutaneous HT. Where animal models, in one or more species, identified concordant HT, 94% were first observed in studies of 1 month or less in duration. These survey results support the value of in vivo toxicology studies to predict for many significant HTs associated with pharmaceuticals and have helped to identify HT categories that may benefit from improved methods.
TL;DR: Criteria relating to international testing standards for categorizing reliability are developed and a systematic documentation of evaluating reliability especially for use in the IUCLID database is proposed.
Abstract: The evaluation of the quality of data and their use in hazard and risk assessment as a systematic approach is described. Definitions are proposed for reliability, relevance, and adequacy of data. Reliability is differentiated into four categories. Criteria relating to international testing standards for categorizing reliability are developed. A systematic documentation of evaluating reliability especially for use in the IUCLID database is proposed. This approach is intended to harmonize data evaluation processes worldwide. It may help the expert in subsequent assessments and should increase the clarity of evaluation.
TL;DR: The data and modelling methods presented show potential as a means of performing ingredient safety assessments for personal care and cosmetics products, and the robustness and ability to estimate aggregate consumer product exposure are presented.
Abstract: Exposure of fragrance ingredients in cosmetics and personal care products to the population can be determined by way of a detailed and robust survey. The frequency and combinations of products used at specific times during the day will allow the estimation of aggregate exposure for an individual consumer, and to the sample population. In the present study, habits and practices of personal care and cosmetic products have been obtained from market research data for 36,446 subjects across European countries and the United States in order to determine the exposure to fragrance ingredients. Each subject logged their product uses, time of day and body application sites in an online diary for seven consecutive days. The survey data did not contain information on the amount of product used per occasion or body measurements, such as weight and skin surface area. Nevertheless, this was found from the literature where the likely amount of product used per occasion or body measurement could be probabilistically chosen from distributions of data based on subject demographics. The daily aggregate applied consumer product exposure was estimated based on each subject’s frequency of product use, and Monte Carlo simulations of their likely product amount per use and body measurements. Statistical analyses of the habits and practices and consumer product exposure are presented, which show the robustness of the data and the ability to estimate aggregate consumer product exposure. Consequently, the data and modelling methods presented show potential as a means of performing ingredient safety assessments for personal care and cosmetics products.
TL;DR: A newly developed probabilistic model, the Creme RIFM model, is used to estimate aggregate exposure to fragrance ingredients using the example of 2-phenylethanol (PEA) to demonstrate the utility of the model in determining systemic and dermal exposure to fragrances from individual products, and aggregate exposure.
Abstract: Ensuring the toxicological safety of fragrance ingredients used in personal care and cosmetic products is essential in product development and design, as well as in the regulatory compliance of the products. This requires an accurate estimation of consumer exposure which, in turn, requires an understanding of consumer habits and use of products. Where ingredients are used in multiple product types, it is important to take account of aggregate exposure in consumers using these products. This publication investigates the use of a newly developed probabilistic model, the Creme RIFM model, to estimate aggregate exposure to fragrance ingredients using the example of 2-phenylethanol (PEA). The output shown demonstrates the utility of the model in determining systemic and dermal exposure to fragrances from individual products, and aggregate exposure. The model provides valuable information not only for risk assessment, but also for risk management. It should be noted that data on the concentrations of PEA in products used in this article were obtained from limited sources and not the standard, industry wide surveys typically employed by the fragrance industry and are thus presented here to illustrate the output and utility of the newly developed model. They should not be considered an accurate representation of actual exposure to PEA.
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