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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/POLYM13050782

Structure-Property Relationships in Bionanocomposites for Pipe Extrusion Applications.

04 Mar 2021-Polymers (MDPI AG)-Vol. 13, Iss: 5, pp 1-13
Abstract: In this work, bionanocomposites based on different biodegradable polymers and two types of nanofillers, namely a nanosized calcium carbonate and an organomodified nanoclay, were produced through melt extrusion, with the aim to evaluate the possible applications of these materials as a potential alternative to traditional fossil fuel-derived polyolefins, for the production of irrigation pipes. The rheological behavior of the formulated systems was thoroughly evaluated by exploiting different flow regimes, and the obtained results indicated a remarkable effect of the introduced nanofillers on the low-frequency rheological response, especially in nanoclay-based bionanocomposites. Conversely, the shear viscosity at a high shear rate was almost unaffected by the presence of both types of nanofillers, as well as the rheological response under nonisothermal elongational flow. In addition, the analysis of the mechanical properties of the formulated materials indicated that the embedded nanofillers increased the elastic modulus when compared to the unfilled counterparts, notwithstanding a slight decrease of the material ductility. Finally, the processing behavior of unfilled biopolymers and bionanocomposites was evaluated, allowing for selecting the most suitable material and thus fulfilling the processability requirements for pipe extrusion applications.

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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.SCITOTENV.2021.145697
Jiao Wang1, Chu Peng2, Li Hongyu1, Pingping Zhang3  +1 moreInstitutions (3)
Abstract: Microplastic (MP) pollution has attracted global attention due to the extensive use of plastic products. The hydrophobic MP surface provides a habitat for multiple microorganisms. Although there have been several studies on the impact of plastic particles on microbial communities, there are few reviews that have systematically summarized the interaction between MPs and microbes and their effects on human health and biochemical circulation. The discussions in this review will take place under the following topics: (1) MPs prompt colonization, biofilm generation, and transfer of environmental microbes; (2) the microbial communities can cause the morphological alterations and biodegradation of MPs; (3) MP-microbe combinations can induce the alteration of intestinal flora and hazard animal health; (4) the biogeochemical cycles affected by MP-microbe interactions. This review will highlight the close interactions between MPs and microorganisms, and provide suggestions for future studies.

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15 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/APP11094242
07 May 2021-Applied Sciences
Abstract: This review article aims to summarize the potential of using renewable natural resources, such as lignin and tannin, in the preparation of NIPUs for wood adhesives. Polyurethanes (PUs) are extremely versatile polymeric materials, which have been widely used in numerous applications, e.g., packaging, footwear, construction, the automotive industry, the lighting industry, insulation panels, bedding, furniture, metallurgy, sealants, coatings, foams, and wood adhesives. The isocyanate-based PUs exhibit strong adhesion properties, excellent flexibility, and durability, but they lack renewability. Therefore, this study focused on the development of non-isocyanate polyurethane lignin and tannin resins for wood adhesives. PUs are commercially synthesized using polyols and polyisocyanates. Isocyanates are toxic, costly, and not renewable; thus, a search of suitable alternatives in the synthesis of polyurethane resins is needed. The reaction with diamine compounds could result in NIPUs based on lignin and tannin. The research on bio-based components for PU synthesis confirmed that they have good characteristics as an alternative for the petroleum-based adhesives. The advantages of improved strength, low curing temperatures, shorter pressing times, and isocyanate-free properties were demonstrated by lignin- and tannin-based NIPUs. The elimination of isocyanate, associated with environmental and human health hazards, NIPU synthesis, and its properties and applications, including wood adhesives, are reported comprehensively in this paper. The future perspectives of NIPUs’ production and application were also outlined.

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12 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1039/D1GC00887K
09 Jun 2021-Green Chemistry
Abstract: Developing new, alternative ways to recycle plastics is an important and pressing challenge for industry and academy, given its significant impact on CO2 emissions as well as improvement of resource-efficiency and reduction of landfilling. Currently, re-use and mechanical recycling are the most employed routes to exploit post-consumer plastics; however, chemical recycling, which involves the depolymerization of polymer chains to reclaim the original monomers or intermediate oligomers, is gaining much attention. Chemical recycling allows for the transformation of various types of plastic waste from single-polymer and mixed waste streams back into their original components. By creating a new, secondary virgin-quality raw material, chemical recycling can help close the loop and reduce the consumption of fossil resources. The energy barrier for depolymerization is normally high; thus, these reactions tend to require high temperatures and/or pressures; therefore, diminishing the reaction temperature and pressure through incorporation of catalysts has led to a whole field of study, looking for catalysts that promote solvolysis under mild reaction conditions. In this review, we assess the different depolymerization conditions for polyethylene terephthalate (PET) in the literature, according to three proposed green chemistry metrics that allow us to compare the energy economy (e coefficient), the environmental factor (E) and the combined effect of both (ξ). These green chemistry metrics parameters allowed us to make a numerical comparison of different studies and to determine their relative feasibility, which can assist in finding better routes for viable implementation of chemolytic depolymerization for present and future studies in the field of chemical depolymerization of PET and other polymer materials.

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9 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.COCIS.2021.101480
Abstract: The global epidemic owing to COVID-19 has generated awareness to ensuring best practices for avoiding the microorganism spread. Indeed, because of the increase in infections caused by bacteria and viruses such as SARS-CoV-2, the global demand for antimicrobial materials is growing. New technologies by using polymeric systems are of great interest. Virus transmission by contaminated surfaces leads to the spread of infectious diseases, so antimicrobial coatings are significant in this regard. Moreover, antimicrobial food packaging is beneficial to prevent the spread of microorganisms during food processing and transportation. Furthermore, antimicrobial textiles show an effective role. We aim to provide a review of prepared antimicrobial polymeric materials for use in coating, food packaging, and textile during the COVID-19 pandemic and after pandemic.

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Topics: Food packaging (50%)

3 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.BIOS.2021.113419
Abstract: Rational selection of predicted peptides to be employed as templates in molecular imprinting was carried out for the heat-denatured non-structural protein 1 (NS1) of dengue virus (DENV). Conservation analysis among 301 sequences of Brazilian isolates of DENV and zika virus (ZIKV) NS1 was carried out by UniProtKB, and peptide selection was based on in silico data of the conservational, structural and immunogenic properties of the sequences. The selected peptide (from dengue 1 NS1) was synthesized and employed as a template in the electropolymerization of polyaminophenol-imprinted films on the surface of carbon screen-printed electrodes. Heat denaturation of the protein was carried out prior to analysis, in order to expose its internal hidden epitopes. After removal of the template, the molecularly imprinted cavities were able to rebind to the whole denatured protein as determined by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. This label-free sensor was efficient to distinguish the NS1 of DENV from the NS1 of ZIKV. Additionally, the sensor was also selective for dengue NS1, in comparison with human serum immunoglobulin G and human serum albumin. Additionally, the device was able to detect the DENV NS1 at concentrations from 50 to 200 μg L−1 (RSD below 5.04%, r = 0.9678) in diluted human serum samples. The calculated LOD and LOQ were, respectively, 29.3 and 88.7 μg L−1 and each sensor could be used for six sequential cycles with the same performance.

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Topics: Dengue virus (53%)

2 Citations


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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1023/A:1021013921916
Abstract: Sustainability, industrial ecology, eco-efficiency, and green chemistry are guiding the development of the next generation of materials, products, and processes. Biodegradable plastics and bio-based polymer products based on annually renewable agricultural and biomass feedstock can form the basis for a portfolio of sustainable, eco-efficient products that can compete and capture markets currently dominated by products based exclusively on petroleum feedstock. Natural/Biofiber composites (Bio-Composites) are emerging as a viable alternative to glass fiber reinforced composites especially in automotive and building product applications. The combination of biofibers such as kenaf, hemp, flax, jute, henequen, pineapple leaf fiber, and sisal with polymer matrices from both nonrenewable and renewable resources to produce composite materials that are competitive with synthetic composites requires special attention, i.e., biofiber–matrix interface and novel processing. Natural fiber–reinforced polypropylene composites have attained commercial attraction in automotive industries. Natural fiber—polypropylene or natural fiber—polyester composites are not sufficiently eco-friendly because of the petroleum-based source and the nonbiodegradable nature of the polymer matrix. Using natural fibers with polymers based on renewable resources will allow many environmental issues to be solved. By embedding biofibers with renewable resource–based biopolymers such as cellulosic plastics; polylactides; starch plastics; polyhydroxyalkanoates (bacterial polyesters); and soy-based plastics, the so-called green bio-composites are continuously being developed.

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Topics: Bioplastic (57%), Renewable resource (54%), Raw material (50%)

1,759 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.PROGPOLYMSCI.2013.05.008
Jong-Whan Rhim1, Hwan-Man Park2, Chang-Sik Ha3Institutions (3)
Abstract: There is growing interest in developing bio-based polymers and innovative process technologies that can reduce the dependence on fossil fuel and move to a sustainable materials basis. Bio-nanocomposites open an opportunity for the use of new, high performance, light weight green nanocomposite materials making them to replace conventional non-biodegradable petroleum-based plastic packaging materials. So far, the most studied bio-nanocomposites suitable for packaging applications are starch and cellulose derivatives, polylactic acid (PLA), polycaprolactone (PCL), poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) and polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB). The most promising nanoscale fillers are layered silicate nanoclays such as montmorillonite and kaolinite. In food packaging, a major emphasis is on the development of high barrier properties against the diffusion of oxygen, carbon dioxide, flavor compounds, and water vapor. Moreover, several nanostructures can be useful to provide active and/or smart properties to food packaging systems, as exemplified by antimicrobial properties, oxygen scavenging ability, enzyme immobilization, or indication of the degree of exposure to some detrimental factors such as inadequate temperatures or oxygen levels. Challenges remain in increasing the compatibility between clays and polymers and reaching complete dispersion of nanoparticles. This review focuses on the enhancement of packaging performance of the green materials as well as their biodegradability, antimicrobial properties, and mechanical and thermal properties for food packaging application. The preparation, characterization and application of biopolymer-based nanocomposites with organic layered silicate and other fillers, and their application in the food packaging sector are also discussed.

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Topics: Food packaging (62%)

1,170 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.PROGPOLYMSCI.2008.10.002
Perrine Bordes1, Eric Pollet1, Luc Avérous1Institutions (1)
Abstract: In the recent years, bio-based products have raised great interest since sustainable development policies tend to expand with the decreasing reserve of fossil fuel and the growing concern for the environment. Consequently, biopolymers, i.e., biodegradable polymers, have been the topic of many researches. They can be mainly classified as agro-polymers (starch, protein, etc.) and biodegradable polyesters (polyhydroxyalkanoates, poly(lactic acid), etc.). These latter, also called biopolyesters, can be synthesized from fossil resources but main productions are obtained from renewable resources. Unfortunately for certain applications, biopolyesters cannot be fully competitive with conventional thermoplastics since some of their properties are too weak. Therefore, to extend their applications, these biopolymers have been formulated and associated with nano-sized fillers, which could bring a large range of improved properties (stiffness, permeability, crystallinity, thermal stability). The resulting ‘nano-biocomposites’ have been the subject of many recent publications. This review is dedicated to this novel class of materials based on clays, which are nowadays the main nanofillers used in nanocomposites systems. This review highlights the main researches and developments in biopolyester/nanoclay systems during the last decade.

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831 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.PROGPOLYMSCI.2013.05.006
Abstract: This paper presents a broad review on the recent advances in the research and development of biobased plastics and bionanocomposites that are used in various applications such as packaging, durable goods, electronics and biomedical uses The development of biobased materials is driven by renewability, low carbon footprint and in certain cases biodegradability (compostability) issues and helped them in moving from niche markets to high-volume applications The inherent drawbacks of some biobased plastics such as the narrow processing window, low heat deflection temperatures, hydrophilicity, poor barrier, and conductivity and inferior biocompatibility can be overcome by bionanocomposites The first part of the paper reviews the recent advances in the development of biobased and biodegradable materials from renewable resources and their advantages and disadvantages In the second part, various types of bionanocomposites based on four types of fillers ie nanocellulose, carbon nanotubes, nanoclays, and other functional nanofillers are discussed This review also presents up-to-date progress in this area in terms of processing technologies, product development and applications

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715 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1002/ADMA.200602328
21 May 2007-Advanced Materials
Abstract: Bionanocomposites represent an emerging group of nanostructured hybrid materials. They are formed by the combination of natural polymers and inorganic solids and show at least one dimension on the nanometer scale. Similar to conventional nanocomposites, which involve synthetic polymers, these biohybrid materials also exhibit improved structural and functional properties of great interest for different applications. The properties inherent to the biopolymers, that is, biocompatibility and biodegradability, open new prospects for these hybrid materials with special incidence in regenerative medicine and in environmentally friendly materials (green nanocomposites). Research on bionanocomposites can be regarded as a new interdisciplinary field closely related to significant topics such as biomineralization processes, bioinspired materials, and biomimetic systems. The upcoming development of novel bionanocomposites introducing multifunctionality represents a promising research topic that takes advantage of the synergistic assembling of biopolymers with inorganic nanometer-sized solids.

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528 Citations


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202129