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Journal ArticleDOI

A Review of Fundamental Combustion Phenomena in Wire Fires

01 Jan 2020-Fire Technology (Springer US)-Vol. 56, Iss: 1, pp 315-360
TL;DR: In this article, the authors review the recent understandings of the fundamental combustion processes in wire fire over the last three decades and highlight the complex role of the metallic core in the ignition, flame spread, burning, and extinction of wire fire.
Abstract: Electrical wires and cables have been identified as a potential source of fire in residential buildings, nuclear power plants, aircraft, and spacecraft. This work reviews the recent understandings of the fundamental combustion processes in wire fire over the last three decades. Based on experimental studies using ideal laboratory wires, physical-based theories are proposed to describe the unique wire fire phenomena. The review emphasizes the complex role of the metallic core in the ignition, flame spread, burning, and extinction of wire fire. Moreover, the influence of wire configurations and environmental conditions, such as pressure, oxygen level, and gravity, on wire-fire behaviors are discussed in detail. Finally, the challenges and problems in both the fundamental research, using laboratory wires and numerical simulations, and the applied research, using commercial cables and empirical function approaches, are thoroughly discussed to guide future wire fire research and the design of fire-safe wire and cables.
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors focus on the latest fire-safety issues of EVs related to thermal runaway and fire in Li-ion batteries and provide a qualitative understanding of the fire risk and hazards associated with battery powered EVs.
Abstract: Over the last decade, the electric vehicle (EV) has significantly changed the car industry globally, driven by the fast development of Li-ion battery technology. However, the fire risk and hazard associated with this type of high-energy battery has become a major safety concern for EVs. This review focuses on the latest fire-safety issues of EVs related to thermal runaway and fire in Li-ion batteries. Thermal runaway or fire can occur as a result of extreme abuse conditions that may be the result of the faulty operation or traffic accidents. Failure of the battery may then be accompanied by the release of toxic gas, fire, jet flames, and explosion. This paper is devoted to reviewing the battery fire in battery EVs, hybrid EVs, and electric buses to provide a qualitative understanding of the fire risk and hazards associated with battery powered EVs. In addition, important battery fire characteristics involved in various EV fire scenarios, obtained through testing, are analysed. The tested peak heat release rate (PHHR in MW) varies with the energy capacity of LIBs ($$E_{B}$$ in Wh) crossing different scales as $$PHRR = 2E_{B}^{0.6}$$. For the full-scale EV fire test, limited data have revealed that the heat release and hazard of an EV fire are comparable to that of a fossil-fuelled vehicle fire. Once the onboard battery involved in fire, there is a greater difficulty in suppressing EV fires, because the burning battery pack inside is inaccessible to externally applied suppressant and can re-ignite without sufficient cooling. As a result, an excessive amount of suppression agent is needed to cool the battery, extinguish the fire, and prevent reignition. By addressing these concerns, this review aims to aid researchers and industries working with batteries, EVs and fire safety engineering, to encourage active research collaborations, and attract future research and development on improving the overall safety of future EVs. Only then will society achieve the same comfort level for EVs as they have for conventional vehicles.

303 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors revisited the problem of opposed fire spread under limited and excessive oxygen supply and reviewed various near-limit fire phenomena, as recently observed in flaming, smoldering, and glowing spread under various environment and fuel configurations.

40 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors quantified the fire hazard of thin polyethylene drips with four sizes (2.6-6.2 µm) and drips frequencies (0.8-1.8 µm).

19 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors investigated the pyrolysis of outer sheath polymer of a PVC CaCO3-based cable and revealed the solid phase reaction scheme and the law of Cl migration.

19 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the influence of ambient temperature and incident heat flux on the horizontal flame spread over wires and cables was investigated, and it was shown that the flame spreads evenly along the wire, and the flame spread rate slightly increases with the ambient temperature increasing with a maximum increase of 16 %.

14 citations

References
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Book
11 Sep 1985
TL;DR: This paper introduced the physical effects underlying heat and mass transfer phenomena and developed methodologies for solving a variety of real-world problems, such as energy minimization, mass transfer, and energy maximization.
Abstract: This undergraduate-level engineering text introduces the physical effects underlying heat and mass transfer phenomena and develops methodologies for solving a variety of real-world problems.

13,209 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors describe the physical chemistry of combustion in fire and discuss the physical properties of fire and its application in a wide range of applications in fire science and combustion.
Abstract: Machine generated contents note: About the AuthorPreface to the Second EditionPreface to the Third EditionList of Symbols and Abbreviations1 Fire science and combustion 1.1 Fuels and the Combustion Process 1.2 The Physical Chemistry of Combustion in Fires Problems2 Heat transfer 2.1 Summary of the heat transfer equations 2.2 Conduction 2.3 Convection 2.4 Radiation Problems3 Limits of flammability and premixed flames 3.1 Limits of flammability 3.2 The structure of a premixed flame 3.3 Heat losses from premixed flames 3.4 Measurement of burning velocities 3.5 Variation of burning velocity with experimental parameters 3.6 The effect of turbulence Problems4 Diffusion flames and fire plumes 4.1 Laminar jet flames 4.2 Turbulent jet flames 4.3 Flames from natural fires 4.4 Some practical applications Problems5 Steady burning of liquids and solids 5.1 Burning of liquids 5.2 Burning of solids Problems6 Ignition: The initiation of flaming combustion 6.1 Ignition of^

1,984 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A review of recent progress in understanding turbulent, lifted hydrocarbon jet flames and the conditions under which they stabilize can be found in this paper, focusing on experimental results and the physically based theories that have emerged from their interpretations, as well as from the theoretically founded notions that have been supported.

248 citations