Showing papers in "Cities in 2013"
TL;DR: A new measure to approach the accessibility of places in the frame of the digital economy is introduced – embedding different types of impedance distance functions – which reveals a core-periphery pattern in Europe owing to digital accessibility.
Abstract: This paper introduces a new measure to approach the accessibility of places in the frame of the digital economy. Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) and the Internet are not equally spread around places and this heterogeneity affects spatial configuration. Despite the wide societal changes due to ICTs and the extensive interest in accessibility studies, these two themes have not yet come together in order to study the digital accessibility (DA) of places. Adopting an infrastructural perspective and a potential accessibility framework, a DA measure – embedding different types of impedance distance functions – is calculated for cities in Europe. Spatial Interaction Model and Complex Network Analysis are employed to calibrate and validate the DA results. The outcome of this approach is a new urban hierarchy which reveals a core-periphery pattern in Europe owing to digital accessibility.
TL;DR: The Resilient City Planning Framework (RCPF) as mentioned in this paper is a conceptual framework that addresses the critical question of what cities and their urban communities should do in order to move towards a more resilient state in the future.
Abstract: This paper contributes to filling the theoretical and practical gaps of city resilience literature, which lacks multifaceted theorizing and typically overlooks the multidisciplinary and complex nature of urban resilience. Furthermore, most studies on the subject make use of general, vague, and confusing terminology. This paper suggests a new innovative conceptual framework (the Resilient City Planning Framework or RCPF) that addresses the critical question of what cities and their urban communities should do in order to move towards a more resilient state in the future. Accordingly, the RCPF takes complexity and uncertainty into account. It is affected by a multiplicity of economic, social, spatial, and physical factors and its planning involves a wide range of stakeholders. RCPF is a network of four interlinked concepts that together, provide a comprehensive understanding of City Resilience.
TL;DR: In this paper, a conceptual resilience framework is proposed for designing, planning, and managing for resilience by including an evaluation of cultural and process dynamics within cities as well as their physical elements.
Abstract: To what must cities be resilient? How can cities, as complex systems, be resilient? Building a capacity for resilience might be a daunting task when one considers the multitude of components, processes, and interactions that take place within and beyond a city’s physical, logical (i.e. legal), and virtual (cyberspace) boundaries. Planning for resilience to the impacts of stressors within cities requires an evaluation of the vulnerable components of cities, an understanding of the key processes, procedures, and interactions that organize these components and develop the capacity to address various structuring of components and their interactions with the ultimate goal of achieving resilience. This paper provides a deeper look at resilience in cities, proposes a conceptual resilience framework, and includes a discussion and analysis of the framework. The proposed framework is meant to serve as a more holistic approach to designing, planning, and managing for resilience by including an evaluation of cultural and process dynamics within cities as well as their physical elements.
TL;DR: The State of African Cities report is already in its second year and no major assessment has as yet been undertaken of the report as mentioned in this paper, however, the present assessment highlights the key findings and explores major themes, and provides a critical evaluation of the claims contained in the report, arguing that, while on face value the report makes grand revolutionary claims, the core analyses and recommendations are less radical.
Abstract: The State of African Cities report is already in its second year. However, no major assessment has as yet been undertaken of the report. The present assessment highlights the key findings of the report, explores major themes, and provides a critical evaluation of the claims contained in the report. It argues that, while on face value the report makes grand ‘revolutionary’ claims, the core analyses and recommendations are less radical. In turn, the report ignores important political economic concerns that underpin the complex web of contradictions that it seeks to untangle.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors assess the spatial impacts of high speed rail (HSR) projects by jointly assessing both the magnitude and distribution of the accessibility improvements derived from a HSR project.
Abstract: Urban areas benefit from significant improvements in accessibility when a new high speed rail (HSR) project is built. These improvements, which are due mainly to a rise in efficiency, produce locational advantages and increase the attractiveness of these cities, thereby possibly enhancing their competitiveness and economic growth. However, there may be equity issues at stake, as the main accessibility benefits are primarily concentrated in urban areas with a HSR station, whereas other locations obtain only limited benefits. HSR extensions may contribute to an increase in spatial imbalance and lead to more polarized patterns of spatial development. Procedures for assessing the spatial impacts of HSR must therefore follow a twofold approach which addresses issues of both efficiency and equity. This analysis can be made by jointly assessing both the magnitude and distribution of the accessibility improvements deriving from a HSR project. This paper describes an assessment methodology for HSR projects which follows this twofold approach. The procedure uses spatial impact analysis techniques and is based on the computation of accessibility indicators, supported by a Geographical Information System (GIS). Efficiency impacts are assessed in terms of the improvements in accessibility resulting from the HSR project, with a focus on major urban areas; and spatial equity implications are derived from changes in the distribution of accessibility values among these urban agglomerations.
TL;DR: In this paper, an overview of studies in this field and highlights the key issues and debates pertaining to measuring, analysing and theorising quality of life and happiness in cities and regions.
Abstract: Measuring and analysing the factors that affect the quality of life (QoL) in cities and regions has long been the subject of theoretical and empirical work in a wide range of fields. More recently there have been an increasing number of studies involving traditional so-called objective indicators of QoL as well as more subjective measures of well-being, drawing on the emerging new science of happiness. This article presents an overview of studies in this field and highlights the key issues and debates pertaining to measuring, analysing and theorising QoL and happiness in cities and regions. It also highlights the importance of geographical and socio-economic contextual factors pertaining to QoL, well-being and happiness with a particular emphasis on the impact of social and spatial inequalities and social justice.
TL;DR: Li et al. as discussed by the authors analyzed land use dynamics, spatiotemporal patterns of ecosystem service value (ESV), and the forces driving growth in the Hangzhou metropolitan area (HMA) in China.
Abstract: This study analyzes land use dynamics, spatiotemporal patterns of ecosystem service value (ESV), and the forces driving growth in the Hangzhou metropolitan area (HMA) in China. An integrated approach utilizing a Geographic Information System (GIS) and Remote Sensing (RS) was used to extract information on land use/land cover (LULC) change over the period of 1978–2008 from time-series Landsat MSS/TM/ETM+ imagery. We found that the areal extent of built-up land increased by 169.85%, while that of bare land increased by 83.70%. The outward expansion of built-up land and the net increase in bare land, both of which have a low ESV, indicate that human encroachment into surrounding natural and semi-natural ecosystems is resulting in decreased regional ecosystem service functions. Regional total GDP measured in constant value for the year 2000 increased by a factor of 31.71, and total population increased by 72.40% in 1978–2008. The resulting LULC change and socioeconomic development are likely responsible for the overall decline of 24.04% in regional ESV. It is projected that increasing land use demand will place heavy pressure on the natural and semi-natural ecosystems and impair the ecological functions that are necessary to support the human-dominated ecosystem. Therefore, sustainable development policies must address the impact of the loss of semi-natural and natural lands due to drastic urbanization.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors assessed the distribution of urban green spaces in Singapore at the aggregate level and between the designated planning areas and found that the physical distribution of vegetation in the urban fabric is more important than the absolute quantum of vegetation to create a perception of pervasive greenery.
Abstract: For about five decades since the onset of rapid urbanization and industrialization, Singapore has placed significant emphasis on urban greening as a key component of its development approach, setting the foundation for its development as a “Garden City”. Much of the original forest cover that had been lost due to urbanization and agriculture had been replaced by managed vegetation in the form of urban green spaces. This article assessed the distribution of urban green spaces in Singapore at the aggregate level and between the designated planning areas. It showed a high level of heterogeneity in the distribution of urban green spaces. Increasing population density is a key driver of lower per capita green cover and park provision ratio as reported for other cities. In particular, the park provision ratio had consistently stayed below the planning target for the past decade despite increasing land area dedicated for parks. Comparative assessment of Singapore’s urban green space provision indicates that it is not significantly differentiated from other high-density cities, indicating that the physical distribution of vegetation in the urban fabric is more important than the absolute quantum of vegetation to create a perception of pervasive greenery. Given the downward pressure created by the increasing built-up area and population density, broad strategies are suggested for how Singapore can continue to upkeep its high level of urban greening.
TL;DR: Wang et al. as mentioned in this paper investigated visitors' views on key UGS variables and socioeconomic effect on UGS perception in Guangzhou, China and found good knowledge, positive perception and limited concern about safety.
Abstract: Visitor perception can influence use pattern and inform planning and management of urban green spaces (UGSs). This study investigated visitors’ views on key UGS variables and socioeconomic effect on UGS perception in Guangzhou, China. A questionnaire survey solicited responses to positive and negative UGS attributes from 595 respondents selected by stratified sampling from visitors in the study area. The results showed good knowledge, positive perception and limited concern about safety. Benefits directly related to individual and family interests were emphasized, such as health enhancement, promotion of children development, and stress reduction. The social role of community development (social interaction) received less support. Significant differences in perception were found across most socioeconomic variables, including gender, age, marital status, education, occupation, and district of residence. The distance-reinforced negative perception of UGS called for the generous provision of proximal sites near homes to satisfy local demands. Future UGS planning could capitalize on the positive views to promote preservation, provision and use of UGS. Local governments could incorporate citizen perception and preference into the relevant decision-making process to meet the diverse and evolving demands for UGS. The findings could be applied to the design and management of UGS in other developing cities.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors examine awareness and understanding of urban resilience in the planning policy arena in Rotterdam, The Netherlands, where planning has a long history of managing water and how planning processes in the city consider or deal with the risks that it presents.
Abstract: The notions of urban resilience and the resilient city have gained considerable attention and interest over recent years, not only in relation to environmental management but also in terms of urban planning. The notion of urban resilience is not just confined to academic discourses – it is increasingly prevalent in urban policy documents. This paper examines awareness and understanding of urban resilience in the planning policy arena in Rotterdam, The Netherlands, where planning has a long history of managing water. Specific attention in the paper is paid to the issue of climate change and how planning processes in the city consider or deal with the risks that it presents. The ways in which the city assesses and prepares for these risks or threats form the two main areas of analysis. The paper concludes that evidence of resilient thinking can be found at all levels of decision-making, ranging from the transnational to local levels. However, the notion of resilience is still quite fuzzy and its significance can vary substantially between policy officials and between policy documents, sometimes even within the same administration.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors hold a lens over key issues in transitioning to resilience in urban areas by outlining emerging challenges that may offer directions towards operationalising how cities might transition to a more resilient future, while ensuring that communities are at the center of the process.
Abstract: Adapting to the challenges of rapid urban growth and societal change will require mechanisms for efficient transitioning to an embedded resilience. This has become central to the exploration of methods for achieving truly sustainable urban growth. However, while transitioning and resilience are useful descriptors, they can be abstract or conflicting ideals and their meanings obscured by a lack of concrete examples, both being barriers to many planning objectives. In this paper, we hold a lens over key issues in transitioning to resilience in urban areas by outlining emerging challenges that may offer directions towards operationalising how cities might transition to a more resilient future, while ensuring that communities are at the center of the process. The emerging and challenging areas – geospatial ICT, green infrastructure planning, novel design using collaborative responses, climate planning, limiting urban sprawl and short-circuit economic approaches – are explored as viable facets for devising and sustaining urban transition strategies. We conclude with a discussion on the need for developing a synergistic approach in practice to facilitate transition.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors call for a more elaborate bridging of national discussions, enhancing scholarly understanding of urban shrinkage, and reflecting upon governance and policy, and align the research on urban shrinkages with general challenges and strands of research in urban and regional studies, human geography, and spatial planning.
Abstract: Recently, an international debate on urban shrinkage has brought together national strands of research on those cities that have experienced considerable population loss over a prolonged period. Partially as the result of language constraints and varied terminology used, these national debates have occurred rather separately and the huge potential for eliciting cross-national knowledge has just begun to be exploited. The paper aims to augment and sharpen the international research agenda on urban shrinkage. We call for a more elaborate bridging of national discussions, enhancing scholarly understanding of urban shrinkage, and reflecting upon governance and policy. Last but not least, this paper seeks to align the research on urban shrinkage with general challenges and strands of research in urban and regional studies, human geography, and spatial planning. For the chosen topics, we highlight both recent accomplishments and open questions.
Abstract: As large cities seek to expand their transit systems to accommodate increasing travel demand, provide alternatives to growing road traffic congestion, and improve accessibility, more research attention has been focused on the land use effects of transit, most notably in the form of transit-oriented development (TOD). Many cities in the USA are starting or expanding rail transit systems with objectives that include more focused economic development near transit stations and along transit corridors. Denver, Colorado is one of the cities that is aggressively expanding its rail transit system and encouraging high-density, mixed-use development in the station areas. This study analyzes TOD data from the Denver Regional Transportation District and the Denver Regional Council of Governments for 0.5-mile areas around current and proposed rail transit stations. Early evidence indicates that the scope of transit-oriented development in Denver is considerable, resulting in nearly 18,000 residential dwelling units, 5.3 million square feet of retail space, 5.4 million square feet of office space, and 6.2 million square feet of medical space within one-half mile of existing or planned transit stations from 1997 to 2010. As one of the critical elements of the regional land use and transportation plan, the rail transit system and the emphasis on transit-oriented development is contributing to an increase in the average density of the Denver urbanized area.
TL;DR: In this article, a "metacity" framework for sustainable transformations in cities is presented, embracing ecological processes in cities as complementary to those involving society, power, and economy, which can help identify components of resilience that can favor transformations that are more sustainable.
Abstract: There is growing urgency to enhance the sustainability of existing and emerging cities. The science of ecology, especially as it interacts with disciplines in the social sciences and urban design, has contributions to make to the sustainable transformation of urban systems. Not all possible urban transformations may lead toward sustainability. Ecological science helps identify components of resilience that can favor transformations that are more sustainable. To summarize the dynamics and choices involved in sustainable transformations, a “metacity” framework is presented, embracing ecological processes in cities as complementary to those involving society, power, and economy.
TL;DR: This simulation provides strong evidence that during the next decade planning authorities will have to cope with continuous as well as heterogeneously distributed urban growth.
Abstract: Rapid urban growth is becoming a serious problem in most developing countries. Tehran, the capital of Iran, stands out as a vibrant metropolitan area, facing uncontrolled urban expansion. Public authorities and decision makers require planning criteria regarding possible spatial developments. To monitor past developmental trends and to simulate emerging spatiotemporal patterns of urban growth, this research applies a geosimulation approach that couples agent-based modeling with multicriteria analysis (MCA) for the period between 1986 and 2006. To model the major determinants controlling urban development, three agent groups are defined, namely developer agents, government agents, and resident agents. The behaviors of each agent group are identified by qualitative surveys and are considered separately using multi-criteria analysis. The interactions of the agents are then combined through overlay functions within a Geographic Information System (GIS). This analysis results in the creation of a propensity surface of growth that is able to identify the most probable sites for urban development. Subsequently, a Markov Chain Model (MCM) and a concise statistical extrapolation are used to determine the amount of probable future expansion in Tehran. For validation purposes, the model is estimated using 2011 data and then validated based on actual urban expansion. Given the accurate predictions of the Markov Chain Model, further predictions were carried out for 2016 and 2026. This simulation provides strong evidence that during the next decade planning authorities will have to cope with continuous as well as heterogeneously distributed urban growth. Both the monitoring of growth and simulation revealed significant developments in the northwestern part of Tehran, continuing toward the south along the interchange networks.
TL;DR: Wang et al. as mentioned in this paper used multi-temporal remote sensing data of land-use change to conduct a quantitative analysis on urban expansion patterns of 18 cities in different regions in China.
Abstract: China is undergoing a major transformation of its urban structure due to its rapid economic and population growth. It is critically important to properly characterize urban expansion before developing a comprehensive understanding of urbanization processes. Using multi-temporal remote sensing data of land-use change, this paper employs urban expansion rate and intensity as well as several landscape metrics to conduct a quantitative analysis on urban expansion patterns of 18 cities in different regions in China. The results provide clear insight into the spatial heterogeneity of the urban expansion rate and intensity going back to the late 1970s. Overall, before 2000, urban expansion rate and intensity was significantly higher in the eastern region than that in the middle and western regions. After 2000, this trend reversed. The analysis showed that cities in the late 1970s had the highest spatial heterogeneity, which then significantly decreased from that point up to 2008. From the late 1980s to 2008, Chinese urban expansion patterns changed from patch infilling to patch margin expansion. Spider diagrams comprised of six landscape metrics were shown to capture characteristics of urban form and structure changes at four time stages. The 18 cities were divided into four groups based on spider diagram shape. The spider diagrams show that the first group of cities exhibit relatively stable shapes, while the other three groups of cities exhibit relatively irregular shapes. China’s eastern and middle cities show a greater degree of active urbanization than China’s western cities.
TL;DR: Wang et al. as discussed by the authors investigated the impacts of factors on ridership within Metro stations' pedestrian catchment area (PCA) in Nanjing, China and developed a direct ridership model to explain the ridership at 55 metro stations using a Geographic Information System (GIS) and multiple regression analysis.
Abstract: China is undertaking one of the most ambitious rail expansions in the world. This paper investigated the impacts of factors on ridership within Metro stations’ pedestrian catchment area (PCA) in Nanjing, China. Direct ridership model was developed to explain the ridership at 55 Metro stations using a Geographic Information System (GIS) and multiple regression analysis. Independent variables included factors measuring land use, external connectivity, intermodal connection, and station context. Six variables were found to be significantly associated with Metro station ridership at the 0.05 level: population, business/office floor area, CBD dummy variable, number of education buildings, entertainment venues and shop centers. Five variables were proved to be related to station ridership at the 0.01 significance level: employment, road length, feeder bus lines, bicycle park-and-ride (P&R) spaces, and transfer dummy variable. In particular, CBD dummy variable, the number of education buildings, entertainment venues and shop centers, and bicycle P&R spaces were found to be significantly connected to Metro station ridership in the present study. The results not only confirm some findings from previous studies but also show distinct differences regarding some variables specific to the Chinese context.
TL;DR: This article revisited the old debate with a new twist: assuming there was a "socialist city", is there a post-socialist one? And if so, is the new formation distinct not only from its socialist predecessors but also from contemporary European cities that were never socialist?
Abstract: For several decades, urban geographers asked themselves whether there was such a thing as the “socialist city.” Did cities during the duration of state socialism (in most parts of East-Central Europe, roughly 1949–1990) include spatial features that were sufficiently distinct from the characteristics of cities located farther west to warrant the existence of an autonomous term: the so-called socialist city? Were the processes of spatial production in these cities also sufficiently distinct? A quarter of a century after the end of state socialism in East-Central Europe, this paper revisits the old debate with a new twist. Assuming there was a “socialist city,” is there a post-socialist one? Did the features of the “socialist city” disintegrate or endure after 1990? Is the new formation distinct not only from its socialist predecessors but also from contemporary European cities that were never socialist?
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors examined the residential preferences of the creative class in Dublin, Ireland and found that older workers preferred to live in suburban areas with good transport connections to the city centre or their place of employment.
Abstract: The desire for ‘vibrant’, ‘bohemian’ neighbourhoods forms a focal point of the amenity preferences of Richard Florida’s ‘creative class’ thesis. Here, a vibrant street culture, which includes cafes and restaurants spilling onto the pavement, is implied as being of key importance in the selection of a residential area for creative and knowledge workers. Drawing on quantitative and qualitative data, this paper examines the residential preferences of the ‘creative class’ in Dublin, Ireland. The results illustrate the continued importance of classic factors in residential decision-making, including housing cost, accessibility and travel-time to place of employment. Moreover, the results also illustrate how changes in the life-cycle, including the decision to have a family, have a direct influence on residential location choice. While there is a tendency for younger workers to select the city centre, older workers predominantly opt to live in suburban areas with good transport connections to the city centre or their place of employment.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors analyzed the alley greening programs in seven cities in the United States using the lens of sustainability planning and found that most of them are narrowly oriented toward stormwater management.
Abstract: Revitalization of urban alleys, underway in cities and towns in North America, Europe, and other regions, can be seen as a manifestation of a broader movement among city agencies, planners, and community groups to expand green urban infrastructure and promote sustainability. This article analyzes alley greening programs in seven cities in the United States using the lens of sustainability planning. Study results indicate that most alley greening programs are narrowly oriented toward stormwater management. An in-depth exploration of the alley greening program in the city of Los Angeles illustrates how a more robust commitment to sustainability – through the adoption of goals related to environmental protection, economic development, and social equity – might be actualized in the context of alley greening efforts. The article also considers the role of collaboration in developing integrative sustainability programs around alleys.
TL;DR: In this article, an empirical study analytically investigates Helsinki's performance from the lens of knowledge-based urban development by comparing this urban region with eight international competitors, Boston, San Francisco, Birmingham, Manchester, Melbourne, Sydney, Toronto, and Vancouver.
Abstract: In the era of a global knowledge economy, urban regions that seek to increase their competitive edge, become destinations for talent and investment and provide prosperity and high quality of life to their inhabitants have little chance of achieving these goals without forming effective knowledge-based urban development strategies. The research reported in this paper aims to address the questions of how a knowledge-based urban development performance measurement can be undertaken and the value contribution of such measurement. The paper focuses on the city of Helsinki. This empirical study analytically investigates Helsinki’s performance from the lens of knowledge-based urban development by comparing this urban region with eight international competitors, Boston, San Francisco, Birmingham, Manchester, Melbourne, Sydney, Toronto, and Vancouver. The results of the study not only reveal a clearer understanding of Helsinki’s benchmarked performance and competitive edge considering the regional policy context along with strategic directions in strengthening its international standing and competitiveness but also provide useful insights for other urban regions that aspire to such development.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors proposed a citizen satisfaction index (CSI) that combines 18 different scales with items derived from qualitative research and then reduces those items to a set of 21 questions.
Abstract: Where is the best place to live? The answer depends on how we ask the question and which scale we apply. Our study offers two contributions to the increasing comparability of research on citizen satisfaction: First, it combines together 18 different scales with items derived from qualitative research and then reduces those items to a set of 21 questions that we label Citizen Satisfaction Index ( CSI ). Second, we replicate four distinct dimensions of citizen satisfaction in two studies that employ different methodological approaches (explorative & confirmatory factor analysis, multidimensional scaling): Urbanity & diversity , nature & recreation , job opportunities , and cost-efficiency . These four dimensions establish a conceptual framework of relevant factors that may prove useful in comparative research on citizen satisfaction.
TL;DR: Maya and Aztec cities exhibited a distinctive kind of low-density urbanism common in ancient Meso-america as discussed by the authors, and their residential areas of these cities resembled modern peri-urban zones and informal settlements.
Abstract: Maya and Aztec cities exhibited a distinctive kind of low-density urbanism common in ancient Mesoamerica. The non-monumental components of these cities differed from the high-density ancient and historical cities in the Old World that are often considered the norm for pre-modern urbanism. Distinctive features include the practice of intensive agricultural cultivation within urban settlements, residential zones that were dispersed and unplanned, and the arrangement of houses into spatial clusters that served as urban neighborhoods. The residential areas of Maya and Aztec cities resembled modern peri-urban zones and informal settlements. Because of the benefits of smallholder intensive urban agriculture, cities thrived for many centuries, and some were successful for millennia. On the basis of this longevity, we argue that these were sustainable cities, and their form and dynamics may hold lessons for understanding contemporary urbanization processes.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors analyzed the relationship between urban growth and transportation in Jeddah using Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographic Information System (GIS) approaches and developed eight indicators to bridge the knowledge gap.
Abstract: During the past decades, the city of Jeddah in Saudi Arabia has witnessed dramatic changes in its urban area, population and transportation. To better understand the relationship between urban growth and transportation, this paper aims to quantify and analyze the spatial–temporal relationship between urban growth and transportation for Jeddah using Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographic Information System (GIS) approaches. In this paper, eight urban growth and transportation indices were developed to analyze the relationship between spatial–temporal urban growth and transportation changes: (1) annual urban spatial expansion index, (2) land use change index, (3) population density index, (4) transportation infrastructure expansion index, (5) road density index, (6) road area density index, (7) urban trips density index, and (8) modal split change index. The results show that in the past four decades (1964–2007), Jeddah has experienced a rapid population growth, a large spatial expansion, rapidly changing land use and expanding transportation infrastructure. As transportation infrastructure expands with population growth, this expansion has not been able to accommodate increases in travel demand. This has led to an increase in urban congestion. The analysis further shows that transportation infrastructure expansion has stimulated Jeddah’s urban spatial expansion and residential area growth. The enormous spatial expansion has also caused significant changes in the daily share of travel modes. The developed indicators in the paper bridge the knowledge gap between urban growth and transportation research, as the results of this study provide a rich understanding of the relationship between urban growth and transportation in rapidly growing cities.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors use the financial crisis as an opportunity to examine a number of key questions about the relationship of the creative economy and the city, and argue that weak conceptualisation of the nature of the relationship between the Creative Economy and the City, as well as a lack of clarity about what the Creative economy is, has subverted debates about this important topic.
Abstract: This paper uses the financial crisis as an opportunity to examine a number of key questions about the relationship of the creative economy and the city. We argue that weak conceptualisation of the nature of the relationship between the creative economy and the city, as well as a lack of clarity about what the creative economy is, has subverted debates about this important topic. This paper comprises four major sections: the first introduces the field of the creative economy, the second section seeks to clarify what exactly we mean by the term financial crisis; here we highlight the multifaceted character of the financial crisis and is variable impacts across the field of the creative economy. The third part outlines the range and diversity of the actually existing relations between the creative economy and the city. In the fourth section we reflect upon the earlier argument to consider what we can learn about the impacts (actual and expected) of the financial crisis on the creative economy and the city, and additionally to reflect upon what this might indicate about the changing and perhaps transformed relationship between the creative economy and the city in the last quarter century.
TL;DR: An artificial intelligence approach integrated with geographical information systems (GISs) for modeling urban evolution using fuzzy logic and neural networks to provide a synthetic spatiotemporal methodology for the analysis, prediction and interpretation of urban growth.
Abstract: This paper presents an artificial intelligence approach integrated with geographical information systems (GISs) for modeling urban evolution. Fuzzy logic and neural networks are used to provide a synthetic spatiotemporal methodology for the analysis, prediction and interpretation of urban growth. The proposed urban model takes into account the changes over time in population and building use patterns. A GIS is used for handling the spatial and temporal data, performing contingency analysis and mapping the results. Spatial entities with similar characteristics are grouped together in clusters by the use of a fuzzy c-means algorithm. Each cluster represents a specific level of urban growth and development. A two-layer feed-forward multilayer perceptron artificial neural network is then used to predict urban growth. The model, applied to the prefecture of Attica, Greece, delineates the current and future evolution trends of the Athens metropolitan area, which are illustrated by maps of the urban growth dynamics. The proposed methodology aims to assist planners and decision makers in gaining insight into the transition from rural to urban.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors investigated the residential location choice of knowledge-workers at the intra-metropolitan level by applying discrete choice models and analyzed the relative importance of lifestyle and cultural amenities in addition to classic location factors.
Abstract: This study investigates the residential location choice of knowledge-workers at the intra-metropolitan level by applying discrete choice models. The models represent housing choices of 833 knowledge-workers in high-technology and financial services and analyze the relative importance of lifestyle and cultural amenities in addition to classic location factors. Hence, the model bridges the gap between the recent lifestyle-oriented and the classical utility-oriented conceptualizations of the residential choice of knowledge-workers. The most important factors are municipal socioeconomic level, housing affordability and commuting time, while substantial secondary factors are cultural and educational land-use and culture-oriented lifestyle.
TL;DR: Studying geographical scales and thresholds will facilitate development of specific guidance to urban designers and planners to create supportive built environments to facilitate physical activity engagement and re-connecting the fields of public health and urban design and planning.
Abstract: While public health and urban planning fields worked closely to tackle communicable disease outbreaks in the 19th century, this collaboration faded during the 20th century. Over the last few decades, engagement in physical activity – even walking – has declined substantially, with serious impacts on population health. Recently there has been an emerging body of literature and guidance illustrating the role the built environment has in shaping health outcomes; much of this has focussed on physical activity behaviours. Associations between built environment attributes and physical activity have been reported by many studies, however the geographic scales at which these built environment attributes need to be measured and the magnitude of the built environment attributes required to support physical activity are not clear. Further studying these geographical scales and thresholds will facilitate development of specific guidance to urban designers and planners to create supportive built environments to facilitate physical activity engagement. This is an important addition for re-connecting the fields of public health and urban design and planning.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors analyzed the long-term spatial distribution of four basic land cover classes to test if the "compact growth" observed up to early 1990s and the "sprawl" observed afterwards differently affect LCRs.
Abstract: Several Mediterranean cities underwent important morphological changes in the last century. This article deals with the transition from compact towards dispersed urban form and the consequent changes in Land Cover Relationships (LCRs) observed from 1960 to 2009 in Attica (Greece), a mono-centric, dense city region. We analyzed the long-term spatial distribution of four basic land cover classes to test if the ‘compact growth’ observed up to early 1990s and the ‘sprawl’ observed afterwards differently affect LCRs. Descriptive statistics, correlation analysis and multivariate procedures were used to verify this hypothesis. Results put in evidence similarities and differences in Land Cover Changes (LCCs) and LCRs observed during the two urban phases. Per-capita built-up area was found significantly higher in the ‘sprawl’ than in ‘compact growth’ phase. Cropland was the land cover class with the highest probability to undergo edification in both periods, but a significant conversion rate from forests towards cropland and pastures (in turn converted into built-up areas) was also observed in the ‘sprawl’ phase. This may be considered an indirect effect of urbanization due to sprawl-driven land fragmentation and recurrent fires induced by illegal housing and land speculation. We finally discussed how the changing LCRs may represent, at regional scale, a possible target for policies mitigating land consumption in ‘shrinking’ Mediterranean cities.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors advocate a rethinking of the pragmatic issues underpinning public engagement and suggest a process framework that puts people as a major stakeholder for implementing PPP schemes.
Abstract: Public private partnerships (PPPs) have been widely adopted to provide essential social and economic infrastructure and services. However, there is currently no systematic mechanism governing how social concerns should be captured at different stages of a PPP project. This paper, therefore, advocates a rethinking of the pragmatic issues underpinning public engagement and suggests a process framework that puts people as a major stakeholder for implementing PPP schemes. This public private people partnerships (P4) process framework embraces the bottom-up participative strategies which bring the public engagement clearly visible for infrastructure planning and policy making. With this newly developed framework and associated engagement strategies, decision-making power can deviate from policy makers, who are traditionally holding the ultimate decision authority, towards the citizens through proactive engagement. Such strategy can help improve the development process by moderating the risk of unforeseen oppositions, building clear responsibilities and rights, and creating opportunities for public inputs. It is anticipated that formulating such effective and genuine public engagement framework for PPP projects would assist government bodies, not only in Hong Kong but also other parts of the world, to better realise the changing public aspirations and demands for infrastructure planning and policy formulation.