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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.7554/ELIFE.63591

Functional specialization within the inferior parietal lobes across cognitive domains

02 Mar 2021-eLife (eLife Sciences Publications Limited)-Vol. 10
Abstract: The inferior parietal lobe (IPL) is a key neural substrate underlying diverse mental processes, from basic attention to language and social cognition, that define human interactions. Its putative domain-global role appears to tie into poorly understood differences between cognitive domains in both hemispheres. Across attentional, semantic, and social cognitive tasks, our study explored functional specialization within the IPL. The task specificity of IPL subregion activity was substantiated by distinct predictive signatures identified by multivariate pattern-learning algorithms. Moreover, the left and right IPL exerted domain-specific modulation of effective connectivity among their subregions. Task-evoked functional interactions of the anterior and posterior IPL subregions involved recruitment of distributed cortical partners. While anterior IPL subregions were engaged in strongly lateralized coupling links, both posterior subregions showed more symmetric coupling patterns across hemispheres. Our collective results shed light on how under-appreciated hemispheric specialization in the IPL supports some of the most distinctive human mental capacities.

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8 results found


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.NEURON.2021.04.024
07 Jul 2021-Neuron
Abstract: Uniquely human cognitive faculties arise from flexible interplay between specific local neural modules, with hemispheric asymmetries in functional specialization. Here, we discuss how these computational design principles provide a scaffold that enables some of the most advanced cognitive operations, such as semantic understanding of world structure, logical reasoning, and communication via language. We draw parallels to dual-processing theories of cognition by placing a focus on Kahneman's System 1 and System 2. We propose integration of these ideas with the global workspace theory to explain dynamic relay of information products between both systems. Deepening the current understanding of how neurocognitive asymmetry makes humans special can ignite the next wave of neuroscience-inspired artificial intelligence.

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Topics: Global Workspace Theory (54%), Artificial general intelligence (53%), Cognition (52%) ... show more

5 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1093/BRAINCOMMS/FCAB110
Anna K. Bonkhoff1, Jae-Sung Lim2, Hee-Joon Bae3, Nick A. Weaver4  +4 moreInstitutions (5)
01 Jan 2021-
Abstract: Cognitive impairment is a frequent and disabling sequela of stroke. There is however incomplete understanding of how lesion topographies in the left and right cerebral hemisphere brain interact to cause distinct cognitive deficits. We integrated machine learning and Bayesian hierarchical modelling to enable a hemisphere-aware analysis of 1080 acute ischaemic stroke patients with deep profiling ∼3 months after stroke. We show the relevance of the left hemisphere in the prediction of language and memory assessments and relevance of the right hemisphere in the prediction of visuospatial functioning. Global cognitive impairments were equally well predicted by lesion topographies from both sides. Damage to the hippocampal and occipital regions on the left was particularly informative about lost naming and memory functions, while damage to these regions on the right was linked to lost visuospatial functioning. Global cognitive impairment was predominantly linked to lesioned tissue in the supramarginal and angular gyrus, the post-central gyrus as well as the lateral occipital and opercular cortices of the left hemisphere. Hence, our analysis strategy uncovered that lesion patterns with unique hemispheric distributions are characteristic of how cognitive capacity is lost due to ischaemic brain tissue damage.

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Topics: Lateralization of brain function (56%), Angular gyrus (54%), Lesion (53%) ... show more

3 Citations


Open accessPosted ContentDOI: 10.1101/2021.05.23.445307
Oscar Woolnough1, Cristian Donos2, Aidan Curtis, Patrick S. Rollo1  +6 moreInstitutions (6)
23 May 2021-bioRxiv
Abstract: Reading words aloud is a foundational aspect of the acquisition of literacy. The rapid rate at which multiple distributed neural substrates are engaged in this process can only be probed via techniques with high spatiotemporal resolution. We used direct intracranial recordings in a large cohort to create a holistic yet fine-grained map of word processing, enabling us to derive the spatiotemporal neural codes of multiple word attributes critical to reading: lexicality, word frequency and orthographic neighborhood. We found that lexicality is encoded by early activity in mid-fusiform (mFus) cortex and precentral sulcus. Word frequency is also first represented in mFus followed by later engagement of the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and inferior parietal sulcus (IPS), and orthographic neighborhood is encoded solely in the IPS. A lexicality decoder revealed high weightings for electrodes in the mFus, IPS, anterior IFG and the pre-central sulcus. These results elaborate the neural codes underpinning extant dual-route models of reading, with parallel processing via the lexical route, progressing from mFus to IFG, and the sub-lexical route, progressing from IPS to anterior IFG.

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Topics: Word processing (58%), Precentral sulcus (55%), Inferior frontal gyrus (54%) ... show more

2 Citations


Open accessPosted ContentDOI: 10.1101/2021.04.01.437961
02 Apr 2021-bioRxiv
Abstract: Most leading models of socio-cognitive processing devote little discussion to the nature and neuroanatomical correlates of cognitive control mechanisms. Recently, it has been proposed that the regulation of social behaviours could rely on brain regions specialised in the controlled retrieval of semantic information, namely the anterior inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and posterior middle temporal gyrus. Accordingly, we set out to investigate whether the neural activation commonly found in social functional neuroimaging studies extends to these ‘semantic control’ regions. We conducted five coordinate-based meta-analyses to combine results of over 500 fMRI/PET experiments and identified the brain regions consistently involved in semantic control, as well as four social abilities: theory of mind, trait inference, empathy and moral reasoning. This allowed an unprecedented parallel review of the neural networks associated with each of these cognitive domains. The results confirmed that the anterior left IFG region involved in semantic control is reliably engaged in all four social domains. This suggests that social cognition could be partly regulated by the neurocognitive system underpinning semantic control.

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Topics: Functional neuroimaging (59%), Social cognition (58%), Cognition (57%) ... show more

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.NEUROIMAGE.2021.118702
30 Oct 2021-NeuroImage
Abstract: The contribution and neural basis of cognitive control is under-specified in many prominent models of socio-cognitive processing. Important outstanding questions include whether there are multiple, distinguishable systems underpinning control and whether control is ubiquitously or selectively engaged across different social behaviours and task demands. Recently, it has been proposed that the regulation of social behaviours could rely on brain regions specialised in the controlled retrieval of semantic information, namely the anterior inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and posterior middle temporal gyrus. Accordingly, we investigated for the first time whether the neural activation commonly found in social functional neuroimaging studies extends to these ‘semantic control’ regions. We conducted five coordinate-based meta-analyses to combine results of 499 fMRI/PET experiments and identified the brain regions consistently involved in semantic control, as well as four social abilities: theory of mind, trait inference, empathy and moral reasoning. This allowed an unprecedented parallel review of the neural networks associated with each of these cognitive domains. The results confirmed that the anterior left IFG region involved in semantic control is reliably engaged in all four social domains. This supports the hypothesis that social cognition is partly regulated by the neurocognitive system underpinning semantic control.

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Topics: Functional neuroimaging (58%), Social cognition (58%), Cognition (56%) ... show more

1 Citations


References
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106 results found


Open accessJournal Article
Abstract: Scikit-learn is a Python module integrating a wide range of state-of-the-art machine learning algorithms for medium-scale supervised and unsupervised problems. This package focuses on bringing machine learning to non-specialists using a general-purpose high-level language. Emphasis is put on ease of use, performance, documentation, and API consistency. It has minimal dependencies and is distributed under the simplified BSD license, encouraging its use in both academic and commercial settings. Source code, binaries, and documentation can be downloaded from http://scikit-learn.sourceforge.net.

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33,540 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/0028-3932(71)90067-4
R.C. Oldfield1Institutions (1)
01 Mar 1971-Neuropsychologia
Abstract: The need for a simply applied quantitative assessment of handedness is discussed and some previous forms reviewed An inventory of 20 items with a set of instructions and response- and computational-conventions is proposed and the results obtained from a young adult population numbering some 1100 individuals are reported The separate items are examined from the point of view of sex, cultural and socio-economic factors which might appertain to them and also of their inter-relationship to each other and to the measure computed from them all Criteria derived from these considerations are then applied to eliminate 10 of the original 20 items and the results recomputed to provide frequency-distribution and cumulative frequency functions and a revised item-analysis The difference of incidence of handedness between the sexes is discussed

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Topics: Population (52%)

30,901 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NRN755
Maurizio Corbetta1, Gordon L. Shulman1Institutions (1)
Abstract: We review evidence for partially segregated networks of brain areas that carry out different attentional functions. One system, which includes parts of the intraparietal cortex and superior frontal cortex, is involved in preparing and applying goal-directed (top-down) selection for stimuli and responses. This system is also modulated by the detection of stimuli. The other system, which includes the temporoparietal cortex and inferior frontal cortex, and is largely lateralized to the right hemisphere, is not involved in top-down selection. Instead, this system is specialized for the detection of behaviourally relevant stimuli, particularly when they are salient or unexpected. This ventral frontoparietal network works as a 'circuit breaker' for the dorsal system, directing attention to salient events. Both attentional systems interact during normal vision, and both are disrupted in unilateral spatial neglect.

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Topics: Directed attention fatigue (58%), Attentional control (58%), Posterior parietal cortex (57%) ... show more

9,838 Citations



Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1006/CBMR.1996.0014
Robert W. Cox1Institutions (1)
Abstract: A package of computer programs for analysis and visualization of three-dimensional human brain functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI) results is described. The software can color overlay neural activation maps onto higher resolution anatomical scans. Slices in each cardinal plane can be viewed simultaneously. Manual placement of markers on anatomical landmarks allows transformation of anatomical and functional scans into stereotaxic (Talairach-Tournoux) coordinates. The techniques for automatically generating transformed functional data sets from manually labeled anatomical data sets are described. Facilities are provided for several types of statistical analyses of multiple 3D functional data sets. The programs are written in ANSI C and Motif 1.2 to run on Unix workstations.

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Topics: Visualization (50%)

8,845 Citations


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20218