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Materials Science and Engineering: An Introduction

01 Jan 1985-

Abstract: List of Symbols.Introduction.Atomic Structure and Interatomic Bonding.The Structure of Crystalline Solids.Imperfections in Solids.Diffusion.Mechanical Properties of Metals.Dislocations and Strengthening Mechanisms.Failure.Phase Diagrams.Phase Transformations in Metals: Development of Microstructure and Alteration of Mechanical Properties.Thermal Processing of Metal Alloys.Metals Alloys.Structures and Properties of Ceramics.Applications and Processing of Ceramics.Polymer Structures.Characteristics, Applications, and Processing of Polymers.Composites.Corrosion and Degradation of Materials.Electrical Properties.Thermal Properties.Magnetic Properties.Optical Properties.Materials Selection and Design Considerations.Economic, Environmental, and Societal Issues in Materials Science and Engineering.Appendix A: The International System of Units (SI).Appendix B: Properties of Selected Engineering Materials.Appendix C: Costs and Relative Costs for Selected Engineering Materials.Appendix D: Mer Structures for Common Polymers.Appendix E: Glass Transition and Melting Temperatues for Common Polymeric Materials.Glossary.Answers to Selected Problems.Index.
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Robert J. Moon1, Robert J. Moon2, Ashlie Martini2, John A. Nairn3  +2 moreInstitutions (3)
TL;DR: This critical review provides a processing-structure-property perspective on recent advances in cellulose nanoparticles and composites produced from them, and summarizes cellulOSE nanoparticles in terms of particle morphology, crystal structure, and properties.
Abstract: This critical review provides a processing-structure-property perspective on recent advances in cellulose nanoparticles and composites produced from them. It summarizes cellulose nanoparticles in terms of particle morphology, crystal structure, and properties. Also described are the self-assembly and rheological properties of cellulose nanoparticle suspensions. The methodology of composite processing and resulting properties are fully covered, with an emphasis on neat and high fraction cellulose composites. Additionally, advances in predictive modeling from molecular dynamic simulations of crystalline cellulose to the continuum modeling of composites made with such particles are reviewed (392 references).

3,938 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Aug 2006-Carbon
Abstract: The superlative mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes make them the filler material of choice for composite reinforcement. In this paper we review the progress to date in the field of mechanical reinforcement of polymers using nanotubes. Initially, the basics of fibre reinforced composites are introduced and the prerequisites for successful reinforcement discussed. The effectiveness of different processing methods is compared and the state of the art demonstrated. In addition we discuss the levels of reinforcement that have actually been achieved. While the focus will be on enhancement of Young’s modulus we will also discuss enhancement of strength and toughness. Finally we compare and tabulate these results. This leads to a discussion of the most promising processing methods for mechanical reinforcement and the outlook for the future.

3,534 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Calvin H. Bartholomew1Institutions (1)
Abstract: The literature treating mechanisms of catalyst deactivation is reviewed. Intrinsic mechanisms of catalyst deactivation are many; nevertheless, they can be classified into six distinct types: (i) poisoning, (ii) fouling, (iii) thermal degradation, (iv) vapor compound formation accompanied by transport, (v) vapor-solid and/or solid-solid reactions, and (vi) attrition/crushing. As (i), (iv), and (v) are chemical in nature and (ii) and (v) are mechanical, the causes of deactivation are basically three-fold: chemical, mechanical and thermal. Each of these six mechanisms is defined and its features are illustrated by data and examples from the literature. The status of knowledge and needs for further work are also summarized for each type of deactivation mechanism. The development during the past two decades of more sophisticated surface spectroscopies and powerful computer technologies provides opportunities for obtaining substantially better understanding of deactivation mechanisms and building this understanding into comprehensive mathematical models that will enable more effective design and optimization of processes involving deactivating catalysts. © 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

2,261 citations

22 Dec 2003-
Abstract: Chapter 1. Introduction.1.1 Strain1.2 Stress.1.3 Mechanical Testing.1.4 Mechanical Responses to Deformation.1.5 How Bonding Influences Mechanical Properties.1.6 Further Reading and References.1.7 Problems.Chapter 2. Tensors and Elasticity.2.1 What Is a Tensor?2.2 Transformation of Tensors.2.3 The Second Rank Tensors of Strain and Stress.2.4 Directional Properties.2.5 Elasticity.2.6 Effective Properties of Materials: Oriented Polycrystals and Composites.2.7 Matrix Methods for Elasticity Tensors.2.8 Appendix: The Stereographic Projection.2.9 References.2.10 Problems.Chapter 3. Plasticity.3.1 Continuum Models for Shear Deformation of Isotropic Ductile Materials.3.2 Shear Deformation of Crystalline Materials.3.3 Necking and Instability.3.4 Shear Deformation of Non Crystalline materials.3.5 Dilatant Deformation of Materials.3.6 Appendix: Independent Slip Systems.3.7 References.3.8 Problems.Chapter 4. Dislocations in Crystals.4.1 Dislocation Theory.4.2 Specification of Dislocation Character.4.3 Dislocation Motion.4.4 Dislocation Content in Crystals and Polycrystals.4.5 Dislocations and Dislocation Motion in Specific Crystal Structures.4.6 References.4.7 Problems.Chapter 5. Strengthening Mechanisms.5.1 Constraint Based Strengthening.5.2 Strengthening Mechanisms in Crystalline Materials.5.3 Orientation Strengthening.5.4 References.5.5 Problems.Chapter 6. High Temperature and Rate Dependent Deformation.6.1 Creep.6.2 Extrapolation Approaches for Failure and Creep.6.3 Stress Relaxation.6.4 Creep and Relaxation Mechanisms in Crystalline Materials.6.5 References.6.6 Problems.Chapter 7. Fracture of Materials.7.1 Stress Distributions Near Crack Tips.7.2 Fracture Toughness Testing.7.3 Failure Probability and Weibull Statistics.7.4 Mechanisms for Toughness Enhancement of Brittle Materials.7.5 Appendix A: Derivation of the Stress Concentration at a Through Hole.7.6 Appendix B: Stress Volume Integral Approach for Weibull Statistics.7.7 References.7.8 Problems.Chapter 8. Mapping Strategies for Understanding Mechanical Properties.8.1 Deformation Mechanism Maps.8.2 Fracture Mechanism Maps.8.3 Mechanical Design Maps.8.4 References.8.5 Problems.Chapter 9. Degradation Processes: Fatigue and Wear.9.1 Cystic Fatigue of materials.9.2 Engineering Fatigue Analysis.9.3 Wear, Friction, and Lubrication.9.4 References.9.5 Problems.Chapter 10. Deformation Processing.10.1 Ideal Energy Approach for Modeling of a Forming Process.10.2 Inclusion of Friction and Die Geometry in Deformation Processes: Slab Analysis.10.3 Upper Bound Analysis.10.4 Slip Line Field Analysis.10.5 Formation of Aluminum Beverage Cans: Deep Drawing, Ironing, and Shaping.10.6 Forming and Rheology of Glasses and Polymers.10.7 Tape Casting of Ceramic Slurries.10.8 References.10.9 Problems.Index.

1,450 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Bharat Bhushan1, Yong Chae Jung1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Nature has developed materials, objects, and processes that function from the macroscale to the nanoscale. The emerging field of biomimetics allows one to mimic biology or nature to develop nanomaterials, nanodevices, and processes which provide desirable properties. Hierarchical structures with dimensions of features ranging from the macroscale to the nanoscale are extremely common in nature to provide properties of interest. There are a large number of objects including bacteria, plants, land and aquatic animals, and seashells with properties of commercial interest. Certain plant leaves, such as Lotus leaves, are known to be superhydrophobic and self-cleaning due to the hierarchical roughness of their leaf surfaces. The self-cleaning phenomenon is widely known as the “Lotus effect.” These surfaces with high contact angle and low contact angle hysteresis with a self-cleaning effect also exhibit low adhesion and drag reduction for fluid flow. In this article, the theoretical mechanisms of the wetting of rough surfaces are presented followed by the characterization of natural leaf surfaces. The next logical step is to realize superhydrophobic surfaces based on understanding of the leaves. Next, a comprehensive review is presented on artificial superhydrophobic surfaces fabricated using various fabrication techniques and the influence of micro-, nano- and hierarchical structures on superhydrophobicity, self-cleaning, low adhesion, and drag reduction.

1,391 citations

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