scispace - formally typeset
Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/JCM10050985

Clinical Effectiveness and Safety of Once-Weekly GLP-1 Receptor Agonist Dulaglutide as Add-On to Metformin or Metformin Plus Insulin Secretagogues in Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes.

02 Mar 2021-Journal of Clinical Medicine (Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute)-Vol. 10, Iss: 5, pp 985
Abstract: Aims and methods: The aim of this monocentric retrospective observational study was to evaluate the 18-month safety and effectiveness of GLP-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1 RA) dulaglutide (DU) 1.5 mg/once weekly as an add-on to metformin (MET) or MET plus conventional insulin secretagogues in a study cohort with excess body weight and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Comparative efficacy versus liraglutide (LIRA) 1.2–1.8 mg/once daily in a study sample naive to GLP-1 RAs, frequency matching for age, gender, T2D duration, degree of glycemic impairment, cardiovascular comorbidities, and medications, was addressed as a secondary aim. Clinical and biochemical data for efficacy outcomes and information on drug discontinuation due to adverse events (AEs) were collected from digital records. Results: Initial analysis included 126 overweight and obese T2D patients (48.4% females). Out of these, 13 discontinued DU due to moderate–severe gastrointestinal AEs after a mean follow-up of 6 (4 standard deviations (SD)) months, while 65 completed 18 months of continuous therapy. At 6 months, there was a significant mean HbA1c reduction of −0.85% (1.17 SD) with respect to baseline values (p < 0.001), which remained stable during 18 months follow-up. These results were accompanied by a moderate weight loss sustained over time, with a mean reduction of −2.0% (4.3 SD) at 6 months and −1.3% (4.8 SD) at 18 months (p = 0.091). At univariate analysis, a negative correlation between baseline body mass index (BMI) and risk of drug discontinuation due to gastrointestinal AEs was observed. The protective effect of obesity against drug discontinuation was confirmed by logistic regression analysis. Neither gender, nor age, nor T2D duration, nor concomitant conventional insulin secretagogue use, nor switching to DU from other GLP-1 RAs influenced its long-term effectiveness. However, higher baseline HbA1c values emerged as predictors of clinically relevant efficacy outcomes, either in terms of HbA1c reduction ≥ 0.5% or body weight loss ≥ 5%. The efficacy outcomes were corroborated by head-to-head comparison with LIRA, a GLP-1 RA with durable beneficial effects on glycemic control and body weight in real-world experiences. With the advantage of once-weekly administration, at 18-month follow-up, a significantly larger fraction of patients on DU therapy reached glycemic targets (HbA1c ≤ 7.0%) when compared to those on LIRA: from 14.8% at baseline (both groups) to 64.8% with DU and 42.6% with LIRA (p = 0.033). Conclusions: Although limited by a retrospective design and lack of constant up-titration for LIRA to the highest dose, these findings indicate that the beneficial responses to DU on a background of MET or MET plus insulin secretagogues are durable, especially in the presence of obesity and greater HbA1c impairment.

... read more

Topics: Dulaglutide (56%), Weight loss (53%), Type 2 diabetes (53%) ... read more
Citations
  More

5 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/IJMS22126297
Isabella Panfoli1, Alessandra Puddu1, Nadia Bertola1, Silvia Ravera1  +1 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: Metformin (MTF) is the first-line therapy for type 2 diabetes (T2DM). The euglycemic effect of MTF is due to the inhibition of hepatic glucose production. Literature reports that the principal molecular mechanism of MTF is the activation of 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) due to the decrement of ATP intracellular content consequent to the inhibition of Complex I, although this effect is obtained only at millimolar concentrations. Conversely, micromolar MTF seems to activate the mitochondrial electron transport chain, increasing ATP production and limiting oxidative stress. This evidence sustains the idea that MTF exerts a hormetic effect based on its concentration in the target tissue. Therefore, in this review we describe the effects of MTF on T2DM on the principal target organs, such as liver, gut, adipose tissue, endothelium, heart, and skeletal muscle. In particular, data indicate that all organs, except the gut, accumulate MTF in the micromolar range when administered in therapeutic doses, unmasking molecular mechanisms that do not depend on Complex I inhibition.

... read more

3 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.PHRS.2021.105819
Abstract: Cardiovascular disease is one of the leading causes of mortality globally. Atherosclerosis is an important step towards different types of cardiovascular disease. The role of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) in the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis has been thoroughly investigated in recent years. Moreover, clinical trials have established that diabetic patients are at a greater risk of developing atherosclerotic plaques. Hence, we aimed to review the clinical and experimental impacts of various classes of antidiabetic drugs on the circulating levels of oxLDL. Metformin, pioglitazone, and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors were clinically associated with a suppressive effect on oxLDL in patients with impaired glucose tolerance. However, there is an insufficient number of studies that have clinically evaluated the relationship between oxLDL and newer agents such as agonists of glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor or inhibitors of sodium-glucose transport protein 2. Next, we attempted to explore the multitude of mechanisms that antidiabetic agents exert to counter the undesirable effects of oxLDL in macrophages, endothelial cells, and vascular smooth muscle cells. In general, antidiabetic drugs decrease the uptake of oxLDL by vascular cells and reduce subsequent inflammatory signaling, which prevents macrophage adhesion and infiltration. Moreover, these agents suppress the oxLDL-induced transformation of macrophages into foam cells by either inhibiting oxLDL entrance, or by facilitating its efflux. Thus, the anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and anti-apoptotic properties of antidiabetic agents abrogate changes induced by oxLDL, which can be extremely beneficial in controlling atherosclerosis in diabetic patients.

... read more

2 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41598-021-97967-0
17 Sep 2021-Scientific Reports
Abstract: Anti-inflammatory effects of glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist (GLP-1 RA) treatment in T2D may contribute to the cardiovascular benefits observed with GLP-1 RAs in outcome studies. We investigated if the GLP-1 RA liraglutide exerts anti-inflammatory effects through modulation of inflammatory gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). From 54 participants of a double-blinded trial where individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D) were randomized to liraglutide (1.8 mg/day) or placebo for 26 weeks, a sub-study was performed in which PBMCs were extracted from fresh blood at study start and at end-of-treatment. The expression of selected inflammatory genes in PBMCs were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Moreover, the expression of the GLP-1 receptor (GLP1R) was examined in a subset (n = 40) of the PBMC samples. The human monocytic cell line THP-1 was used for in vitro GLP-1 exposure experiments. The expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFA) (p = 0.004) and interleukin-1β (IL1B) was downregulated (p = 0.046) in the liraglutide-treated group (n = 31), and unchanged in the placebo group (n = 21, p ≥ 0.11), with no significant differences between the two groups (p ≥ 0.67). The expression of interferon-γ (IFNG) and cluster of differentiation 163 (CD163) were upregulated in both groups (p ≤ 0.006) with no differences between groups (p ≥ 0.47). C–C Motif Chemokine Ligand 5 (CCL5) was upregulated in the liraglutide-treated group (p = 0.002) and unchanged in the placebo group (p = 0.14), with no significant difference between groups (p = 0.36). Intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM1) was unchanged in both groups (p ≥ 0.43). GLP1R expression in the PBMCs was undetectable. In vitro experiments showed no effect of GLP-1 treatment on inflammatory gene expression in THP-1 cells. GLP1R expression in THP-1 cells was not detectable. In summary, we observed a discrete modulatory effect of liraglutide on the expression of inflammatory genes in PBMCs. The lack of evidence for GLP1R expression in PBMCs and THP-1 cells suggests that possible effects of liraglutide on the PBMCs’ gene expression are most likely indirect. Further investigations are needed to establish the anti-inflammatory potential of GLP-1 RAs.

... read more

Topics: Liraglutide (52%), Chemokine (50%)

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FENDO.2021.721135
Xin Zhao1, Minghe Wang1, Zhitong Wen1, Zhihong Lu1  +5 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: Glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an incretin secretory molecule. GLP-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) are widely used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) due to their attributes such as body weight loss, protection of islet β cells, promotion of islet β cell proliferation and minimal side effects. Studies have found that GLP-1R is widely distributed on pancreatic and other tissues and has multiple biological effects, such as reducing neuroinflammation, promoting nerve growth, improving heart function, suppressing appetite, delaying gastric emptying, regulating blood lipid metabolism and reducing fat deposition. Moreover, GLP-1RAs have neuroprotective, anti-infectious, cardiovascular protective, and metabolic regulatory effects, exhibiting good application prospects. Growing attention has been paid to the relationship between GLP-1RAs and tumorigenesis, development and prognosis in patient with T2DM. Here, we reviewed the therapeutic effects and possible mechanisms of action of GLP-1RAs in the nervous, cardiovascular, and endocrine systems and their correlation with metabolism, tumours and other diseases.

... read more

Topics: Gastric emptying (56%), Incretin (55%), Glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (54%) ... read more

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/IJMS222011137
Abstract: Insulin resistance (IR) is a condition which refers to individuals whose cells and tissues become insensitive to the peptide hormone, insulin. Over the recent years, a wealth of data has made it clear that a synergistic relationship exists between IR, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cancer. Although the underlying mechanism(s) for this association remain unclear, it is well established that hyperinsulinemia, a hallmark of IR, may play a role in tumorigenesis. On the other hand, IR is strongly associated with visceral adiposity dysfunction and systemic inflammation, two conditions which favor the establishment of a pro-tumorigenic environment. Similarly, epigenetic modifications, such as DNA methylation, histone modifications, and non-coding RNA, in IR states, have been often associated with tumorigenesis in numerous types of human cancer. In addition to these observations, it is also broadly accepted that gut microbiota may play an intriguing role in the development of IR-related diseases, including type 2 diabetes and cancer, whereas potential chemopreventive properties have been attributed to some of the most commonly used antidiabetic medications. Herein we provide a concise overview of the most recent literature in this field and discuss how different but interrelated molecular pathways may impact on tumor development.

... read more

Topics: Insulin resistance (53%), Hyperinsulinemia (52%), Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (50%) ... read more
References
  More

41 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1056/NEJMOA1607141
Abstract: BackgroundRegulatory guidance specifies the need to establish cardiovascular safety of new diabetes therapies in patients with type 2 diabetes in order to rule out excess cardiovascular risk. The cardiovascular effects of semaglutide, a glucagon-like peptide 1 analogue with an extended half-life of approximately 1 week, in type 2 diabetes are unknown. MethodsWe randomly assigned 3297 patients with type 2 diabetes who were on a standard-care regimen to receive once-weekly semaglutide (0.5 mg or 1.0 mg) or placebo for 104 weeks. The primary composite outcome was the first occurrence of cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke. We hypothesized that semaglutide would be noninferior to placebo for the primary outcome. The noninferiority margin was 1.8 for the upper boundary of the 95% confidence interval of the hazard ratio. ResultsAt baseline, 2735 of the patients (83.0%) had established cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease, or both. The primary outcome occurred in 10...

... read more

Topics: Semaglutide (77%), Type 2 diabetes (53%), Diabetes mellitus (52%) ... read more

2,600 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.2337/DC10-2415
Rena R. Wing1, Wei Lang2, Thomas A. Wadden3, Monika M. Safford4  +6 moreInstitutions (6)
01 Jul 2011-Diabetes Care
Abstract: OBJECTIVE Overweight and obese individuals are encouraged to lose 5–10% of their body weight to improve cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, but data supporting this recommendation are limited, particularly for individuals with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We conducted an observational analysis of participants in the Look AHEAD (Action For Health in Diabetes) study ( n = 5,145, 40.5% male, 37% from ethnic/racial minorities) and examined the association between the magnitude of weight loss and changes in CVD risk factors at 1 year and the odds of meeting predefined criteria for clinically significant improvements in risk factors in individuals with type 2 diabetes. RESULTS The magnitude of weight loss at 1 year was strongly ( P P = 0.79). Compared with weight-stable participants, those who lost 5 to 1c (odds ratio 3.52 [95% CI 2.81–4.40]), a 5-mmHg decrease in diastolic blood pressure (1.48 [1.20–1.82]), a 5-mmHg decrease in systolic blood pressure (1.56 [1.27–1.91]), a 5 mg/dL increase in HDL cholesterol (1.69 [1.37–2.07]), and a 40 mg/dL decrease in triglycerides (2.20 [1.71–2.83]). The odds of clinically significant improvements in most risk factors were even greater in those who lost 10–15% of their body weight. CONCLUSIONS Modest weight losses of 5 to

... read more

Topics: Weight loss (60%), Overweight (56%), Type 2 diabetes (55%) ... read more

1,145 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(19)31149-3
Rewind Investigators1Institutions (1)
13 Jul 2019-The Lancet
Abstract: Summary Background Three different glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists reduce cardiovascular outcomes in people with type 2 diabetes at high cardiovascular risk with high glycated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) concentrations. We assessed the effect of the GLP-1 receptor agonist dulaglutide on major adverse cardiovascular events when added to the existing antihyperglycaemic regimens of individuals with type 2 diabetes with and without previous cardiovascular disease and a wide range of glycaemic control. Methods This multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was done at 371 sites in 24 countries. Men and women aged at least 50 years with type 2 diabetes who had either a previous cardiovascular event or cardiovascular risk factors were randomly assigned (1:1) to either weekly subcutaneous injection of dulaglutide (1·5 mg) or placebo. Randomisation was done by a computer-generated random code with stratification by site. All investigators and participants were masked to treatment assignment. Participants were followed up at least every 6 months for incident cardiovascular and other serious clinical outcomes. The primary outcome was the first occurrence of the composite endpoint of non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke, or death from cardiovascular causes (including unknown causes), which was assessed in the intention-to-treat population. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov , number NCT01394952 . Findings Between Aug 18, 2011, and Aug 14, 2013, 9901 participants (mean age 66·2 years [SD 6·5], median HbA1c 7·2% [IQR 6·6–8·1], 4589 [46·3%] women) were enrolled and randomly assigned to receive dulaglutide (n=4949) or placebo (n=4952). During a median follow-up of 5·4 years (IQR 5·1–5·9), the primary composite outcome occurred in 594 (12·0%) participants at an incidence rate of 2·4 per 100 person-years in the dulaglutide group and in 663 (13·4%) participants at an incidence rate of 2·7 per 100 person-years in the placebo group (hazard ratio [HR] 0·88, 95% CI 0·79–0·99; p=0·026). All-cause mortality did not differ between groups (536 [10·8%] in the dulaglutide group vs 592 [12·0%] in the placebo group; HR 0·90, 95% CI 0·80–1·01; p=0·067). 2347 (47·4%) participants assigned to dulaglutide reported a gastrointestinal adverse event during follow-up compared with 1687 (34·1%) participants assigned to placebo (p Interpretation Dulaglutide could be considered for the management of glycaemic control in middle-aged and older people with type 2 diabetes with either previous cardiovascular disease or cardiovascular risk factors. Funding Eli Lilly and Company.

... read more

Topics: Dulaglutide (67%), Placebo-controlled study (53%), Semaglutide (52%) ... read more

841 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1056/NEJMOA1616011
Abstract: BackgroundIn a randomized, controlled trial that compared liraglutide, a glucagon-like peptide 1 analogue, with placebo in patients with type 2 diabetes and high cardiovascular risk who were receiving usual care, we found that liraglutide resulted in lower risks of the primary end point (nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, or death from cardiovascular causes) and death. However, the long-term effects of liraglutide on renal outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes are unknown. MethodsWe report the prespecified secondary renal outcomes of that randomized, controlled trial in which patients were assigned to receive liraglutide or placebo. The secondary renal outcome was a composite of new-onset persistent macroalbuminuria, persistent doubling of the serum creatinine level, end-stage renal disease, or death due to renal disease. The risk of renal outcomes was determined with the use of time-to-event analyses with an intention-to-treat approach. Changes in the estimated glomerular filtration rat...

... read more

Topics: Liraglutide (58%), Acute kidney injury (55%), Renal function (53%) ... read more

555 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1001/JAMA.2016.7602
14 Jun 2016-JAMA
Abstract: Importance Five medications have been approved for the management of obesity, but data on comparative effectiveness are limited. Objective To compare weight loss and adverse events among drug treatments for obesity using a systematic review and network meta-analysis. Data Sources MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, Scopus, and Cochrane Central from inception to March 23, 2016; clinical trial registries. Study Selection Randomized clinical trials conducted among overweight and obese adults treated with US Food and Drug Administration–approved long-term weight loss agents (orlistat, lorcaserin, naltrexone-bupropion, phentermine-topiramate, or liraglutide) for at least 1 year compared with another active agent or placebo. Data Extraction and Synthesis Two investigators identified studies and independently abstracted data using a predefined protocol. A Bayesian network meta-analysis was performed and relative ranking of agents was assessed using surface under the cumulative ranking (SUCRA) probabilities. Quality of evidence was assessed using GRADE criteria. Main Outcomes and Measures Proportions of patients with at least 5% weight loss and at least 10% weight loss, magnitude of decrease in weight, and discontinuation of therapy because of adverse events at 1 year. Results Twenty-eight randomized clinical trials with 29 018 patients (median age, 46 years; 74% women; median baseline body weight, 100.5 kg; median baseline body mass index, 36.1) were included. A median 23% of placebo participants had at least 5% weight loss vs 75% of participants taking phentermine-topiramate (odds ratio [OR], 9.22; 95% credible interval [CrI], 6.63-12.85; SUCRA, 0.95), 63% of participants taking liraglutide (OR, 5.54; 95% CrI, 4.16-7.78; SUCRA, 0.83), 55% taking naltrexone-bupropion (OR, 3.96; 95% CrI, 3.03-5.11; SUCRA, 0.60), 49% taking lorcaserin (OR, 3.10; 95% CrI, 2.38-4.05; SUCRA, 0.39), and 44% taking orlistat (OR, 2.70; 95% CrI, 2.34-3.09; SUCRA, 0.22). All active agents were associated with significant excess weight loss compared with placebo at 1 year—phentermine-topiramate, 8.8 kg (95% CrI, −10.20 to −7.42 kg); liraglutide, 5.3 kg (95% CrI, −6.06 to −4.52 kg); naltrexone-bupropion, 5.0 kg (95% CrI, −5.94 to −3.96 kg); lorcaserin, 3.2 kg (95% CrI, −3.97 to −2.46 kg); and orlistat, 2.6 kg (95% CrI, −3.04 to −2.16 kg). Compared with placebo, liraglutide (OR, 2.95; 95% CrI, 2.11-4.23) and naltrexone-bupropion (OR, 2.64; 95% CrI, 2.10-3.35) were associated with the highest odds of adverse event–related treatment discontinuation. High attrition rates (30%-45% in all trials) were associated with lower confidence in estimates. Conclusions and Relevance Among overweight or obese adults, orlistat, lorcaserin, naltrexone-bupropion, phentermine-topiramate, and liraglutide, compared with placebo, were each associated with achieving at least 5% weight loss at 52 weeks. Phentermine-topiramate and liraglutide were associated with the highest odds of achieving at least 5% weight loss.

... read more

398 Citations