# Semiempirical GGA-type density functional constructed with a long-range dispersion correction.

TL;DR: A new density functional of the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) type for general chemistry applications termed B97‐D is proposed, based on Becke's power‐series ansatz from 1997, and is explicitly parameterized by including damped atom‐pairwise dispersion corrections of the form C6 · R−6.

Abstract: A new density functional (DF) of the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) type for general chemistry applications termed B97-D is proposed. It is based on Becke's power-series ansatz from 1997 and is explicitly parameterized by including damped atom-pairwise dispersion corrections of the form C(6) x R(-6). A general computational scheme for the parameters used in this correction has been established and parameters for elements up to xenon and a scaling factor for the dispersion part for several common density functionals (BLYP, PBE, TPSS, B3LYP) are reported. The new functional is tested in comparison with other GGAs and the B3LYP hybrid functional on standard thermochemical benchmark sets, for 40 noncovalently bound complexes, including large stacked aromatic molecules and group II element clusters, and for the computation of molecular geometries. Further cross-validation tests were performed for organometallic reactions and other difficult problems for standard functionals. In summary, it is found that B97-D belongs to one of the most accurate general purpose GGAs, reaching, for example for the G97/2 set of heat of formations, a mean absolute deviation of only 3.8 kcal mol(-1). The performance for noncovalently bound systems including many pure van der Waals complexes is exceptionally good, reaching on the average CCSD(T) accuracy. The basic strategy in the development to restrict the density functional description to shorter electron correlation lengths scales and to describe situations with medium to large interatomic distances by damped C(6) x R(-6) terms seems to be very successful, as demonstrated for some notoriously difficult reactions. As an example, for the isomerization of larger branched to linear alkanes, B97-D is the only DF available that yields the right sign for the energy difference. From a practical point of view, the new functional seems to be quite robust and it is thus suggested as an efficient and accurate quantum chemical method for large systems where dispersion forces are of general importance.

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TL;DR: The revised DFT-D method is proposed as a general tool for the computation of the dispersion energy in molecules and solids of any kind with DFT and related (low-cost) electronic structure methods for large systems.

Abstract: The method of dispersion correction as an add-on to standard Kohn-Sham density functional theory (DFT-D) has been refined regarding higher accuracy, broader range of applicability, and less empiricism. The main new ingredients are atom-pairwise specific dispersion coefficients and cutoff radii that are both computed from first principles. The coefficients for new eighth-order dispersion terms are computed using established recursion relations. System (geometry) dependent information is used for the first time in a DFT-D type approach by employing the new concept of fractional coordination numbers (CN). They are used to interpolate between dispersion coefficients of atoms in different chemical environments. The method only requires adjustment of two global parameters for each density functional, is asymptotically exact for a gas of weakly interacting neutral atoms, and easily allows the computation of atomic forces. Three-body nonadditivity terms are considered. The method has been assessed on standard benchmark sets for inter- and intramolecular noncovalent interactions with a particular emphasis on a consistent description of light and heavy element systems. The mean absolute deviations for the S22 benchmark set of noncovalent interactions for 11 standard density functionals decrease by 15%-40% compared to the previous (already accurate) DFT-D version. Spectacular improvements are found for a tripeptide-folding model and all tested metallic systems. The rectification of the long-range behavior and the use of more accurate C(6) coefficients also lead to a much better description of large (infinite) systems as shown for graphene sheets and the adsorption of benzene on an Ag(111) surface. For graphene it is found that the inclusion of three-body terms substantially (by about 10%) weakens the interlayer binding. We propose the revised DFT-D method as a general tool for the computation of the dispersion energy in molecules and solids of any kind with DFT and related (low-cost) electronic structure methods for large systems.

32,589 citations

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TL;DR: The M06-2X meta-exchange correlation function is proposed in this paper, which is parametrized including both transition metals and nonmetals, and is a high-non-locality functional with double the amount of nonlocal exchange.

Abstract: We present two new hybrid meta exchange- correlation functionals, called M06 and M06-2X. The M06 functional is parametrized including both transition metals and nonmetals, whereas the M06-2X functional is a high-nonlocality functional with double the amount of nonlocal exchange (2X), and it is parametrized only for nonmetals.The functionals, along with the previously published M06-L local functional and the M06-HF full-Hartree–Fock functionals, constitute the M06 suite of complementary functionals. We assess these four functionals by comparing their performance to that of 12 other functionals and Hartree–Fock theory for 403 energetic data in 29 diverse databases, including ten databases for thermochemistry, four databases for kinetics, eight databases for noncovalent interactions, three databases for transition metal bonding, one database for metal atom excitation energies, and three databases for molecular excitation energies. We also illustrate the performance of these 17 methods for three databases containing 40 bond lengths and for databases containing 38 vibrational frequencies and 15 vibrational zero point energies. We recommend the M06-2X functional for applications involving main-group thermochemistry, kinetics, noncovalent interactions, and electronic excitation energies to valence and Rydberg states. We recommend the M06 functional for application in organometallic and inorganometallic chemistry and for noncovalent interactions.

22,326 citations

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TL;DR: It is shown by an extensive benchmark on molecular energy data that the mathematical form of the damping function in DFT‐D methods has only a minor impact on the quality of the results and BJ‐damping seems to provide a physically correct short‐range behavior of correlation/dispersion even with unmodified standard functionals.

Abstract: It is shown by an extensive benchmark on molecular energy data that the mathematical form of the damping function in DFT-D methods has only a minor impact on the quality of the results. For 12 different functionals, a standard "zero-damping" formula and rational damping to finite values for small interatomic distances according to Becke and Johnson (BJ-damping) has been tested. The same (DFT-D3) scheme for the computation of the dispersion coefficients is used. The BJ-damping requires one fit parameter more for each functional (three instead of two) but has the advantage of avoiding repulsive interatomic forces at shorter distances. With BJ-damping better results for nonbonded distances and more clear effects of intramolecular dispersion in four representative molecular structures are found. For the noncovalently-bonded structures in the S22 set, both schemes lead to very similar intermolecular distances. For noncovalent interaction energies BJ-damping performs slightly better but both variants can be recommended in general. The exception to this is Hartree-Fock that can be recommended only in the BJ-variant and which is then close to the accuracy of corrected GGAs for non-covalent interactions. According to the thermodynamic benchmarks BJ-damping is more accurate especially for medium-range electron correlation problems and only small and practically insignificant double-counting effects are observed. It seems to provide a physically correct short-range behavior of correlation/dispersion even with unmodified standard functionals. In any case, the differences between the two methods are much smaller than the overall dispersion effect and often also smaller than the influence of the underlying density functional.

14,151 citations

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TL;DR: The re-optimization of a recently proposed long-range corrected hybrid density functional, omegaB97X-D, to include empirical atom-atom dispersion corrections yields satisfactory accuracy for thermochemistry, kinetics, and non-covalent interactions.

Abstract: We report re-optimization of a recently proposed long-range corrected (LC) hybrid density functional [J.-D. Chai and M. Head-Gordon, J. Chem. Phys., 2008, 128, 084106] to include empirical atom–atom dispersion corrections. The resulting functional, ωB97X-D yields satisfactory accuracy for thermochemistry, kinetics, and non-covalent interactions. Tests show that for non-covalent systems, ωB97X-D shows slight improvement over other empirical dispersion-corrected density functionals, while for covalent systems and kinetics it performs noticeably better. Relative to our previous functionals, such as ωB97X, the new functional is significantly superior for non-bonded interactions, and very similar in performance for bonded interactions.

9,184 citations

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TL;DR: Chai and Head-Gordon as discussed by the authors proposed a long-range corrected (LC) hybrid density functional with Damped Atom-Atom Dispersion corrections, which is called ωB97X-D.

Abstract: Long-Range Corrected Hybrid Density Functionals with Damped Atom-Atom Dispersion Corrections Jeng-Da Chai ∗ and Martin Head-Gordon † Department of Chemistry, University of California and Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720, USA (Dated: June 14, 2008) We report re-optimization of a recently proposed long-range corrected (LC) hybrid density func- tionals [J.-D. Chai and M. Head-Gordon, J. Chem. Phys. 128, 084106 (2008)] to include empirical atom-atom dispersion corrections. The resulting functional, ωB97X-D yields satisfactory accuracy for thermochemistry, kinetics, and non-covalent interactions. Tests show that for non-covalent sys- tems, ωB97X-D shows slight improvement over other empirical dispersion-corrected density func- tionals, while for covalent systems and kinetics, it performs noticeably better. Relative to our previous functionals, such as ωB97X, the new functional is signiﬁcantly superior for non-bonded interactions, and very similar in performance for bonded interactions. I. INTRODUCTION Due to its favorable cost-to-performance ratio, Kohn- Sham density-functional theory (KS-DFT) [1, 2] has be- come the most popular electronic structure theory for large-scale ground-state systems [3–5]. Its extension for treating excited-state systems [6, 7], time-dependent den- sity functional theory (TDDFT), has also been developed to the stage where it is now very widely used. The essential ingredient of KS-DFT, the exchange- correlation energy functional E xc , remains unknown and needs to be approximated. Semi-local gradient-corrected density functionals, though successful in many applica- tions, lead to qualitative failures in some circumstances, where the accurate treatment of non-locality of exchange- correlation hole becomes crucial. These situations occur mostly in the asymptotic regions of molecular systems, such as spurious self-interaction eﬀects upon dissociation [8, 9] and dramatic failures for long-range charge-transfer excitations [10–12]. Widely used hybrid density function- als, like B3LYP [13, 14], do not qualitatively resolve these problems. These self-interaction errors can be qualitatively re- solved using the long-range corrected (LC) hybrid density functionals [15, 16, 18], which employ 100% Hartree-Fock (HF) exchange for long-range electron-electron interac- tions. This is accomplished by a partition of unity, using erf(ωr)/r for long-range (treated by HF exchange) and erfc(ωr)/r for short-range (treated by an exchange func- tional), with the parameter ω controlling the partition- ing. Over the past ﬁve years, the LC hybrid scheme has been attracting increasing attention [15] since its compu- tational cost is comparable with standard hybrid func- tionals [13]. However, LC functionals have tended to be inferior to the best hybrids for properties such as ther- mochemistry. ∗ Electronic † Author address: jdchai@berkeley.edu to whom correspondence should be addressed. Electronic address: mhg@cchem.berkeley.edu Recently we have improved the overall accuracy at- tainable with the LC functionals by using a systematic optimization procedure [18]. One important conclusion is that optimizing LC and hybrid functionals with identical numbers of parameters in their GGA exchange and cor- relation terms leads to noticeably better results for all properties using the LC form. The resulting LC func- tional is called ωB97. Further statistically signiﬁcant improvement results from re-optimizing the entire func- tional with one extra parameter corresponding to an ad- justable fraction of short-range exact exchange, deﬁning the ωB97X functional. Independent test sets covering thermochemistry and non-covalent interactions support these conclusions. However, problems associated with the lack of non-locality of the correlation hole, such as the lack of dispersion interactions (London forces), still remain, as the semi-local correlation functionals cannot capture long-range correlation eﬀects [19, 20]. There have been signiﬁcant eﬀorts to develop a frame- work that can account for long-range dispersion eﬀects within DFT. Zaremba and Kohn (ZK) [21] derived an exact expression for the second-order dispersion energy in terms of the exact density-density response functions of the two separate systems. To obtain a tractable non- local dispersion functional, Dobson and Dinite (DD) [22] made local density approximations to the ZK response functions. DD’s non-local correlation functional was ob- tained independently [23] by modifying the eﬀective den- sity deﬁned in the earlier work of Rapcewicz and Ashcroft Starting from the formally exact expression of KS- DFT, the adiabatic connection ﬂuctuation-dissipation theorem (ACFDT), for the ground-state exchange- correlation energy, Langreth and co-workers [25] devel- oped a so-called van der Waals density functional (vdW- DF) by making a series of reasonable approximations to yield a computationally tractable scheme. Recently, Becke and Johnson (BJ) developed a series of post-HF correlation models with a novel treatment for dispersion interactions based on the exchange-hole dipole moment [26]. The origin of dispersion claimed in the BJ models was recently questioned by Alonso, and A.

6,345 citations

##### References

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TL;DR: A simple derivation of a simple GGA is presented, in which all parameters (other than those in LSD) are fundamental constants, and only general features of the detailed construction underlying the Perdew-Wang 1991 (PW91) GGA are invoked.

Abstract: Generalized gradient approximations (GGA’s) for the exchange-correlation energy improve upon the local spin density (LSD) description of atoms, molecules, and solids. We present a simple derivation of a simple GGA, in which all parameters (other than those in LSD) are fundamental constants. Only general features of the detailed construction underlying the Perdew-Wang 1991 (PW91) GGA are invoked. Improvements over PW91 include an accurate description of the linear response of the uniform electron gas, correct behavior under uniform scaling, and a smoother potential. [S0031-9007(96)01479-2] PACS numbers: 71.15.Mb, 71.45.Gm Kohn-Sham density functional theory [1,2] is widely used for self-consistent-field electronic structure calculations of the ground-state properties of atoms, molecules, and solids. In this theory, only the exchange-correlation energy EXC › EX 1 EC as a functional of the electron spin densities n"srd and n#srd must be approximated. The most popular functionals have a form appropriate for slowly varying densities: the local spin density (LSD) approximation Z d 3 rn e unif

146,533 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, a semi-empirical exchange correlation functional with local spin density, gradient, and exact exchange terms was proposed. But this functional performed significantly better than previous functionals with gradient corrections only, and fits experimental atomization energies with an impressively small average absolute deviation of 2.4 kcal/mol.

Abstract: Despite the remarkable thermochemical accuracy of Kohn–Sham density‐functional theories with gradient corrections for exchange‐correlation [see, for example, A. D. Becke, J. Chem. Phys. 96, 2155 (1992)], we believe that further improvements are unlikely unless exact‐exchange information is considered. Arguments to support this view are presented, and a semiempirical exchange‐correlation functional containing local‐spin‐density, gradient, and exact‐exchange terms is tested on 56 atomization energies, 42 ionization potentials, 8 proton affinities, and 10 total atomic energies of first‐ and second‐row systems. This functional performs significantly better than previous functionals with gradient corrections only, and fits experimental atomization energies with an impressively small average absolute deviation of 2.4 kcal/mol.

87,732 citations

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TL;DR: Numerical calculations on a number of atoms, positive ions, and molecules, of both open- and closed-shell type, show that density-functional formulas for the correlation energy and correlation potential give correlation energies within a few percent.

Abstract: A correlation-energy formula due to Colle and Salvetti [Theor. Chim. Acta 37, 329 (1975)], in which the correlation energy density is expressed in terms of the electron density and a Laplacian of the second-order Hartree-Fock density matrix, is restated as a formula involving the density and local kinetic-energy density. On insertion of gradient expansions for the local kinetic-energy density, density-functional formulas for the correlation energy and correlation potential are then obtained. Through numerical calculations on a number of atoms, positive ions, and molecules, of both open- and closed-shell type, it is demonstrated that these formulas, like the original Colle-Salvetti formulas, give correlation energies within a few percent.

84,646 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the Hartree and Hartree-Fock equations are applied to a uniform electron gas, where the exchange and correlation portions of the chemical potential of the gas are used as additional effective potentials.

Abstract: From a theory of Hohenberg and Kohn, approximation methods for treating an inhomogeneous system of interacting electrons are developed. These methods are exact for systems of slowly varying or high density. For the ground state, they lead to self-consistent equations analogous to the Hartree and Hartree-Fock equations, respectively. In these equations the exchange and correlation portions of the chemical potential of a uniform electron gas appear as additional effective potentials. (The exchange portion of our effective potential differs from that due to Slater by a factor of $\frac{2}{3}$.) Electronic systems at finite temperatures and in magnetic fields are also treated by similar methods. An appendix deals with a further correction for systems with short-wavelength density oscillations.

47,477 citations

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TL;DR: This work reports a gradient-corrected exchange-energy functional, containing only one parameter, that fits the exact Hartree-Fock exchange energies of a wide variety of atomic systems with remarkable accuracy, surpassing the performance of previous functionals containing two parameters or more.

Abstract: Current gradient-corrected density-functional approximations for the exchange energies of atomic and molecular systems fail to reproduce the correct 1/r asymptotic behavior of the exchange-energy density. Here we report a gradient-corrected exchange-energy functional with the proper asymptotic limit. Our functional, containing only one parameter, fits the exact Hartree-Fock exchange energies of a wide variety of atomic systems with remarkable accuracy, surpassing the performance of previous functionals containing two parameters or more.

45,683 citations