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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/0142159X.2020.1789081

Twelve tips for embedding assessment for and as learning practices in a programmatic assessment system.

04 Mar 2021-Medical Teacher (Taylor & Francis)-Vol. 43, Iss: 3, pp 300-306
Abstract: Programmatic assessment supports the evolution from assessment of learning to fostering assessment for learning and as learning practices. A well-designed programmatic assessment system aligns educational objectives, learning opportunities, and assessments with the goals of supporting student learning, making decisions about student competence and promotion decisions, and supporting curriculum evaluation. We present evidence-based guidance for implementing assessment for and as learning practices in the pre-clinical knowledge assessment system to help students learn, synthesize, master and retain content for the long-term so that they can apply knowledge to patient care. Practical tips are in the domains of culture and motivation of assessment, including how an honour code and competency-based grading system can support an assessment system to develop student self-regulated learning and professional identity, curricular assessment structure, such as how and when to utilize low-stakes and cumulative assessment to drive learning, exam and question structure, including what authentic question and exam types can best facilitate learning, and assessment follow-up and review considerations, such exam retake processes to support learning, and academic success structures. A culture change is likely necessary for administrators, faculty members, and students to embrace assessment as most importantly a learning tool for students and programs.

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Topics: Assessment for learning (74%), Progress testing (56%), Curriculum (53%) ... show more

7 results found

Open access
Janet Metcalfe1Institutions (1)
01 Jan 2017-
Abstract: Although error avoidance during learning appears to be the rule in American classrooms, laboratory studies suggest that it may be a counterproductive strategy, at least for neurologically typical students. Experimental investigations indicate that errorful learning followed by corrective feedback is beneficial to learning. Interestingly, the beneficial effects are particularly salient when individuals strongly believe that their error is correct: Errors committed with high confidence are corrected more readily than low-confidence errors. Corrective feedback, including analysis of the reasoning leading up to the mistake, is crucial. Aside from the direct benefit to learners, teachers gain valuable information from errors, and error tolerance encourages students’ active, exploratory, generative engagement. If the goal is optimal performance in high-stakes situations, it may be worthwhile to allow and even encourage students to commit and correct errors while they are in low-stakes learning situations rather...

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Topics: Corrective feedback (59%), Learning theory (52%), Mistake (51%)

17 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/0142159X.2020.1828570
04 May 2021-Medical Teacher
Abstract: High-stakes exams including admissions, licensing, and maintenance of certification examinations are commonplace in health professions education. Although exam scores and performance can often serve gate-keeping purposes, the broader goal of health professions education is to foster deep, self-directed, meaningful, motivated learning. Establishing strong support structures that emphasize deep learning and understanding rather than exam scores can be beneficial to preparing learners who have the knowledge base to be excellent practitioners. This article offers guidance that can be used by academic support centres, medical educators, learning specialists, and faculty advisors, or even test-takers, to help learners to balance score achievement and knowledge development, while simultaneously cultivating more efficient and motivated studying and increasingly self-regulated learning. This series of tips details considerations for building academic success supports, fostering a growth mindset, planning efficient and effective studying efforts, utilizing test-enhanced learning strategies, exam-taking skills practice, and other support structures that can help strengthen learning experiences overall.

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Topics: Maintenance of Certification (54%), Mindset (52%), Knowledge base (50%)

5 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/0142159X.2021.1925099
01 Jun 2021-Medical Teacher
Abstract: Programmatic assessment as a concept is still novel for many in clinical education, and there may be a disconnect between the academics who publish about programmatic assessment and the front-line clinical educators who must put theory into practice. In this paper, we clearly define programmatic assessment and present high-level guidelines about its implementation in competency-based medical education (CBME) programs. The guidelines are informed by literature and by lessons learned from established programmatic assessment approaches. We articulate five steps to consider when implementing programmatic assessment in CBME contexts: articulate the purpose of the program of assessment, determine what must be assessed, choose tools fit for purpose, consider the stakes of assessments, and define processes for interpreting assessment data. In the process, we seek to offer a helpful guide or template for front-line clinical educators. We dispel some myths about programmatic assessment to help training programs as they look to design-or redesign-programs of assessment. In particular, we highlight the notion that programmatic assessment is not 'one size fits all'; rather, it is a system of assessment that results when shared common principles are considered and applied by individual programs as they plan and design their own bespoke model of programmatic assessment for CBME in their unique context.

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2 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.12669/PJMS.37.4.3948
Abstract: Background and Objectives: The Covid-19 pandemic has caused large-scale disruption in almost all educational programs across the world. Planning and rapid implementation of assessment through an online format presents the next set of novel challenges that must be addressed by academic administrations across the globe. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted between March to August 2020 at the Aga Khan University Medical College. Two hundred medical students of year 1 and 2 participated in the study. We describe the planning, processes, and outcomes of online assessments using video communication platforms conducted at a private university in Pakistan. Standardized protocols were written and piloted, extensive training of student, proctors and staff for preparation and conduct of online assessments were developed. Feedback was recorded after each session and suggestions were incorporated in subsequent high-stakes assessments. Results: A total of three pilot assessments were conducted to identify issues and process refinement. Commercially available lockdown browser and ZOOM were used in the first pilot; 80% of the class was unable to launch lockdown browser and laptops required repeated reload/reboot. For the second pilot assessment, University’s VLE page & MS Teams was trailed. Issues with internet connectivity, VLE page slowdown, and suboptimal recording feature in MS Teams were identified. For the final pilot assessment, phased launching of VLE page with single test item per page was implemented with success. The students reported that attempting the online exam on VLE with ZOOM support was user friendly. Ninety percent of the class was supportive of the continuing with the online assessments. Conclusion: In order to device an effective protocol for e-assessments conducting multiple trial runs, and incorporating feedback from all stakeholders is a necessity. doi: How to cite this:Fatima SS, Idrees R, Jabeen K, Sabzwari S, Khan S. Online assessment in undergraduate medical education: Challenges and solutions from a LMIC university. Pak J Med Sci. 2021;37(4):945-951. doi: This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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1 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S40670-021-01253-7
Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic disrupted medical education. In-person classes and clinical rotations were urgently canceled, followed by a historic and unprecedented migration to online teaching. Most medical school courses were not designed to be fully online, and faculty and students are novices in the process. The purpose of this article is to provide recommendations for educators to optimize their approach to online curricular transformation. Mindful teaching online creates presences that set climate and support discourse, establish routines that build practice, model professional expectations, and challenge but support learners.

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1 Citations


72 results found

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.3102/003465430298487
John Hattie1, Helen Timperley1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Feedback is one of the most powerful influences on learning and achievement, but this impact can be either positive or negative. Its power is frequently mentioned in articles about learning and teaching, but surprisingly few recent studies have systematically investigated its meaning. This article provides a conceptual analysis of feedback and reviews the evidence related to its impact on learning and achievement. This evidence shows that although feedback is among the major influences, the type of feedback and the way it is given can be differentially effective. A model of feedback is then proposed that identifies the particular properties and circumstances that make it effective, and some typically thorny issues are discussed, including the timing of feedback and the effects of positive and negative feedback. Finally, this analysis is used to suggest ways in which feedback can be used to enhance its effectiveness in classrooms.

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Topics: Peer feedback (64%), Dynamic decision-making (61%), Negative feedback (57%) ... show more

6,170 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/0969595980050102
Paul Black1, Dylan Wiliam1Institutions (1)
Abstract: This article is a review of the literature on classroom formative assessment. Several studies show firm evidence that innovations designed to strengthen the frequent feedback that students receive about their learning yield substantial learning gains. The perceptions of students and their role in self‐assessment are considered alongside analysis of the strategies used by teachers and the formative strategies incorporated in such systemic approaches as mastery learning. There follows a more detailed and theoretical analysis of the nature of feedback, which provides a basis for a discussion of the development of theoretical models for formative assessment and of the prospects for the improvement of practice.

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Topics: Formative assessment (67%), Assessment for learning (64%), Knowledge survey (58%) ... show more

6,091 Citations

Open accessBook
Carol S. Dweck1Institutions (1)
28 Feb 2006-
Abstract: Every so often a truly groundbreaking idea comes along. This is one. Mindset explains: Why brains and talent don’t bring success How they can stand in the way of it Why praising brains and talent doesn’t foster self-esteem and accomplishment, but jeopardizes them How teaching a simple idea about the brain raises grades and productivity What all great CEOs, parents, teachers, athletes know Mindset is a simple idea discovered by world-renowned Stanford University psychologist Carol Dweck in decades of research on achievement and success—a simple idea that makes all the difference. In a fixed mindset, people believe their basic qualities, like their intelligence or talent, are simply fixed traits. They spend their time documenting their intelligence or talent instead of developing them. They also believe that talent alone creates success—without effort. They’re wrong. In a growth mindset, people believe that their most basic abilities can be developed through dedication and hard work—brains and talent are just the starting point. This view creates a love of learning and a resilience that is essential for great accomplishment. Virtually all great people have had these qualities. Teaching a growth mindset creates motivation and productivity in the worlds of business, education, and sports. It enhances relationships. When you read Mindset, you’ll see how.

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4,294 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/03075070600572090
David Nicol1, Debra Macfarlane-Dick2Institutions (2)
Abstract: The research on formative assessment and feedback is reinterpreted to show how these processes can help students take control of their own learning, i.e. become self-regulated learners. This reformulation is used to identify seven principles of good feedback practice that support self-regulation. A key argument is that students are already assessing their own work and generating their own feedback, and that higher education should build on this ability. The research underpinning each feedback principle is presented, and some examples of easy-to-implement feedback strategies are briefly described. This shift in focus, whereby students are seen as having a proactive rather than a reactive role in generating and using feedback, has profound implications for the way in which teachers organise assessments and support learning.

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Topics: Peer feedback (65%), Formative assessment (63%), Active learning (57%) ... show more

3,827 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1097/00001888-200410001-00022
K. Anders Ericsson1Institutions (1)
01 Oct 2004-Academic Medicine
Abstract: The factors that cause large individual differences in professional achievement are only partially understood. Nobody becomes an outstanding professional without experience, but extensive experience does not invariably lead people to become experts. When individuals are first introduced to a professional domain after completing their education, they are often overwhelmed and rely on help from others to accomplish their responsibilities. After months or years of experience, they attain an acceptable level of proficiency and are able to work independently. Although everyone in a given domain tends to improve with experience initially, some develop faster than others and continue to improve during ensuing years. These individuals are eventually recognized as experts and masters. In contrast, most professionals reach a stable, average level of performance within a relatively short time frame and maintain this mediocre status for the rest of their careers. The nature of the individual differences that cause the large variability in attained performance is still debated. The most common explanation is that achievement in a given domain is limited by innate factors that cannot be changed through experience and training; hence, limits of attainable performance are determined by one’s basic endowments, such as abilities, mental capacities, and innate talents. Educators with this widely held view of professional development have focused on identifying and selecting students who possess the necessary innate talents that would allow them to reach expert levels with adequate experience. Therefore, the best schools and professional organizations nearly always rely on extensive testing and interviews to find the most talented applicants. This general view also explains age-related declines in professional achievement in terms of the inevitable reductions in general abilities and capacities believed to result from aging. In this article, I propose an alternative framework to account for individual differences in attained professional development, as well as many aspects of age-related decline. This framework is based on the assumption that acquisition of expert performance requires engagement in deliberate practice and that continued deliberate practice is necessary for maintenance of many types of professional performance. In order to contrast this alternative framework with the traditional view, I first describe the account based on innate talent. I then provide a brief review of the evidence on deliberate practice in the acquisition of expert performance in several performance domains, including music, chess, and sports. Finally, I review evidence from the acquisition and maintenance of expert performance in medicine and examine the role of deliberate practice in this domain.

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2,256 Citations

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