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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.LANEPE.2021.100055

In- and out-of-hospital mortality for myocardial infarction during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Emilia-Romagna, Italy: A population-based observational study.

02 Mar 2021-Vol. 3, pp 100055
Abstract: Background The COVID-19 pandemic has put several healthcare systems under severe pressure. The present analysis investigates how the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic affected the myocardial infarction (MI) network of Emilia-Romagna (Italy). Methods Based on Emilia-Romagna mortality registry and administrative data from all the hospitals from January 2017 to June 2020, we analysed: i) temporal trend in MI hospital admissions; ii) characteristics, management, and 30-day mortality of MI patients; iii) out-of-hospital mortality for cardiac cause. Findings Admissions for MI declined on February 22, 2020 (IRR -19.5%, 95%CI from -8.4% to -29.3%, p = 0.001), and further on March 5, 2020 (IRR -21.6%, 95%CI from -9.0% to -32.5%, p = 0.001). The return to pre-COVID-19 MI-related admission levels was observed from May 13, 2020 (IRR 34.3%, 95%CI 20.0%-50.2%, p<0.001). As compared to those before the pandemic, MI patients admitted during and after the first wave were younger and with fewer risk factors. The 30-day mortality remained in line with that expected based on previous years (ratio observed/expected was 0.96, 95%CI 0.84-1.08). MI patients positive for SARS-CoV-2 were few (1.5%) but showed poor prognosis (around 5-fold increase in 30-day mortality). In 2020, the number of out-of-hospital cardiac deaths was significantly higher (ratio observed/expected 1.17, 95%CI 1.08-1.27). The peak was reached in April. Interpretation In Emilia-Romagna, MI hospitalizations significantly decreased during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. Management and outcomes of hospitalized MI patients remained unchanged, except for those with SARS-CoV-2 infection. A concomitant increase in the out-of-hospital cardiac mortality was observed. Funding None.

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Open access
Marion Mafham1, Enti Spata2, Enti Spata1, Raphael Goldacre  +20 moreInstitutions (8)
12 Aug 2020-
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Several countries affected by the COVID-19 pandemic have reported a substantial drop in the number of patients attending the emergency department with acute coronary syndromes and a reduced number of cardiac procedures. We aimed to understand the scale, nature, and duration of changes to admissions for different types of acute coronary syndrome in England and to evaluate whether in-hospital management of patients has been affected as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We analysed data on hospital admissions in England for types of acute coronary syndrome from Jan 1, 2019, to May 24, 2020, that were recorded in the Secondary Uses Service Admitted Patient Care database. Admissions were classified as ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), non-STEMI (NSTEMI), myocardial infarction of unknown type, or other acute coronary syndromes (including unstable angina). We identified revascularisation procedures undertaken during these admissions (ie, coronary angiography without percutaneous coronary intervention [PCI], PCI, and coronary artery bypass graft surgery). We calculated the numbers of weekly admissions and procedures undertaken; percentage reductions in weekly admissions and across subgroups were also calculated, with 95% CIs. FINDINGS: Hospital admissions for acute coronary syndrome declined from mid-February, 2020, falling from a 2019 baseline rate of 3017 admissions per week to 1813 per week by the end of March, 2020, a reduction of 40% (95% CI 37-43). This decline was partly reversed during April and May, 2020, such that by the last week of May, 2020, there were 2522 admissions, representing a 16% (95% CI 13-20) reduction from baseline. During the period of declining admissions, there were reductions in the numbers of admissions for all types of acute coronary syndrome, including both STEMI and NSTEMI, but relative and absolute reductions were larger for NSTEMI, with 1267 admissions per week in 2019 and 733 per week by the end of March, 2020, a percent reduction of 42% (95% CI 38-46). In parallel, reductions were recorded in the number of PCI procedures for patients with both STEMI (438 PCI procedures per week in 2019 vs 346 by the end of March, 2020; percent reduction 21%, 95% CI 12-29) and NSTEMI (383 PCI procedures per week in 2019 vs 240 by the end of March, 2020; percent reduction 37%, 29-45). The median length of stay among patients with acute coronary syndrome fell from 4 days (IQR 2-9) in 2019 to 3 days (1-5) by the end of March, 2020. INTERPRETATION: Compared with the weekly average in 2019, there was a substantial reduction in the weekly numbers of patients with acute coronary syndrome who were admitted to hospital in England by the end of March, 2020, which had been partly reversed by the end of May, 2020. The reduced number of admissions during this period is likely to have resulted in increases in out-of-hospital deaths and long-term complications of myocardial infarction and missed opportunities to offer secondary prevention treatment for patients with coronary heart disease. The full extent of the effect of COVID-19 on the management of patients with acute coronary syndrome will continue to be assessed by updating these analyses. FUNDING: UK Medical Research Council, British Heart Foundation, Public Health England, Health Data Research UK, and the National Institute for Health Research Oxford Biomedical Research Centre.

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Topics: Acute coronary syndrome (62%), Percutaneous coronary intervention (58%), Unstable angina (56%) ... read more

6 Citations



Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1093/EURHEARTJ/EHAB621
Abstract: AIMS The severity of myocardial tissue damage following ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) strongly determines short- and long-term prognosis. This study explored the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and associated public health restrictions on infarct severity. METHODS AND RESULTS STEMI patients treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and included in the prospective Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Acute ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction (MARINA-STEMI) cohort study from 2015- 2020 (n = 474) were categorized according to (i) timeframes with and without major public health restrictions in 2020, and (ii) timeframes of major public health restrictions during 2020 and during the corresponding timeframes between 2015-2019. Myocardial damage was evaluated by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. During major public health restrictions in 2020 (n = 48), there was an increase in infarct size (22 [IQR 12-29] vs. 14 [IQR 6-23]%, P < 0.01), a higher frequency (77% vs. 52%, P < 0.01) and larger extent of microvascular obstruction (1.5 [IQR 0.1-11.4] vs. 0.2 [IQR 0.0-2.6]%, P < 0.01) and a higher rate of intramyocardial haemorrhage (56% vs. 34%, P = 0.02) as compared to the phases without major restrictions in 2020 (n = 101). These findings were confirmed in adjusted analysis and were consistent when comparing patients admitted in 2020 versus patients admitted in the "pre-pandemic" era (2015-2019). Patient characteristics were comparable between groups, except for a significantly longer total ischemia time (P < 0.01) and higher frequency of pre-PCI Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) flow 0 during times of major restrictions (P = 0.03). CONCLUSION This study provides novel mechanistic insights demonstrating a significant increase in myocardial damage in STEMI patients admitted during the COVID-19 pandemic with a temporal relation to major public health restrictions.

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3 Citations



Open accessPosted ContentDOI: 10.1101/2021.07.02.21259910
06 Jul 2021-medRxiv
Abstract: Background It is of great importance to examine the impact of the healthcare reorganization adopted to confront the COVID-19 pandemic on the quality of care provided by healthcare systems to non-COVID-19 patients. The aim of this study is to assess the impact of the COVID-19 national lockdown (March 9, 2020) on the quality of care provided to patients with hip fracture (HF) in Piedmont and Emilia-Romagna, 2 large regions of northern Italy severely hit by the pandemic. Methods We calculated the percentage of HF patients undergoing surgery within 2 days of hospital admission. An interrupted time-series analysis was performed on weekly data from December 11, 2019 to June 9, 2020 (≈6 months), interrupting the series in the 2nd week of March. The same data observed the year before were included as a control time series with no “intervention” (lockdown) in the middle of the observation period. Results Before the lockdown, 2-day surgery was 69.9% in Piedmont and 79.2% in Emilia-Romagna; after the lockdown, these proportions were equal to 69.8% (−0.1%) and 69.3% (− 9.9%), respectively. While Piedmont did not experience any drop in the amount of surgery, Emilia-Romagna exhibited a significantly decline at a weekly rate of –1.29% (95% CI = –1.71 to –0.88). Divergent trend patterns in the 2 study regions reflect local differences in pandemic timing as well as in healthcare services capacity, management, and emergency preparedness.

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17 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1056/NEJMC2009166
Abstract: Acute Coronary Syndrome during Covid-19 Outbreak During the Covid-19 outbreak in northern Italy, the daily rate of admissions for acute coronary syndrome at 15 hospitals was significantly lower tha...

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Topics: Outbreak (52%)

593 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1093/EURHEARTJ/EHAA409
Abstract: AIMS: To evaluate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on patient admissions to Italian cardiac care units (CCUs). METHODS AND RESULTS: We conducted a multicentre, observational, nationwide survey to collect data on admissions for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) at Italian CCUs throughout a 1 week period during the COVID-19 outbreak, compared with the equivalent week in 2019. We observed a 48.4% reduction in admissions for AMI compared with the equivalent week in 2019 (P < 0.001). The reduction was significant for both ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction [STEMI; 26.5%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 21.7-32.3; P = 0.009] and non-STEMI (NSTEMI; 65.1%, 95% CI 60.3-70.3; P < 0.001). Among STEMIs, the reduction was higher for women (41.2%; P = 0.011) than men (17.8%; P = 0.191). A similar reduction in AMI admissions was registered in North Italy (52.1%), Central Italy (59.3%), and South Italy (52.1%). The STEMI case fatality rate during the pandemic was substantially increased compared with 2019 [risk ratio (RR) = 3.3, 95% CI 1.7-6.6; P < 0.001]. A parallel increase in complications was also registered (RR = 1.8, 95% CI 1.1-2.8; P = 0.009). CONCLUSION: Admissions for AMI were significantly reduced during the COVID-19 pandemic across Italy, with a parallel increase in fatality and complication rates. This constitutes a serious social issue, demanding attention by the scientific and healthcare communities and public regulatory agencies.

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Topics: Case fatality rate (53%)

425 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1056/NEJMC2010418
Abstract: Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest and Covid-19 From February 21 through April 1, 2019, a total of 229 cases of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest were reported in four provinces of Lombardy, Italy. During...

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Topics: Outbreak (52%)

357 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31356-8
Marion Mafham1, Enti Spata1, Enti Spata2, Raphael Goldacre  +20 moreInstitutions (8)
08 Aug 2020-The Lancet
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Several countries affected by the COVID-19 pandemic have reported a substantial drop in the number of patients attending the emergency department with acute coronary syndromes and a reduced number of cardiac procedures. We aimed to understand the scale, nature, and duration of changes to admissions for different types of acute coronary syndrome in England and to evaluate whether in-hospital management of patients has been affected as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We analysed data on hospital admissions in England for types of acute coronary syndrome from Jan 1, 2019, to May 24, 2020, that were recorded in the Secondary Uses Service Admitted Patient Care database. Admissions were classified as ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), non-STEMI (NSTEMI), myocardial infarction of unknown type, or other acute coronary syndromes (including unstable angina). We identified revascularisation procedures undertaken during these admissions (ie, coronary angiography without percutaneous coronary intervention [PCI], PCI, and coronary artery bypass graft surgery). We calculated the numbers of weekly admissions and procedures undertaken; percentage reductions in weekly admissions and across subgroups were also calculated, with 95% CIs. FINDINGS: Hospital admissions for acute coronary syndrome declined from mid-February, 2020, falling from a 2019 baseline rate of 3017 admissions per week to 1813 per week by the end of March, 2020, a reduction of 40% (95% CI 37-43). This decline was partly reversed during April and May, 2020, such that by the last week of May, 2020, there were 2522 admissions, representing a 16% (95% CI 13-20) reduction from baseline. During the period of declining admissions, there were reductions in the numbers of admissions for all types of acute coronary syndrome, including both STEMI and NSTEMI, but relative and absolute reductions were larger for NSTEMI, with 1267 admissions per week in 2019 and 733 per week by the end of March, 2020, a percent reduction of 42% (95% CI 38-46). In parallel, reductions were recorded in the number of PCI procedures for patients with both STEMI (438 PCI procedures per week in 2019 vs 346 by the end of March, 2020; percent reduction 21%, 95% CI 12-29) and NSTEMI (383 PCI procedures per week in 2019 vs 240 by the end of March, 2020; percent reduction 37%, 29-45). The median length of stay among patients with acute coronary syndrome fell from 4 days (IQR 2-9) in 2019 to 3 days (1-5) by the end of March, 2020. INTERPRETATION: Compared with the weekly average in 2019, there was a substantial reduction in the weekly numbers of patients with acute coronary syndrome who were admitted to hospital in England by the end of March, 2020, which had been partly reversed by the end of May, 2020. The reduced number of admissions during this period is likely to have resulted in increases in out-of-hospital deaths and long-term complications of myocardial infarction and missed opportunities to offer secondary prevention treatment for patients with coronary heart disease. The full extent of the effect of COVID-19 on the management of patients with acute coronary syndrome will continue to be assessed by updating these analyses. FUNDING: UK Medical Research Council, British Heart Foundation, Public Health England, Health Data Research UK, and the National Institute for Health Research Oxford Biomedical Research Centre.

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Topics: Acute coronary syndrome (62%), Percutaneous coronary intervention (58%), Unstable angina (56%) ... read more

269 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S2468-2667(20)30117-1
Eloi Marijon1, Nicole Karam1, Daniel Jost2, David Perrot1  +9 moreInstitutions (2)
Abstract: Summary Background Although mortality due to COVID-19 is, for the most part, robustly tracked, its indirect effect at the population level through lockdown, lifestyle changes, and reorganisation of health-care systems has not been evaluated. We aimed to assess the incidence and outcomes of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) in an urban region during the pandemic, compared with non-pandemic periods. Methods We did a population-based, observational study using data for non-traumatic OHCA (N=30 768), systematically collected since May 15, 2011, in Paris and its suburbs, France, using the Paris Fire Brigade database, together with in-hospital data. We evaluated OHCA incidence and outcomes over a 6-week period during the pandemic in adult inhabitants of the study area. Findings Comparing the 521 OHCAs of the pandemic period (March 16 to April 26, 2020) to the mean of the 3052 total of the same weeks in the non-pandemic period (weeks 12–17, 2012–19), the maximum weekly OHCA incidence increased from 13·42 (95% CI 12·77–14·07) to 26·64 (25·72–27·53) per million inhabitants (p Interpretation A transient two-times increase in OHCA incidence, coupled with a reduction in survival, was observed during the specified time period of the pandemic when compared with the equivalent time period in previous years with no pandemic. Although this result might be partly related to COVID-19 infections, indirect effects associated with lockdown and adjustment of health-care services to the pandemic are probable. Therefore, these factors should be taken into account when considering mortality data and public health strategies. Funding The French National Institute of Health and Medical Research (INSERM)

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Topics: Incidence (epidemiology) (52%)

203 Citations