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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/11263504.2020.1753843

A comparative study of phytotoxic effects of metal oxide (CuO, ZnO and NiO) nanoparticles on in-vitro grown Abelmoschus esculentus

04 Mar 2021-Plant Biosystems (Taylor & Francis)-Vol. 155, Iss: 2, pp 374-383
Abstract: The extensive use of nanoparticles (NPs) in various industrial and household products pose a threat of their release into the environment. Plants being sessile are prone to be directly affected by ...

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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/FOODS9101438
Ludmila Motelica1, Denisa Ficai1, Anton Ficai1, Ovidiu Oprea1  +2 moreInstitutions (2)
11 Oct 2020-Foods
Abstract: This review presents a perspective on the research trends and solutions from recent years in the domain of antimicrobial packaging materials. The antibacterial, antifungal, and antioxidant activities can be induced by the main polymer used for packaging or by addition of various components from natural agents (bacteriocins, essential oils, natural extracts, etc.) to synthetic agents, both organic and inorganic (Ag, ZnO, TiO2 nanoparticles, synthetic antibiotics etc.). The general trend for the packaging evolution is from the inert and polluting plastic waste to the antimicrobial active, biodegradable or edible, biopolymer film packaging. Like in many domains this transition is an evolution rather than a revolution, and changes are coming in small steps. Changing the public perception and industry focus on the antimicrobial packaging solutions will enhance the shelf life and provide healthier food, thus diminishing the waste of agricultural resources, but will also reduce the plastic pollution generated by humankind as most new polymers used for packaging are from renewable sources and are biodegradable. Polysaccharides (like chitosan, cellulose and derivatives, starch etc.), lipids and proteins (from vegetal or animal origin), and some other specific biopolymers (like polylactic acid or polyvinyl alcohol) have been used as single component or in blends to obtain antimicrobial packaging materials. Where the package’s antimicrobial and antioxidant activities need a larger spectrum or a boost, certain active substances are embedded, encapsulated, coated, grafted into or onto the polymeric film. This review tries to cover the latest updates on the antimicrobial packaging, edible or not, using as support traditional and new polymers, with emphasis on natural compounds.

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Topics: Food packaging (58%)

51 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FNANO.2020.579954
Deepti Mittal1, Gurjeet Kaur2, Parul Singh1, Karmveer Yadav1  +1 moreInstitutions (2)
04 Dec 2020-
Abstract: In the current scenario, it is an urgent requirement to satisfy the nutritional demands of the rapidly growing global population. Using conventional farming, nearly one-third of the crops get damaged mainly due to pest infestation, microbial attacks, natural disasters, poor soil quality, and lesser nutrient availability. More innovative technologies are immediately required to overcome these issues. In this regard, nanotechnology has contributed to the agrotechnological revolution that has imminent potential to reform the resilient agricultural system, while promising food security. Therefore, nanoparticles are becoming a new-age material to transform modern agricultural practices. The variety of nanoparticles-based formulations, including, nano-sized pesticides, herbicides, fungicides, fertilizers, and sensors, have been widely investigated for plant health management and soil improvement. In-depth understanding of plant and nanomaterial interactions opens new avenues towards improving crop practices through increased properties like disease resistance, crop yield, and nutrient utilization. In this review, we highlight the critical points to address the current nanotechnology-based agricultural research that could benefit productivity and food security in future.

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Topics: Food security (58%), Agriculture (55%), Sustainable agriculture (55%) ... read more

25 Citations



Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/APP11041813
18 Feb 2021-Applied Sciences
Abstract: Medicinal and aromatic plants have been used by mankind since ancient times. This is primarily due to their healing effects associated with their specific secondary metabolites (some of which are also used as drugs in modern medicine), or their structures, served as a basis for the development of new effective synthetic drugs. One way to increase the production of these secondary metabolites is to use nanoparticles that act as elicitors. However, depending on the specific particle size, composition, concentration, and route of application, nanoparticles may have several other benefits on medicinal and aromatic plants (e.g., increased plant growth, improved photosynthesis, and overall performance). On the other hand, particularly at applications of high concentrations, they are able to damage plants mechanically, adversely affect morphological and biochemical characteristics of plants, and show cytotoxic and genotoxic effects. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of the beneficial and adverse effects of metal-, metalloid-, and carbon-based nanoparticles on the germination, growth, and biochemical characteristics of a wide range of medicinal and aromatic plants, including the corresponding mechanisms of action. The positive impact of nanopriming and application of nanosized fertilizers on medicinal and aromatic plants is emphasized. Special attention is paid to the effects of various nanoparticles on the production of valuable secondary metabolites in these plants cultivated in hydroponic systems, soil, hairy root, or in vitro cultures. The beneficial impact of nanoparticles on the alleviation of abiotic stresses in medicinal and aromatic plants is also discussed.

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Topics: Modern medicine (51%)

2 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CHEMOSPHERE.2021.132167
01 Jan 2022-Chemosphere
Abstract: A comparative analysis of physio-biochemical indices and transcriptional activity of oxidative stress genes in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) seedlings after 7-days exposure to bulk- and nano-ZnO (300 and 2000 mg/L) was carried out. A dose-dependent reduction in the length and weight of roots and shoots, as well as a significant accumulation of Zn in plant parts, was shown. Alterations in the shape and size of organelles, cytoplasmic vacuolization, and chloroplast and mitochondrial disorganization were also revealed. These processes are particularly pronounced when H. vulgare is exposed to the higher concentrations of nano-ZnO. The study of the antioxidant defense system revealed mainly an increase in the level of reduced glutathione and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), and glutathione S-transferase (GST). The increases in activity, by 4-fold and 3-fold, was found for glutathione transferase in the roots when exposed to 2000 mg/L bulk- and nano-ZnO, respectively. The study of transcriptional activity demonstrated that in the roots under the influence of bulk- and nano-ZnO, along with Mn-SOD, Fe-SOD is highly expressed, mainly associated with the protection of chloroplasts. Analysis of the Cat 1 and Cat 2 gene expression showed that the main contribution to the increase in catalase activity in treated H. vulgare is made by the CAT-1 isozyme. Generally, in response to the impact of the studied ZnO forms, the antioxidant defense system is activated in H. vulgare, which effectively prevents the progression of oxidative stress in early stages of plant ontogenesis. Nevertheless, with constant exposure to bulk- and nano-ZnO at high concentrations, such activation leads to a depletion of the plant's energy resources, which negatively affects its growth and development. The results obtained could be useful in predicting the risks associated with the further transfer of nano-ZnO to the environment.

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Topics: Hordeum vulgare (67%), Glutathione reductase (60%), Superoxide dismutase (55%) ... read more

1 Citations


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50 results found


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0023-6438(95)80008-5
Abstract: The antiradical activities of various antioxidants were determined using the free radical, 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH*). In its radical form. DPPH* has an absorption band at 515 nm which dissappears upon reduction by an antiradical compound. Twenty compounds were reacted with the DPPH* and shown to follow one of three possible reaction kinetic types. Ascorbic acid, isoascorbic acid and isoeugenol reacted quickly with the DPPH* reaching a steady state immediately. Rosmarinic acid and δ-tocopherol reacted a little slower and reached a steady state within 30 min. The remaining compounds reacted more progressively with the DPPH* reaching a steady state from 1 to 6 h. Caffeic acid, gentisic acid and gallic acid showed the highest antiradical activities with a stoichiometry of 4 to 6 reduced DPPH* molecules per molecule of antioxidant. Vanillin, phenol, γ-resorcylic acid and vanillic acid were found to be poor antiradical compounds. The stoichiometry for the other 13 phenolic compounds varied from one to three reduced DPPH* molecules per molecule of antioxidant. Possible mechanisms are proposed to explain the experimental results.

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Topics: DPPH (64%), Ascorbic acid (58%), Vanillic acid (55%) ... read more

16,150 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1126/SCIENCE.1114397
Andre E. Nel1, Tian Xia1, Lutz Mädler1, Ning Li1Institutions (1)
03 Feb 2006-Science
Abstract: Nanomaterials are engineered structures with at least one dimension of 100 nanometers or less. These materials are increasingly being used for commercial purposes such as fillers, opacifiers, catalysts, semiconductors, cosmetics, microelectronics, and drug carriers. Materials in this size range may approach the length scale at which some specific physical or chemical interactions with their environment can occur. As a result, their properties differ substantially from those bulk materials of the same composition, allowing them to perform exceptional feats of conductivity, reactivity, and optical sensitivity. Possible undesirable results of these capabilities are harmful interactions with biological systems and the environment, with the potential to generate toxicity. The establishment of principles and test procedures to ensure safe manufacture and use of nanomaterials in the marketplace is urgently required and achievable.

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7,680 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/0003-9861(68)90654-1
Robert L. Heath1, Lester Packer1Institutions (1)
Abstract: A photo-induced cyclic peroxidation in isolated chloroplasts is described In an osmotic buffered medium, chloroplasts upon illumination produce malondialdehyde (MDA)—a decomposition product of tri-unsaturated fatty acid hydroperoxides—bleach endogenous chlorophyll, and consume oxygen These processes show ( a ) no reaction in the absence of illumination; ( b ) an initial lag phase upon illumination of 10–20 minutes duration; ( c ) a linear phase in which the rate is proportional to the square root of the light intensity; ( d ) cessation of reaction occurring within 3 minutes after illumination ceases; and ( e ) a termination phase after several hours of illumination The kinetics of the above processes fit a cyclic peroxidation equation with velocity coefficients near those for chemical peroxidation The stoichiometry of MDA/O 2 = 002, and O 2 Chl bleached = 69 correlates well with MDA production efficiency in other biological systems and with the molar ratio of unsaturated fatty acids to chlorophyll The energies of activation for the lag and linear phases are 17 and 0 kcal/mole, respectively, the same as that for autoxidation During the linear phase of oxygen uptake the dependence upon temperature and O 2 concentration indicates that during the reaction, oxygen tension at the site of peroxidation is 100-fold lower than in the aqueous phase It is concluded that isolated chloroplasts upon illumination can undergo a cyclic peroxidation initiated by the light absorbed by chlorophyll Photoperoxidation results in a destruction of the chlorophyll and tri-unsaturated fatty acids of the chloroplast membranes

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Topics: Oxygen tension (56%), Light intensity (53%), Chlorophyll (53%) ... read more

7,148 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1021/JF0502698
Abstract: Methods available for the measurement of antioxidant capacity are reviewed, presenting the general chemistry underlying the assays, the types of molecules detected, and the most important advantages and shortcomings of each method. This overview provides a basis and rationale for developing standardized antioxidant capacity methods for the food, nutraceutical, and dietary supplement industries. From evaluation of data presented at the First International Congress on Antioxidant Methods in 2004 and in the literature, as well as consideration of potential end uses of antioxidants, it is proposed that procedures and applications for three assays be considered for standardization: the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay, the Folin-Ciocalteu method, and possibly the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay. ORAC represent a hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) reaction mechanism, which is most relevant to human biology. The Folin-Ciocalteu method is an electron transfer (ET) based assay and gives reducing capacity, which has normally been expressed as phenolic contents. The TEAC assay represents a second ET-based method. Other assays may need to be considered in the future as more is learned about some of the other radical sources and their importance to human biology.

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4,122 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1111/J.1751-1097.1999.TB01944.X
Linda Chalker-Scott1Institutions (1)
Abstract: — Anthocyanins are water-soluble pigments found in all plant tissues throughout the plant kingdom. Our understanding of anthocyanin biosynthesis and its molecular control has greatly improved in the last decade. The adaptive advantages of anthocyanins, especially in non-reproductive tissues, is much less clear. Anthocyanins often appear transiently at specific developmental stages and may be induced by a number of environmental factors including visible and UVB radiation, cold temperatures and water stress. The subsequent production and localization of anthocyanins in root, stem and especially leaf tissues may allow the plant to develop resistance to a number of environmental stresses. This article reviews the environmental induction of anthocyanins and their proposed importance in ameliorating environmental stresses induced by visible and UVB radiation, drought and cold temperatures.

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1,283 Citations