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Journal ArticleDOI

The Citizen Satisfaction Index (CSI): Evidence for a Four Basic Factor Model in a German Sample

01 Apr 2013-Cities (Pergamon)-Vol. 31, Iss: 31, pp 156-164

Abstract: Where is the best place to live? The answer depends on how we ask the question and which scale we apply. Our study offers two contributions to the increasing comparability of research on citizen satisfaction: First, it combines together 18 different scales with items derived from qualitative research and then reduces those items to a set of 21 questions that we label Citizen Satisfaction Index ( CSI ). Second, we replicate four distinct dimensions of citizen satisfaction in two studies that employ different methodological approaches (explorative & confirmatory factor analysis, multidimensional scaling): Urbanity & diversity , nature & recreation , job opportunities , and cost-efficiency . These four dimensions establish a conceptual framework of relevant factors that may prove useful in comparative research on citizen satisfaction.

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Journal ArticleDOI
Mihalis Kavaratzis1, Ares Kalandides2Institutions (2)
Abstract: This article attempts to ‘rethink’ place brands after examining in detail how people form them in their minds. The article starts with a very brief account of the place branding literature to provide the necessary background and goes on to identify what we see as a shortcoming in current understanding of the place brand: the dominant idea that brands are formed as sums of mental associations. The article attempts to take current understanding of place brands further by going beyond associations and adding a missing element: the interactions between those associations. We propose a rethinking of place brands based on two pillars: first we incorporate more geographical understanding into place branding and, second, we outline a process that allows place elements and placebased associations to combine and form the place brand. The place brand formation process starts when people use place-making elements (materiality, practices, institutions and representations) to form mental associations with the place. Th...

176 citations


Cites background from "The Citizen Satisfaction Index (CSI..."

  • ...…place branding and place identity (Kalandides, 2011a; Mayes, 2008), the lack of an appropriate instrument for the measurement of the effectiveness of place branding (Zenker, 2011; Zenker et al, 2013) as well as the additional challenges in branding different types of places (Warnaby et al, 2010)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
01 Feb 2017-Tourism Management
Abstract: This article contributes to a broader understanding of how the branding of places affects both residents and tourists. While branding often relies on simplified messages, the effectiveness of such strategies for complex brands remains questionable. Residents in particular possess a confounded knowledge of the place and could disagree with simplified destination brands. To test the role of brand complexity for residents and tourists, we conducted two empirical studies (N = 765; N = 385), showing that, for residents, positive place attitude (i.e., place satisfaction, identification, and attachment) and place behaviour (i.e., positive word-of-mouth) increase with a higher brand complexity. The second study shows that the positive relationship of brand complexity is stronger for residents than for tourists, supporting the conclusion that brand complexity is relevant for place brands, but that the place brand for residents requires more complexity than a destination brand, while it imperative that both are integrative parts of an overall brand.

141 citations


Cites background from "The Citizen Satisfaction Index (CSI..."

  • ...…& Sen, 2003* OD2 cities OD3 e he criticize me ID1 Bhattacharya & Sen, 2003* t the city I live in ID2 ID3 in, it feels like a compliment ID4 SA1 Zenker et al., 2013 SA2 SA3 AT1 Zenker & Gollan, 2010 ace AT2 AT3 le WM1 Carroll & Ahuvia, 2006* WM2 WM3 tising WM4 ITY] CT1 Allen & Meyer, 1990* CT2…...

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  • ...…attractiveness of identification (Osgood, Suci,& Tannenbaum,1957), optimal distinctiveness and identification (Bhattacharya & Sen, 2003), satisfaction (Zenker et al., 2013), attachment (Zenker & Gollan, 2010), and positive word-of-mouth (Carroll & Ahuvia, 2006)dsee appendix for all used items....

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  • ...Label Source BC1 Cox & Cox, 1988* BC2 BC3 ng in?** Brown & Rafaeli, 2007* AI1 Osgood et al., 1957 AI2 AI3 OD1 Bhattacharya & Sen, 2003* OD2 cities OD3 e he criticize me ID1 Bhattacharya & Sen, 2003* t the city I live in ID2 ID3 in, it feels like a compliment ID4 SA1 Zenker et al., 2013 SA2 SA3 AT1 Zenker & Gollan, 2010 ace AT2 AT3 le WM1 Carroll & Ahuvia, 2006* WM2 WM3 tising WM4 ITY] CT1 Allen & Meyer, 1990* CT2 R] CT3...

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Journal ArticleDOI
Sebastian Zenker1, Natascha Rütter2Institutions (2)
01 Jun 2014-Cities
Abstract: Even though satisfaction is a main research topic in many disciplines (especially in marketing and organizational studies), surprisingly few attempts have been made to discern the role of satisfaction in the field of urban research, at least compared to other concepts such as place attachment. The aim of this paper is to empirically show the role of citizen satisfaction in this field, highlighting its strong influence on place attachment, place brand attitude and positive citizenship behavior. Our empirical study (N = 765) shows that the satisfaction of citizens (using the Citizen Satisfaction Index (CSI) measurement) should be implemented in urban research, since this factor shows a high-explained variance for place attachment, place brand attitude and positive citizenship behavior. Additionally, this study raises the question of whether the commonly suggested antecedents of place attachment (i.e., place of birth and length of residence) are enough to explain when people create a strong bond with a place of living – or if citizen satisfaction can provide a better explanation.

135 citations


Cites methods from "The Citizen Satisfaction Index (CSI..."

  • ...Therefore, we use the Citizen Satisfaction Index (CSI) model by Zenker et al. (2013) and empirically show that citizen satisfaction strongly influences place attachment, the evaluation of a place and the intention to leave a place....

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  • ...In their Citizen Satisfaction Index (CSI) model, Zenker et al. (2013) argue that the overall satisfaction with a place is mainly explained by four distinct basic factors: namely ‘‘urbanity & diversity,’’ ‘‘nature & recreation,’’ ‘‘job chances’’ and ‘‘cost-efficiency’’ (see Table 1)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
01 Oct 2016-Cities
Abstract: This study investigated aspects of urban quality of life in European cities. To this end, the Flash Eurobarometer 366: Quality of life in European cities was used. The survey provides opinions of 41 thousands inhabitants from 79 European cities, which enables analysis of interrelation between citizen characteristics, neighbourhood and city contexts and satisfaction with life in a city. The study analysed the following dimensions potentially related to satisfaction with life in a city: (1) availability of services, environment and social aspects in cities and neighbourhood; (2) socio-demographic factors; and (3) city characteristics such as economic development, labour market pressures, size, location, quality of institutions and safety. Findings indicated that satisfaction with life in a city varied considerably both inside cities and across Europe. Dissatisfaction with public transport, cultural facilities, availability of retail outlets, green space, air quality, trustworthiness of people, public administration and administrational efficiency, contributed significantly to dissatisfaction with life in a city. However, when citizens felt secure and satisfied with their place of living, they were also more likely to be satisfied with life in a city. Finally, cities with high percentage of people satisfied with safety in a city tended to be those in which citizens were also more satisfied with life in a city.

106 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Sebastian Zenker1, Carsten Erfgen2Institutions (2)
Abstract: Purpose – This paper aims to develop a participatory approach to place branding. In doing so, it offers guidance on how to implement a participatory place branding strategy within place management practice. Design/methodology/approach – The paper is based on theoretical insights drawn from the combination of distinct literatures on place branding, general marketing and collaborative governance. Findings – The paper highlights the importance of residents in the place branding process and argues that their special functions as ambassadors for the place constitute the most valuable assets in place branding. Thus, a participatory place branding approach involving residents is needed. To implement this approach, three stages are necessary: (stage 1) defining a shared vision for the place including core place elements; (stage 2) implementing a structure for participation; (stage 3) supporting residents in their own place branding projects. Originality/value – The inclusion of residents is often requested in con...

91 citations


References
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Li-tze Hu, Peter M. Bentler1Institutions (1)
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01 Jan 2004-
Abstract: What does the city's form actually mean to the people who live there? What can the city planner do to make the city's image more vivid and memorable to the city dweller? To answer these questions, Mr. Lynch, supported by studies of Los Angeles, Boston, and Jersey City, formulates a new criterion -- imageability -- and shows its potential value as a guide for the building and rebuilding of cities. The wide scope of this study leads to an original and vital method for the evaluation of city form. The architect, the planner, and certainly the city dweller will all want to read this book.

8,105 citations


Book
01 Jan 1960-
Abstract: What does the city's form actually mean to the people who live there? What can the city planner do to make the city's image more vivid and memorable to the city dweller? To answer these questions, Mr. Lynch, supported by studies of Los Angeles, Boston, and Jersey City, formulates a new criterion -- imageability -- and shows its potential value as a guide for the building and rebuilding of cities. The wide scope of this study leads to an original and vital method for the evaluation of city form. The architect, the planner, and certainly the city dweller will all want to read this book.

6,417 citations


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202121
202013
201914
201812
201714
201615